John A. Rogers's research while affiliated with Northwestern University and other places

Publications (767)

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Humans rely increasingly on sensors to address grand challenges and to improve quality of life in the era of digitalization and big data. For ubiquitous sensing, flexible sensors are developed to overcome the limitations of conventional rigid counterparts. Despite rapid advancement in bench-side research over the last decade, the market adoption of...
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Degradable polymer matrices and porous scaffolds provide powerful mechanisms for passive, sustained release of drugs relevant to the treatment of a broad range of diseases and conditions. Growing interest is in active control of pharmacokinetics tailored to the needs of the patient via programmable engineering platforms that include power sources,...
Preprint
Many recently developed classes of wireless, skin-interfaced bioelectronic devices rely on conventional thermoset silicone elastomer materials, such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), as soft encapsulating structures around collections of electronic components, radio frequency antennas and, commonly, rechargeable batteries. In optimized layouts and...
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Skin-interfaced microfluidic systems help assess health status and chemical exposure.
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Chronic wounds, particularly those associated with diabetes mellitus, represent a growing threat to public health, with additional notable economic impacts. Inflammation associated with these wounds leads to abnormalities in endogenous electrical signals that impede the migration of keratinocytes needed to support the healing process. This observat...
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Vocal fatigue is a measurable form of performance fatigue resulting from overuse of the voice and is characterized by negative vocal adaptation. Vocal dose refers to cumulative exposure of the vocal fold tissue to vibration. Professionals with high vocal demands, such as singers and teachers, are especially prone to vocal fatigue. Failure to adjust...
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Thermal sensations contribute to our ability to perceive and explore the physical world. Reproducing these sensations in a spatiotemporally programmable manner through wireless computer control could enhance virtual experiences beyond those supported by video, audio and, increasingly, haptic inputs. Flexible, lightweight and thin devices that deliv...
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Bioengineering approaches that combine living cellular components with three-dimensional scaffolds to generate motion can be used to develop a new generation of miniature robots. Integrating on-board electronics and remote control in these biological machines will enable various applications across engineering, biology, and medicine. Here, we prese...
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Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators mediate communication between neurons and other cell types; knowledge of release dynamics is critical to understanding their physiological role in normal and pathological brain function. Investigation into transient neurotransmitter dynamics has largely been hindered due to electrical and material requirements...
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Nanomembranes of GaN grown by remote epitaxy form the basis of surface acoustic wave sensors in wireless electronic skins for health monitoring.
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Measurements of the thermal properties of the skin can serve as the basis for a noninvasive, quantitative characterization of dermatological health and physiological status. Applications range from the detection of subtle spatiotemporal changes in skin temperature associated with thermoregulatory processes, to the evaluation of depth-dependent comp...
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Recent advances in haptic interfaces support a range of options in adding sensations of touch to virtual and augmented reality experiences. A fundamental understanding of the mechanics associated with coupling between vibro-tactile actuators and the skin is important in considering device designs and interpreting sensory perceptions. Here, we inves...
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Accurate measurements of skin hydration are of great interest to dermatological science and clinical practice. This parameter serves as a relevant surrogate of skin barrier function, a key representative benchmark for overall skin health. The skin hydration sensor (SHS) is a soft, skin-interfaced wireless system that exploits a thermal measurement...
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A quantitative understanding of the coupled dynamics of flow and particles in aerosol and droplet transmission associated with speech remains elusive. Here, we summarize an effort that integrates insights into flow-particle dynamics induced by the production plosive sounds during speech with skin-integrated electronic systems for monitoring the pro...
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Genetic engineering and implantable bioelectronics have transformed investigations of cardiovascular physiology and disease. However, the two approaches have been difficult to combine in the same species: genetic engineering is applied primarily in rodents, and implantable devices generally require larger animal models. We recently developed severa...
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Advances in optical technology have revolutionized studies of brain function in freely behaving mice. Here, we describe an optical imaging and stimulation device for use in primates that easily attaches to an intracranial chamber. It consists of affordable commercially available or 3D-printed components: a monochromatic camera, a small standard len...
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A confluence of advances in biosensor technologies, enhancements in health care delivery mechanisms, and improvements in machine learning, together with an increased awareness of remote patient monitoring, has accelerated the impact of digital health across nearly every medical discipline. Medical grade wearables-noninvasive, on-body sensors operat...
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We diagnosed 66 peripheral nerve injuries in 34 patients who survived severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We combine this new data with published case series re-analyzed here (117 nerve injuries; 58 patients) to provide a comprehensive accounting of lesion sites. The most common are ulnar (25.1%), common fibular (15.8%), sciatic (13.1%), me...
