John E. Edlund's research while affiliated with Rochester Institute of Technology and other places

Publications (57)

Article
In the early months of the COVID pandemic, numerous studies were done on the psychological implications of the pandemic. This paper details two independent replications of studies that were posted in PsyArXiv in March and April of 2020. These data reported in this manuscript were collected during the summer of 2020 and look at two separate phenomen...
Article
In cases of euthanasia, determinations of guilt may be influenced by legal and extra-legal factors. This study explores the role that nullification instructions play in juror decision making. A defendant may be viewed as less culpable if the act was done out of mercy and jury nullification may occur as a result. We anticipated that these determinat...
Article
The Miranda warning was drafted in order to inform people of their rights upon arrest in an easy to understand manner. However, to understand the warning a person needs a high school level reading comprehension (which is above the level of most offenders). Among these offenders, deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) individuals are particularly prone to m...
Article
The scientific enterprise has long been based on the presumption of replication, although scientists have recently become aware of various corruptions of the enterprise that have hurt replicability. In this article, we begin by considering three illustrations of research paradigms that have all been subject to intense scrutiny through replications...
Article
Research has long noted that there are differences between men’s and women’s responses to casual sexual requests. In this study, we sought to replicate and extend the Clark and Hatfield paradigm while exploring the influence of requestor attractiveness, sexual orientation, and two individual difference measures: sociosexuality (which is how open to...
Article
Full-text available
Replication studies in psychological science sometimes fail to reproduce prior findings. If these studies use methods that are unfaithful to the original study or ineffective in eliciting the phenomenon of interest, then a failure to replicate may be a failure of the protocol rather than a challenge to the original finding. Formal pre-data-collecti...
Article
Full-text available
In a now-classic study by Srull and Wyer (1979), people who were exposed to phrases with hostile content subsequently judged a man as being more hostile. And this “hostile priming effect” has had a significant influence on the field of social cognition over the subsequent decades. However, a recent multi-lab collaborative study (McCarthy et al., 20...
Preprint
The scientific enterprise has long been based on the presumption of replication, although recently scientists have become aware of various corruptions of the enterprise which have hurt replicability. In this paper, we begin by considering three illustrations of research paradigms that have all been subject to intense scrutiny through replications a...
Article
Although the benefits of crowdsourcing research models have been outlined elsewhere, very little attention has been paid to the application of these models to cross-cultural behavioral research. In this manuscript, we delineate two types of crowdsourcing initiatives—researcher crowdsourced and participant crowdsourced. Researcher crowdsourced refer...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies examined how research methodology affected participant behaviors. Study 1 tested (a) consent form perspective (1st, 2nd, or 3rd person) and (b) information on participants’ right to sue upon perceptions of coercion, ability to recall consent information, and performance on experimental tasks. Unexpectedly, participants who received inst...
Article
Full-text available
Although careless respondents have wreaked havoc on research for decades, the prevalence and implications of these participants has likely increased due to many new methodological techniques currently in use. Across three studies, we examined the prevalence of careless responding in participants, several means of predicting careless respondents, an...
Article
Improving student performance on exams is a key issue that many psychology instructors face in their classrooms. One potentially easy to deploy option for improving student performance is an exam wrapper. In this article, I detail two studies that compared exam wrappers to a control condition (a previous semester in Study 1 and a within course cont...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent are research results influenced by subjective decisions that scientists make as they design studies? Fifteen research teams independently designed studies to answer five original research questions related to moral judgments, negotiations, and implicit cognition. Participants from two separate large samples (total N > 15,000) were th...
Preprint
Replications in psychological science sometimes fail to reproduce prior findings. If replications use methods that are unfaithful to the original study or ineffective in eliciting the phenomenon of interest, then a failure to replicate may be a failure of the protocol rather than a challenge to the original finding. Formal pre-data collection peer...
Article
At least two factors may influence reactions to public displays of affection (PDA): personal level of comfort with PDA and attitudes toward sexual minorities. In three studies, we measured participants’ reactions to videotaped heterosexual, homosexual, and transgender PDA. A measure was created to evaluate comfort with PDA. Across all studies, we f...
Article
Despite discussion and institution of new reforms in psychology research, little is known about how much reform psychologists believe is still needed across various research practices and whether instructors are teaching students about replication and reform in their courses. To investigate these questions, we distributed questionnaires assessing p...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings, with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance, to examine variation in effect magnitudes across samples and settings. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples that comprised 15,305 participants from 36 countries and territories....
