Johan Bollen's research while affiliated with Indiana University Bloomington and other places

Publications (143)

Preprint
BACKGROUND Like the COVID-19 pandemic, the recent global monkeypox outbreak was characterized by the rising prevalence of public health misinformation on social media. This highlights the continuing challenges faced by public health officials in providing accurate and timely information to the public. We examine the evolving topic distributions of...
Chapter
Depression and anxiety are now the 1st and 10th leading causes of disability worldwide. However, their variegated presentation and symptoms complicate efforts to develop a better understanding of the complex factors that shape the dynamics of their development within individuals. The development of personalized detection, diagnostics, and treatment...
Article
Full-text available
Mass communication over social media can drive rapid changes in our sense of collective identity. Hashtags in particular have acted as powerful social coordinators, playing a key role in organizing social movements like the Gezi park protests, Occupy Wall Street, #metoo, and #blacklivesmatter. Here we quantify collective identity from the use of ha...
Preprint
Background: Internalizing, externalizing, and somatoform disorders are the most common and disabling forms of psychopathology. Our understanding of these clinical problems is limited by a reliance on self-report along with research using small samples. Social media has emerged as an exciting venue in which to collect large sample of longitudinal da...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) interventions are increasingly prevalent on social media. These data can be mined for insights about PrEP that may not be as apparent in surveys including personal musings about PrEP and barriers/facilitators to PrEP uptake. This study explores online discourse about PrEP using an interdisciplinary public health and...
Article
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Introduction Although much work has been done on US abortion ideology, less is known relative to the psychological processes that distinguish personal abortion beliefs or how those beliefs are communicated to others. As part of a forthcoming probability-based sampling designed study on US abortion climate, we piloted a study with a controlled sampl...
Article
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Natural disasters can have devastating and long-lasting effects on a community’s emotional well-being. These effects may be distributed unequally, affecting some communities more profoundly and possibly over longer time periods than others. Here, we analyze the effects of four major US hurricanes, namely, Irma, Harvey, Florence, and Dorian on the e...
Article
Background Internalizing, externalizing, and somatoform disorders are the most common and disabling forms of psychopathology. Our understanding of these clinical problems is limited by a reliance on self-report along with research using small samples. Social media has emerged as an exciting channel for collecting a large sample of longitudinal data...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND In recent years, social media has become a rich source of mental health data. However, there is a lack of research on the accuracy and validity of self-reported diagnostic information online. OBJECTIVE An analysis of the degree of correspondence between self-reported diagnoses and clinical indicators will afford researchers and clinicia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Natural disasters can have devastating and long-lasting effects on a community's emotional well-being. These effects may be distributed unequally, affecting some communities more profoundly and possibly over longer time periods than others. Here, we analyze the effects of four major US hurricanes, namely, Irma, Harvey, Florence, and Dorian on the e...
Article
Individuals can hold contrasting views about distinct times: for example, dread over tomorrow's appointment and excitement about next summer's vacation. Yet, psychological measures of optimism often assess only one time point or ask participants to generalize about their future. Here, we address these limitations by developing the optimism curve, a...
Article
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Significance The post-truth era has taken many by surprise. Here, we use massive language analysis to demonstrate that the rise of fact-free argumentation may perhaps be understood as part of a deeper change. After the year 1850, the use of sentiment-laden words in Google Books declined systematically, while the use of words associated with fact-ba...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mass communication over social media can drive rapid changes in our sense of collective identity. Hashtags in particular have acted as powerful social coordinators[1], playing a key role in organizing social movements like the Gezi park protests, Occupy Wall Street, #metoo , and #blacklivesmatter [2, 3, 4]. Here we quantify collective identity from...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Can entire societies become more or less depressed over time? Here, we look for the historical traces of cognitive distortions, thinking patterns that are strongly associated with internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety, in millions of books published over the course of the last two centuries in English, Spanish, and Ger...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to mental health fallout in the US; yet research about mental health and COVID-19 primarily rely on samples that may overlook variance in regional mental health. Indeed, between-city comparisons of mental health decline in the US may provide further insight into how the pandemic is disproportionately affecting a...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, but is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Cognitive behavioural therapy holds that individuals with depression exhibit distorted modes of thinking, that is, cognitive distortions, that can negatively affect their emotions and motivation. Here, we show that the language of individuals with a...
Preprint
Individuals can hold contrasting views about distinct times, e.g., dread over tomorrow’s appointment and excitement about next summer’s vacation. Yet, psychological measures of happiness and optimism often assess only one time-point. Taking inspiration from the Treasury bond yield curve, which compares bond yields by their date to maturity, we comp...
Article
Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented mitigation efforts that disrupted the daily lives of millions. Beyond the general health repercussions of the pandemic itself, these measures also present a challenge to the world’s mental health and health care systems. Considering that traditional survey methods are time-consuming and expensiv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented mitigation efforts that disrupted the daily lives of millions. Beyond the general health repercussions of the pandemic itself, these measures also present a significant challenge to the world’s mental health and healthcare systems. Considering traditional survey methods are time-consuming and ex...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Human sleep/wake cycles follow a stable circadian rhythm associated with hormonal, emotional, and cognitive changes. Changes of this cycle are implicated in many mental health concerns. In fact, the bidirectional relation between major depressive disorder and sleep has been well-documented. Despite a clear link between sleep disturbances a...