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Local electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves can block the propagation of action potentials, as an attractive alternative to pharmacological agents for the treatment of acute pain. Traditional hardware for such purposes, however, involves interfaces that can damage nerve tissue and, when used for temporary pain relief, that impose costs and ri...
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The metaverse may change the way we live and interact with one another, and its potential applications range from entertainment to health care. Extended reality is the main technology to realize the highly realistic, interactive and immersive metaverse experience, and wearable electronic devices and materials are at its core.
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Thrombosis after free flap transfer or solid organ allotransplantation surgeries can lead to flap or organ failure requiring re-transplantation and sometimes leading to death. Current technologies can provide early warnings of thrombosis, but the resulting measurements can be influenced by motions associated with route operations in patient care an...
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Dynamic shape-morphing soft materials systems are ubiquitous in living organisms; they are also of rapidly increasing relevance to emerging technologies in soft machines1–3, flexible electronics4,5 and smart medicines⁶. Soft matter equipped with responsive components can switch between designed shapes or structures, but cannot support the types of...
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Swallowing is a complex neuromuscular activity regulated by the autonomic nervous system. Millions of adults suffer from dysphagia (impaired or difficulty swallowing), including patients with neurological disorders, head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and respiratory disorders. Therapeutic treatments for dysphagia include interventions...
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Background Commercially available near infrared spectroscopy devices for continuous free flap tissue oxygenation (StO2) monitoring can only be used on flaps with a cutaneous component. Additionally, differences in skin quality and pigmentation may alter StO2 measurements. Here, we present a novel implantable heat convection probe that measures micr...
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Advanced capabilities in noninvasive, in situ monitoring of parameters related to sweat serve as the basis for obtaining real‐time insights into human physiological state, health, and performance. Although recently reported classes of soft, skin‐interfaced microfluidic systems support powerful functions in this context, most are designed as single‐...
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Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are essential components in many electronic technologies for consumer and industrial applications. Such devices are typically made using materials selected to support long operational lifetimes, but MEMS designed to physically disintegrate or to dissolve after a targeted period could provide a route to reduce e...
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The integration of micro- and nanoelectronics into or onto biomedical devices can facilitate advanced diagnostics and treatments of digestive disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Recent developments in gastrointestinal endoscopy and balloon catheter technologies introduce promising paths for minimally invasive surgeries to treat these d...
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Dehydration has many deleterious effects on cognitive and physical performance as well as physiological function, in the context of sports, industrial work, clinical rehabilitation, and military applications. Because sweat loss and electrolyte loss vary across individuals, conventional sweat testing strategies using absorbent patch techniques are e...
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Implantable devices capable of targeted and reversible blocking of peripheral nerve activity may provide alternatives to opioids for treating pain. Local cooling represents an attractive means for on-demand elimination of pain signals, but traditional technologies are limited by rigid, bulky form factors; imprecise cooling; and requirements for ext...
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Continuous health monitoring is essential for clinical care, especially for patients in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. Monitoring currently requires wired biosensors affixed to the skin with strong adhesives that can cause irritation and iatrogenic injuries during removal. Emerging wireless alternatives are attractive, but requirement...
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Some of the most advanced techniques for deep-brain stimulation rely on chronic brain implants that can damage fragile tissues and induce adverse immune responses. Herein, researchers report a macromolecular construct as an injectable photothermal nanotransducer for neuromodulation that bypasses these limitations.
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Continuous, real-time monitoring of perfusion after microsurgical free tissue transfer or solid organ allotransplantation procedures can facilitate early diagnosis of and intervention for anastomotic thrombosis. Current technologies including Doppler systems, cutaneous O2-sensing probes, and fluorine magnetic resonance imaging methods are limited b...
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Temporary postoperative cardiac pacing requires devices with percutaneous leads and external wired power and control systems. This hardware introduces risks for infection, limitations on patient mobility, and requirements for surgical extraction procedures. Bioresorbable pacemakers mitigate some of these disadvantages, but they demand pairing with...
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Haptic interfaces can be used to add sensations of touch to virtual and augmented reality experiences. Soft, flexible devices that deliver spatiotemporal patterns of touch across the body, potentially with full-body coverage, are of particular interest for a range of applications in medicine, sports and gaming. Here we report a wireless haptic inte...