Preprint
Full-text available
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance to examine variation in effect magnitudes across sample and setting. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples and 15,305 total participants from 36 countries and territories. Using co...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have shown that men experience relatively greater levels of jealousy in response to the sexual aspects of an infidelity (relative to women), whereas women experience relatively greater levels of jealousy in response to the emotional aspects of an infidelity (relative to men). The traditional explanation for this relationship sugges...
Article
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings, with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance, to examine variation in effect magnitudes across samples and settings. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples that comprised 15,305 participants from 36 countries and territories....
Article
Full-text available
Perceivers often view individuals described as “warm” to be generally positive and individuals described as “cold” to be generally negative. Consistent with the tenets of Construal Level Theory, McCarthy and Skowronski (2011) demonstrated this difference was larger among perceivers who were instructed the information was psychologically distant rat...
Article
Full-text available
Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with an intelligent category (“professor”) subsequently performed 13.1% better on a trivia test than participants primed with an unintelligent category (“soccer hooligans”). Two unpublished replications of this study by the original authors, designed to verify the appropriate...
Article
Full-text available
The sex difference in jealousy is an effect that has generated significant controversy in the academic literature (resulting in two meta-analyses that reached different conclusions on the presence or absence of the effect). In this study, we had a team of researchers from different theoretical perspectives use identical protocols to test whether th...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address a possible interaction of cognitive distortions associated with substance dependency and intimate partner violence (IPV), and the effects on subsequent behavior. The primary focus was to investigate the relationship between offender perception (i.e. perception of family problems (FP) and perception of...
Article
Full-text available
The sex difference in jealousy has been demonstrated to occur in response to actual experiences with infidelity, continuous measures of jealousy, as well as cross-culturally. However, to date, the evidence for physiological correlates of jealousy has been limited and mixed. As such, the purpose of this study was to explore the sex difference in jea...
Article
Full-text available
Facial attractiveness is an important part of our initial judgments of people. Relatedly, the emotion disgust is one of the most adaptive emotions as it helps keep us away from potentially dangerous objects. The current experiment examined whether or not being disgusted created an avoidance behavior, in the form of lower attractiveness scores, of n...
Chapter
The theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy has emerged as one of evolutionary psychology's most prominent lines of research. In this paper, we offer a 25-year retrospective on the theory. We begin with a review of the theory itself and the statistical implications of the theory. We then discuss many of the prominent challenges to the theory....
Article
Full-text available
At the core of any causal claim is an experimental study, and laboratory research often provides the most valid arena for conducting experiments. Laboratory experiments allow researchers to provide internal validity to any phenomena they examine. However, researchers must consider and address certain methodological concerns when conducting lab rese...
Article
Background: Consent issues have not been thoroughly explored in a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) population. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore patients' knowledge of their LVAD, including the accuracy of patients' understanding of the LVAD, potential complications, and lifestyle changes necessary after implantation...
Article
Full-text available
Mate value is a construct of importance to many psychological (especially evolutionary psychological) theories. However, there are no well validated self-report measures of mate value. In light of this, we designed the Mate Value Scale (MVS): a brief, four-item measure that can assess mate value of the self, of one’s partner, or of another target....
Data
The Journal of Social Psychology Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoev...
Article
Full-text available
It is a common problem in psychology subject pools for past study participants to inform future participants of key experimental details (also known as crosstalk). Previous research (Edlund, Sagarin, Skowronski, Johnson, & Kutter, 2009) demonstrated that a combined classroom and laboratory treatment could significantly reduce crosstalk. The present...
Article
The present research seeks to better understand research conditions in laboratory research, with special attention paid to the informed consent process and experimenter characteristics. The first study tested the impact of language perspective and experimenter demeanor upon participant retention of the informed consent information, attitudes toward...
Article
Studies examining sex differences in jealousy have often relied on student samples and were restricted to the evaluation of a selected few moderators. In this study, a nationally representative survey of American households was presented with either an actual or a hypothetical infidelity scenario (which appeared as either a forced choice or as cont...
Article
This article focuses on the advantages of using online virtual environments such as Second Life SL to assist in teaching and research. Although instructors have used SL to supplement the in-class experience in various fields including Information Technology, Communication, and English, few have used it widely for the teaching of psychology. The aut...
