Johan Reimerink's research while affiliated with National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and other places

Publications (72)

Article
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This study investigated the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and diagnostics in 242 household members of different ages and with different symptom severity after SARS-CoV-2 exposure early in the pandemic (March–April 2020). Households with a SARS-CoV-2 confirmed positive case and at least one child in the Netherlands were followed for 6 weeks. Naso...
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Data on convalescent plasma (CP) treatment in COVID-19 outpatients are scarce. We aimed to assess whether CP administered during the first week of symptoms reduced the disease progression or risk of hospitalization of outpatients. Two multicenter, double-blind randomized trials (NCT04621123, NCT04589949) were merged with data pooling starting when...
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Defining immune correlates of disease severity is important to better understand the immunopathogenesis in COVID-19. Here we made use of a protein microarray platform to detect IgG- and IgA-reactive antibodies in sera and saliva respectively, and assess cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic coronaviruses (eCoVs). IgG responses against the...
Article
TBE is an emerging infectious disease in the Netherlands since July 2016, and risk areas have not been defined yet. Until October 2020 twelve autochthonous cases of TBE have been identified. In six of these cases transmission of TBE virus likely occurred in the Twente region, which therefore is the region with the highest case number and risk of co...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study investigated the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and diagnostics in household members of different ages and with different symptom severity after SARS-CoV-2 exposure during the early phase of the pandemic. Households with a SARS-CoV-2 confirmed positive case and at least one child in the Netherlands were followed for 6 weeks. Naso (NP)-...
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We compared the performance of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody testing between 12 European laboratories involved in convalescent plasma trials. Raw titres differed almost 100-fold differences between laboratories when blind-testing 15 plasma samples. Calibration of titres in relation to the reference reagent and standard curve obtained by testing...
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In response to the worldwide pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the subsequent overflowing of the market regarding antibody tests, a nationwide collaborative approach in the Netherlands was employed. Forty-one Dutch laboratories joined forces and shared their evaluation data, to allow for the evaluation of...
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Objectives Characterisation of the human antibody response to SARS‐CoV‐2 infection is vital for serosurveillance purposes and for treatment options such as transfusion with convalescent plasma or immunoglobulin products derived from convalescent plasma. In this study, we longitudinally and quantitatively analysed antibody responses in RT‐PCR‐positi...
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Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on upper respiratory tract (URT) samples is the primary method to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infections and guide public health measures, with a supportive role for serology. We reinforce previous findings on limited sensitivity of PCR testing, and solidify this fact by statistically utili...
Preprint
The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in late 2019 and has caused a global health and economic crisis. The characterization of the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is vital for serosurveillance purposes as well for treatment options such as transfusion with convalescent plasma or immunoglobin products derived from convalescent plasma. I...
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To understand SARS-CoV-2 immunity after natural infection or vaccination, functional assays such as virus neutralising assays are needed. So far, assays to detect SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies rely on cell-culture based infection assays either using wild type SARS-CoV-2 or pseudotyped viruses. Such assays are labour-intensive, require appropri...
Article
In October 2020, the first case of autochthonous West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease was diagnosed in the Netherlands with a presumed infection in the last week of August. Investigations revealed five more cases of local West Nile virus (WNV) infection. The cases resided in a region where WNV was detected in a bird and mosquitoes in August 2020....
Article
We report dengue virus (DENV) infection in two Dutch tourists who visited Département Var, southern France, in July and August 2020. As some autochthonous dengue cases have occurred in Europe in recent years, awareness among physicians and public health experts about possible intermittent presence of DENV in southern Europe is important to minimise...
Preprint
Full-text available
To understand SARS-CoV-2 immunity after natural infection or vaccination, functional assays such as virus neutralizing assays are needed. So far, assays to determine SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies rely on cell-culture based infection assays either using wild type SARS-CoV-2 or pseudotyped viruses. Such assays are labour-intensive, require appro...
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In late December 2019, a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology were reported linked to a market in Wuhan, China1. The causative agent was identified as the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus and was named SARS-CoV-2 (ref. 2). By 16 April the virus had spread to 185 different countries, infected over 2,000,000...
Preprint
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Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on upper respiratory tract (URT) samples is the primary method to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infections and guide public health measures, with a supportive role for serology. However, the clinical sensitivity of RT-PCR remains uncertain. In the present study, Bayesian statistical modeling...
Article
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Serology is a crucial part of the public health response to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, but there are still many unknowns. Here, we describe the development, validation and clinical evaluation of a protein micro-array as a quantitative multiplex immunoassay that can identify S and N-directed SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies with high specificity and...