Preprint
Full-text available
We diagnosed 66 peripheral nerve injuries in 34 patients who survived severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We combine our latest data with published case series re-analyzed here (117 nerve injuries; 58 patients) to provide a comprehensive accounting of lesion sites. The most common are ulnar (25.1%), common fibular (15.8%), sciatic (13.1%),...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most common non-invasive diagnostic tools that can provide useful information regarding the patient’s health status. Deep learning (DL) is a current area of intense exploration that leads the way in most attempts to create powerful diagnostic models based on physiological signals. OBJECTIVE This...
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Background: Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most common noninvasive diagnostic tools that can provide useful information regarding a patient's health status. Deep learning (DL) is an area of intense exploration that leads the way in most attempts to create powerful diagnostic models based on physiological signals. Objective: This study aim...
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Serial examination and direct measurement of intracompartmental pressure (ICP) are suboptimal strategies for the detection of acute compartment syndrome (CS) because they are operator dependent, and yield information that only indirectly reflects intracompartmental muscle perfusion. As a result, instances of unnecessary fasciotomy and unrecognized...
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Accurate, real-time monitoring of intravascular oxygen levels is important in tracking the cardiopulmonary health of patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Existing technologies use intravascular placement of glass fiber-optic catheters that pose risks of blood vessel damage, thrombosis, and infection. In addition, physical tethers to power supply...
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Background Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is a common source of ventricular tachycardia, which often requires ablation. However, the mechanisms underlying the RVOT’s unique arrhythmia susceptibility remain poorly understood due to lack of detailed electrophysiological and molecular studies of the human RVOT. Methods We conducted optical ma...
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Vascular pedicle thrombosis after free flap transfer or solid organ transplantation surgeries can lead to flap necrosis, organ loss requiring re-transplantation, or even death. Although implantable flow sensors can provide early warning of malperfusion and facilitate operative salvage, measurements performed with existing technologies often depend...
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Batteries represent the dominant means for storing electrical energy, but many battery chemistries create waste streams that are difficult to manage, and most possess toxic components that limit their use in biomedical applications. Batteries constructed from materials capable of complete, harmless resorption into the environment or into living org...
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Recent advances in bio-interface technologies establish a rich range of electronic, optoelectronic, thermal, and chemical options for probing and modulating the behaviors of small-scale three dimensional (3D) biological constructs (e.g. organoids, spheroids, and assembloids). These approaches represent qualitative advances over traditional alternat...
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Introduction: Cardiovascular science has greatly benefited from bioelectronics and genetic engineering. However, combinations of these approaches have been hampered by challenges in genetic engineering of large animals and implantation of cardiac devices in rodents. New surgical approaches to reliably interface bioelectronics to the heart with mini...
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A frontier area of modern research focuses on emerging classes of implantable bioelectronic devices with unique modes of operation that are relevant both to research studies and to medical practice. These advanced technologies have the potential to enable revolutionary diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities relevant to a wide spectrum of disorders...
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Significance Early detection of infant neuromotor pathologies is critical for timely therapeutic interventions that rely on early-life neuroplasticity. Traditional assessments rely on subjective expert evaluations or specialized medical facilities, making them challenging to scale in remote and/or resource-constrained settings. The results presente...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genetic engineering and implantable bioelectronics have transformed investigations of cardiovascular physiology and disease. However, the two approaches have been difficult to combine in the same species: genetic engineering is applied primarily in rodents, and implantable devices generally require large animal models. We recently developed several...
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Full-text available
Microfluidic technologies have wide-ranging applications in chemical analysis systems, drug delivery platforms, and artificial vascular networks. This latter area is particularly relevant to 3D cell cultures, engineered tissues, and artificial organs, where volumetric capabilities in fluid distribution are essential. Existing schemes for fabricatin...
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Peripheral nerve interfaces are frequently used in experimental neuroscience and regenerative medicine for a wide variety of applications. Such interfaces can be sensors, actuators, or both. Traditional methods of peripheral nerve interfacing must either tether to an external system or rely on battery power that limits the time frame for operation....
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Despite knowledge of subsequent melanoma risk and the benefit of sun protection in risk reduction, melanoma survivors often do not engage in adequate sun protection and continue to sunburn at rates similar to individuals without a history of skin cancer. This novel intensive intervention provided a wearable UV sensor delivering real-time UV exposur...
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Haptic technology involves the use of electrical or mechanical means to stimulate afferent nerves or mechanoreceptors in the skin as the basis for creating sensations of physical touch that can qualitatively expand virtual or augmented reality experiences beyond those supported by visual and auditory cues alone. An emerging direction in this field...