Article
Full-text available
The theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy predicts sex differences in responses to sexual infidelities and emotional infidelities. Critics have argued that such differences are absent in studies that use continuous measures to assess responses to hypothetical infidelities or in studies that assess responses to real infidelities. These criti...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment, a simulated trial study, examined whether trait expectancies and stereotype expectancies similarly affected memory for expectancy-relevant behaviors. Participants read a description of a defendant, which was followed by testimony that induced a trait or stereotype expectancy. After viewing the evidence items and giving a guilt judg...
Article
This chapter reports on autobiographical memory. The focus is placed in the discussion on two related lines of research: namely, fading affect bias and the processes by which people remember the date when events have occurred. Specifically, it considers the emotions that accompany recall of autobiographical memories and how and why the intensity of...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies assessed the content of cultural stereotypes and personal beliefs regarding individuals with dwarfism among “average height” (i.e., non-dwarf) individuals. In Studies 1 and 2, undergraduates from three separate institutions selected adjectives to reflect traits constituting both the cultural stereotype about dwarves and their own pers...
Article
Full-text available
In a recent commentary, DeSteno (2010) critiqued the work of Levy and Kelley (2010) which investigated the relationship of attachment style to the sex difference in jealousy. This commentary addresses the concerns raised by DeSteno; I briefly review some of the literature that was not addressed by DeSteno's commentary and discuss directions that fu...
Article
Studies have long investigated similarities and differences in men’s and women’s mate preferences. This study sought to expand on previous research by investigating whether mate value moderated participants’ design of mates. Using both a budgeted and a non-budgeted mate design task, we investigated the effect of mate value on the design of a mate....
Article
Abortion is a controversial topic in society, and as such, has not been thoroughly explored from different theoretical perspectives. Across two studies, we investigated abortion decisions under varied conditions. Participants read hypothetical scenarios, deciding whether to terminate a life-threatening pregnancy in different circumstances. Men were...
Article
Full-text available
Studies examining sex differences in jealousy using continuous measures have produced inconsistent findings. To  explain these inconsistencies, this study critically evaluates the criterion used to test the sex difference in jealousy, demonstrating that the Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction is the only relevant effect. Then, using a U.S...
Article
Full-text available
Foreknowledge in research participants can undermine the validity of psychological research. Three studies examined a potentially major source of foreknowledge: participant crosstalk in an undergraduate subject pool. Participants in all three studies attempted to win extra experimental credit by guessing the number of beans in a jar-a nearly imposs...
Article
Whereas a variety of research has investigated how individual differences moderate attitude change (persuasion) processes, there is a relative dearth of research investigating how such individual differences moderate behavior change (compliance) processes. The current research assessed the extent to which two well-studied personality traits predict...
Article
Full-text available
Reciprocity is an important social norm that regulates interpersonal interactions. This study investigated whether the belief in a just world moderates the responses to a reciprocal obligation. A confederate gave (or did not give) a gift to participants and later solicited the participants to purchase raffle tickets. Participants who were stronger...
Article
Two studies examined whether trait expectancies and stereotype expectancies similarly aVected memory for expectancy-relevant behaviors. The results of both studies showed that, when activated in identical ways, trait expectancies and stereotype expectancies had similar eVects on recall. Better recall was obtained for expectancy-incongruent items wh...
Article
Full-text available
The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a) that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b) that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sampl...

Citations

... Numerous studies have failed to replicate despite being very influential in the field (Open Science Collaboration, 2012). Although some researchers have speculated that this is an indictment of the field, its publishing practices, and the incentives for publications (Lilienfeld, & Strother, 2020), other researchers have suggested that this is simply science working as it should (Edlund, Cuccolo, Irgens, Wagge, & Zlokovich, 2022). ...
... Majority of the respondents felt LGBT Public Display of Affection (PDA) offend them either through kissing, hugging and holding hands (Fig. 7). A study to demonstrate the level of comfort with viewing PDA exposed outcomes range between neutral to high (Buck et al., 2019). The result of this study support the findings of our study which show a very low level of comfort among the respondents on viewing PDA in all ways; kissing, hugging and holding hands. ...
... These studies would allow controlling for sampling error in the original studies and for QRPs (e.g., reporting only supported hypotheses or arbitrarily excluding outliers to obtain significant results) and they would test whether findings are generalizable across different populations, companies, countries, and cultures. This is why replication studies typically find smaller effect sizes and provide more accurate effect size estimates than the original studies (e.g., Ebersole et al., 2020;Stewart & Shapiro, 2000). Thus, in contrast to the assertions of Guzzo et al. (2022), IWO Psychology does not only need conceptual, but also exact replications. ...