Article
We determined and compared the humoral immune response in severe, hospitalized and mild, non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Severe patients (n=38) develop a robust antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, including IgG and IgA antibodies. The geometric mean 50% virus neutralization titer is 1:240. SARS-CoV-2 infected hospital personnel (n=24), who develop...
Preprint
Full-text available
We determined and compared the humoral immune response in severe, hospitalized and mild, non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Severe patients (n=38) develop a robust antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, including IgG and IgA antibodies. The geometric mean 50% virus neutralization titer is 1:240. SARS-CoV-2 infected hospital personnel (n=24), who develop...
Article
We illustrate the potential for specialist laboratory networks to be used as preparedness and response tool through rapid collection and sharing of data. Here, the Emerging Viral Diseases-Expert Laboratory Network (EVD-LabNet) and a laboratory assessment of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in returning European travellers related to an ongoing outbreak in...
Article
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Since 2016, sporadic cases of autochthonous tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) have been encountered in the Netherlands, in two distinct geographic regions. We describe the first paediatric autochthonous case of TBE, in 2018, which was contracted outside these regions, suggesting that TBE is more widespread. Countrywide vigilance for new TBE cases remai...
Article
Orthohantaviruses are a group of rodentborne viruses with a worldwide distribution. The orthohantavirus Seoul virus (SEOV) can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans and is distributed worldwide, like its reservoir host, the rat. Cases of SEOV in wild and pet rats have been described in several countries, and human cases have been re...
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Background & objectives: The first chikungunya (CHIK) epidemic in the Americas was reported in December 2013. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute febrile illness and is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Although earlier studies have described long-term clinical manifestations of CHIK patients infected with the East/Central/South Afri...
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Background Prior to the 2007–2010 Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in the general population was 1.5%, which is low compared to other countries. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence after the Q fever epidemic among people living in the affected area, compare the seroprevalence with...
Article
We need greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying protection against influenza virus to develop more effective vaccines. To do this, we need better, more reproducible methods of sampling the nasal mucosa. The aim of the current study was to compare levels of influenza virus A subtype-specific IgA collected using three different methods of...
Article
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We present a case of endemic tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) occurring in June 2016 in the eastern part of the Netherlands in an area where a strain of TBE virus, genetically different from the common TBE virus strains in Europe, was reported in ticks in 2016. With the start of the tick season in spring, this second autochthonous Dutch TBE case shoul...
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Background: Arboviruses have overlapping geographical distributions and can cause symptoms that coincide with more common infections. Therefore, arbovirus infections are often neglected by travel diagnostics. Here, we assessed the potential of syndrome-based approaches for diagnosis and surveillance of neglected arboviral diseases in returning tra...
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The family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, holds many of the world's most prevalent arboviral diseases that are also considered the most important travel related arboviral infections. In most cases, flavivirus diagnosis in travelers is primarily based on serology as viremia is often low and typically has already been reduced to undetectable levels...
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We report the recent epidemiology and estimated seroprevalence of human hantavirus infections in the Netherlands. Sixty-two cases were reported during December 2008–December 2013. The estimated seroprevalence in the screened municipalities in 2006–2007 was 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%–2.3%). Findings suggest that hantavirus infections are underdiagnosed in th...
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Current avian influenza surveillance in poultry primarily targets subtypes of interest for the veterinary sector (H5, H7). However, as virological and serological evidence suggest, surveillance of additional subtypes is important for public health as well as for the poultry industry. Therefore, we developed a protein microarray enabling simultaneou...
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In 2010, a large outbreak of poliomyelitis with unusual 47% lethality occurred in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo. Vaccine-mediated immunity against the outbreak virus was never investigated. A wild poliovirus 1 (WPV1) isolated from a fatal case (termed PV1-RC2010) showed a previously unknown combination of amino acid exchanges in critical antigeni...
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Leptospirosis and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) are hard to distinguish clinically since these two important rodent-borne zoonoses share hallmark symptoms such as renal failure and haemorrhage. Leptospirosis is caused by infection with a spirochete while HFRS is the result of an infection with certain hantaviruses. Both diseases are...
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On 6 December 2013, two laboratory-confirmed cases of chikungunya without a travel history were reported on the French part of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, indicating the start of the first documented outbreak of chikungunya in the Americas. Since this report, the virus spread to several Caribbean islands and French Guiana, and between 6 D...
Article
The emergence of the A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic influenza virus was initially seen as a major world-wide health concern since a low degree of immunity to this virus strain was anticipated. However, age-specific infection attack rates and age-specific differences in seroresponse indicate that pre-existing immunity may have played a significant role in pr...