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Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring³, population surveillance⁴, disease management⁵ and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and—in...
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Skin-Integrated Vibrohaptic Interfaces Haptic technologies add a sense of touch to visual and auditory queues, as the basis for advanced forms of virtual and augmented reality experiences. In article number 2008805, John A. Rogers, Yei Hwan Jung, and Jae-Hwan Kim present the recent progress in flexible, skin-integrated haptic interfaces that enable...
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Background Current near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based systems for continuous flap monitoring are limited to flaps which carry a cutaneous paddle. As such, this useful and reliable technology has not previously been applicable to muscle-only free flaps where other modalities with substantial limitations continue to be utilized. Methods We prese...
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Wireless Wearables The cover associated with article 2100383 by Yonggang Huang, Debra E. Weese-Mayer, John A. Rogers, and co-workers, is a picture of an infant wearing a pair of soft, wireless, and skininterfaced devices that provide continuous, clinical-grade, and noninvasive monitoring of various physiological waveforms. Relevant characteristics...
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Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes...
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Background Current near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based systems for continuous flap monitoring are highly sensitive for detecting malperfusion. However, the clinical utility and user experience are limited by the wired connection between the sensor and bedside console. This wire leads to instability of the flap–sensor interface and may cause fal...
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Introduction: Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) occurs frequently in patients with neurological disorders and can lead to aspiration, choking, and malnutrition. Dysphagia is typically diagnosed using costly, invasive imaging procedures or subjective, qualitative bedside examinations. Wearable sensors are a promising alternative to noninvasively an...
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Injured peripheral nerves typically exhibit unsatisfactory and incomplete functional outcomes, and there are no clinically approved therapies for improving regeneration. Post‐operative electrical stimulation (ES) increases axon regrowth, but practical challenges, from the cost of extended operating room time to the risks and pitfalls associated wit...
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Evaluating the biomechanics of soft tissues at depths well below their surface, and at high precision and in real time, would open up diagnostic opportunities. Here, we report the development and application of miniaturized electromagnetic devices, each integrating a vibratory actuator and a soft strain-sensing sheet, for dynamically measuring the...
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Transient electronics, which can be tuned to be completely or partially dissoluble, degradable, and disintegrable, create new opportunities in the upcoming ubiquitous electronics era that are inaccessible with conventional permanent electronics. This emerging field offers unique electronic applications in environmentally degradable eco-devices with...
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Recently developed methods for transforming 2D patterns of thin‐film materials into 3D mesostructures create many interesting opportunities in microsystems design. A growing area of interest is in multifunctional thermal, electrical, chemical, and optical interfaces to biological tissues, particularly 3D multicellular, millimeter‐scale constructs,...
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Methods for mechanical assembly can form structures with elaborate 3D configurations, and broad potential applications in advanced microsystems technologies. In article number 2100026, John D. Finan, John A. Rogers, and co-workers demonstrate soft, transparent 3D structures designed to gently constrain organoids for studies of their mechanical prop...
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Infectious diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic demands simple and effective disinfection techniques. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is one such method in common use for decontamination of hospital rooms. Practical technologies designed to monitor UVGI ensure the delivery of effective dose for reliable germicide. Existing UVGI dosimete...
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Wearable skin sensors is a promising technology for real-time health care monitoring. They are of particular interest for monitoring glucose in diabetic patients. The concentration of glucose in sweat can be more than two orders of magnitude lower than in blood. In consequence, the scientific and technological efforts are focused in developing new...
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Traditional methods to measure blood pressure are intermittent, and may fail to detect the critical blood pressure fluctuations. Continuous blood-pressure monitoring offers important clinical value in predicting cardiovascular diseases. Invasive (i.e., artery cannulation) and non-invasive approaches (e.g., volume clamping, applanation tonometry, ul...
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Advanced technologies for controlled delivery of light to targeted locations in biological tissues are essential to neuroscience research that applies optogenetics in animal models. Fully implantable, miniaturized devices with wireless control and power-harvesting strategies offer an appealing set of attributes in this context, particularly for stu...
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Significance Monitoring vital signs for laboring women and their fetuses is foundational to the delivery of obstetrical care; however, monitoring platforms for pregnancy have undergone little innovation over the last several decades with many low-income settings lacking basic access. We report a new time-synchronized, flexible, and wireless sensor...
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Indwelling arterial lines, the clinical gold standard for continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), have significant drawbacks due to their invasive nature, ischemic risk, and impediment to natural body movement. A noninvasive, wireless, and accurate alternative would greatly improve the quality of patie...