... One way to address these potential structural limitations would be to take a look at the existing structures and build solutions that either take advantage of them or work around them. There are a growing number of projects, for example, that can provide opportunities to align priorities with possibilities, including the Collaborative Replications and Education Project (CREP, Wagge et al., 2019aWagge et al., , 2019b, Emerging Adulthood Measured at Multiple Institutions 2, (EAMMi2, Grahe et al., 2018), or Psi Chi's Network for International Collaborative Exchange (NICE; Cuccolo et al., 2021). Projects like CREP-at least compared to a novel study-require relatively little prior knowledge for either the student or the instructor and have a high likelihood of contributing to the peer-reviewed literature. ...
... Studies investigating antecedents and correlates of C/IER have predominantly relied on indicator-based procedures for identifying C/IER at the respondent level, and have focused on respondent and survey characteristics. Wellstudied examples of respondent characteristics associated with C/IER behaviour are demographic variables (e.g., education, gender, or geographic location; Kim, Dykema, Stevenson, Black, & Moberg, 2018;McKay, Garcia, Clapper, & Shultz, 2018), personality traits (e.g., the Big Five, self-esteem, or need for structure; Bowling et al., 2016;Huang et al., 2015;Maniaci & Rogge, 2014;McKay et al., 2018;Nichols & Edlund, 2020), verbal ability (Knowles, Cook, & Neville, 1989), and interest in the survey content (Brower, 2018). Research on characteristics of the survey as a whole has investigated characteristics such as survey mode (Bowling, Gibson, Houpt, & Brower, 2020;Magraw-Mickelson, Wang, & Gollwitzer, 2020), survey length (Galesic & Bosnjak, 2009;Gibson & Bowling, 2019), or instructions (Marshall, 2019;Ward & Meade, 2018). ...
... Cognitive wrapper exercises have been shown to enhance metacognitive and selfregulated learning (for more details -see Lovett, 2013, Bowen, 2013, Edlund, 2020. On most days, cognitive wrapper exercises included the clearest and muddiest points, potential issues, and struggles, and ascertaining students' confidence and strategies in mastering the content. ...
... Forecasting Survey. Following previous efforts (91,93), we asked independent scientists (n = 238) recruited via social media advertisements to attempt to predict the outcomes of the generalizability tests while blinded to the results. Each forecaster was provided with the original article's title; abstract; full text, including the original sample size and all associated analyses; the key statistical test from the paper; and a narrative summary of the focal finding and attempted to predict both its direct reproducibility and generalizability to different time periods. ...
... As reported in Errington et al., 2021b, replication efforts frequently produced evidence that was weaker or inconsistent with original studies. These results corroborate similar efforts by pharmaceutical companies to replicate findings in cancer biology (Begley and Ellis, 2012;Prinz et al., 2011), efforts by a non-profit biotech to replicate findings of potential drugs in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Perrin, 2014), and systematic replication efforts in other disciplines (Camerer et al., 2016;Camerer et al., 2018;Cova et al., 2018;Ebersole et al., 2016;Ebersole et al., 2019;Klein et al., 2014;Klein et al., 2018;Open Science Collaboration, 2015;Steward et al., 2012). Moreover, the evidence for self-corrective processes in the scientific literature is underwhelming: extremely few replication studies are published (Makel et al., 2012;Makel and Plucker, 2014); preclinical findings are often advanced to clinical trials before they have been verified and replicated by other laboratories Drucker, 2016;Ramirez et al., 2017); and many papers continue to be cited even after they have been retracted (Budd et al., 1999;Lu et al., 2013;Madlock-Brown and Eichmann, 2015;Pfeifer and Snodgrass, 1990). ...
... While there have been some useful discussions surrounding the need for open scholarship in teaching and learning contexts in recent literature (e.g., Anglin & Edlund, 2020;Button, 2018), a comprehensive summary of the empirical evidence is lacking. Based on this review, we argue that taking an open and reproducible scholarship approach to teaching and learning may not only be 'good for science' but also beneficial to students. ...
... We thereby targeted a population that so far has received little attention in social-psychological research (Duarte et al., 2015). Specifically, claims of a politicized social psychology skewing to the political left, being politically biased in their research and publishing practices, and excluding conservatives motivated our research (Crawford & Jussim, 2018;Stevens et al., 2018). Therefore, we presented data of an MTurk based study with liberals (i.e., individuals who identified as very or extremely liberal). ...