Data
Geometric mean titers (GMT) at baseline and after vaccination with pandemic H1 2009 vaccine of persons with and without a history of seasonal vaccination. (DOC)
Data
Geometric mean titers (GMT) at baseline and after natural infection with pandemic influenza H1 2009. GMT estimates are expressed as fold change for GMTs in persons with and without a history of seasonal vaccination (GMTvaccinated/GMTnonvaccinated). (DOC)
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The influence of prior seasonal influenza vaccination on the antibody response produced by natural infection or vaccination is not well understood. We compared the profiles of antibody responses of 32 naturally infected subjects and 98 subjects vaccinated with a 2009 influenza A(H1N1) monovalent MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria®, Novartis), with a...
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The emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus, in ruminants in Europe triggered a joint veterinary and public health response to address the possible consequences to human health. Use of a risk profiling algorithm enabled the conclusion that the risk for zoonotic transmission of SBV could not be excluded completely. Self-repor...
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Background To guide policy and control measures, decent scientific data are needed for a comprehensive assessment of epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of the First Few hundred (FF100) cases. We discuss the feasibility of the FF100 approach during the 2009 pandemic and the added value compared with alternative data sources av...
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Western tourists are increasingly traveling to exotic locations often located in tropical or subtropical regions of the world. The magnitude of international travel and the constantly changing dynamics of arbovirus diseases across the globe demand up-to-date information about arbovirus threats to travelers and the countries they visit. In this revi...
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SHepatitis E virus (HEV) is now considered an endemic pathogen in industrialized countries, leading to acute and sometimes chronic hepatitis, mostly in vulnerable people. The endemic sources are unclear. A survey in The Netherlands in 2006-2007 showed a 1·9% seroprevalence of HEV antibodies measured by ELISA and confirmed by immunoblot in a nationw...
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Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is not endemic in the Netherlands and diagnostics are seldom requested. Here, we report about the rare event of TBE in two Dutch travellers returning from Austria in July and August 2011. This report serves to create awareness among physicians to consider travel-related TBE in their differential diagnosis of patients w...
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Antibody microarrays (Ab-array) represent a new, innovative proteomics platform for high-throughput protein expression profiling in body fluids. Because they allow for multiplexed measurements in small sample volumes, Ab-arrays are an interesting alternative to conventional indirect sandwich immunoassay (ELISA or DELFIA) tests in clinical or popula...
Article
Clin Microbiol Infect The emergence of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza showed the importance of rapid assessment of the degree of immunity in the population, the rate of asymptomatic infection, the spread of infection in households, effects of control measures, and ability of candidate vaccines to produce a response in different age groups. A limit...
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The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (HAV) was assessed in a nationwide sample (n=6229) in The Netherlands in 2006-2007, and compared to the seroprevalence in a similar study in 1995-1996 (n=7376). The overall seroprevalence increased from 34% in 1995-1996 to 39% in 2006-2007, mainly due to vaccination of travellers and an increased im...
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In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A pro...
Article
Mommers M, Thijs C, Stelma F, Penders J, Reimerink J, van Ree R, Koopmans M. Timing of infection and development of wheeze, eczema, and atopic sensitization during the first 2 yr of life: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 983–989. © 2010 The John Wiley & Sons A/S To investigate if infections in pregnancy and very early...
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Several pathogenic Rickettsia species can be transmitted via Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans and animals. Surveys of I. ricinus for the presence of Rickettsiae using part of its 16S rRNA gene yield a plethora of new and different Rickettsia sequences. Interpreting these data is sometimes difficult and presenting these findings as new or potentially...
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Lizards are considered zooprophylactic for almost all Borrelia burgdorferi species, and act as dilution hosts in parts of North America. Whether European lizards significantly reduce the ability of B. burgdorferi to maintain itself in enzootic cycles, and consequently decrease the infection rate of Ixodes ricinus ticks for B. burgdorferi and other...
Article
The increase in incidence of atopic diseases (ADs) in the developed world over the past decades has been associated with reduced exposure of childhood infections. To investigate the relation between early intestinal viral infections in relation to the development of atopic symptoms (eczema, wheeze and atopic sensitization) in the first and second y...
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Since 2005, Aedes albopictus mosquitoes have been detected in companies in the Netherlands that import ornamental plants from China. To assess the risks of dengue transmission, a study was carried out in 48 persons who are professionally exposed to these mosquitoes. No evidence for non-travel-related flavivirus infections was found.
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Background: Activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway through TLR4 may be important in the induction of protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis with TLR4-mediated activation of dendritic and B cells, induction of cytokine expression, and reversal of tolerance as crucial steps. We examined whether single nucleotide polym...