Article
Social media data have been increasingly used to study biomedical and health-related phenomena. From cohort-level discussions of a condition to population-level analyses of sentiment, social media have provided scientists with unprecedented amounts of data to study human behavior associated with a variety of health conditions and medical treatments...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented mitigation efforts that disrupted the daily lives of millions. Beyond the general health repercussions of the pandemic itself, these measures also present a significant challenge to the world’s mental health and healthcare systems. Considering traditional survey methods are time-consuming and ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, but is often under-diagnosed and under-treated. One of the tenets of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is that individuals who are depressed exhibit distorted modes of thinking, so-called cognitive distortions, which can negatively affect their emotions and motivation. Here, we show that indiv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social media data has been increasingly used to study biomedical and health-related phenomena. From cohort level discussions of a condition to planetary level analyses of sentiment, social media has provided scientists with unprecedented amounts of data to study human behavior and response associated with a variety of health conditions and medical...
Article
Full-text available
Many funding agencies rely on grant proposal peer review to allocate scientific funding, i.e., researchers compete for funding by submitting proposals that are reviewed and ranked by committees of their peers. Only a fraction of applicants are awarded the requested funds. This system has a long and venerable tradition, but it is increasingly strugg...
Preprint
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US funding agencies alone distribute a yearly total of roughly $65B dollars largely through the process of proposal peer review: scientists compete for project funding by submitting grant proposals which are evaluated by selected panels of peer reviewers. Similar funding systems are in place in most advanced democracies. However, in spite of its ve...
Article
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Putting one’s feelings into words (also called affect labeling) can attenuate positive and negative emotions. Here, we track the evolution of specific emotions for 74,487 Twitter users by analysing the emotional content of their tweets before and after they explicitly report experiencing a positive or negative emotion. Our results describe the evol...
Article
I want to see whether the wisdom of crowds does a better job than conventional grant review at supporting research, says Johan Bollen. I want to see whether the wisdom of crowds does a better job than conventional grant review at supporting research, says Johan Bollen.
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies of affect labeling, i.e. putting your feelings into words, indicate that it can attenuate positive and negative emotions. Here we track the evolution of individual emotions for tens of thousands of Twitter users by analyzing the emotional content of their tweets before and after they explicitly report having a strong emotion. Our results re...
Chapter
As social animals, social interactions play a fundamental role in shaping our emotional well-being. The emergence of online social networks over the past decade has allowed us to study human social behavior at a previously unimaginable scale and level of detail through the availability of extensive detailed social records for billions of individual...
Data
Ownership properties for topic keyword-based clusters for the ds16 dataset. The cluster with ID 1 corresponds to un-grouped media outlets. Entities owning over 10% of the outlets in a community are listed next to it. (PDF)
Data
Ownership properties for vocabulary clusters for the ds15 dataset. The cluster with ID 7 corresponds to un-grouped media outlets. Entities owning over 10% of the outlets in a community are listed next to it. (PDF)
Data
Ownership properties for vocabulary-based clusters for the ds16 dataset. The cluster with ID 15 corresponds to un-grouped media outlets. Entities owning over 10% of the outlets in a community are listed next to it. (PDF)
Data
News outlets for topic minhash-based communities for the ds16 dataset. The cluster with ID 0 corresponds to un-grouped media outlets. (PDF)
Data
News outlets for topic keyword-based communities for the ds16 dataset. The cluster with ID 0 corresponds to un-grouped media. (PDF)
Data
News outlets for vocabulary-based communities for the ds16 dataset. The cluster with ID 0 corresponds to un-grouped media outlets. (PDF)
Data
Ownership properties for topic keyword-based clusters for the ds15 dataset. The cluster with ID 1 corresponds to un-grouped media outlets. Entities owning over 10% of the outlets in a community are listed next to it. (PDF)
Data
Ownership properties for topic minhash-based clusters for the ds15 dataset. The cluster with ID 0 corresponds to un-grouped media outlets. Entities owning over 10% of the outlets in a community are listed next to it. (PDF)
Article
Even in developed countries with an active free press, news coverage can be dominated by only a few players. This can lead to a reduction of topical and community diversity. Ownership structures might further limit coverage by implicitly or explicitly biasing editorial policies. In this paper, we apply ecological diversity measures to quantify the...
Article
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A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
Article
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It is a long-standing question whether human sexual and reproductive cycles are affected predominantly by biology or culture. The literature is mixed with respect to whether biological or cultural factors best explain the reproduction cycle phenomenon, with biological explanations dominating the argument. The biological hypothesis proposes that hum...
Article
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Even democracies endowed with the most active free press struggle to maintain the diversity of news coverage. Consolidation and market forces may cause only a few dominant players to control the news cycle. Editorial policies may be biased by corporate ownership relations, narrowing news coverage and focus. To an increasing degree, this problem als...
Article
p>Most individuals in social networks experience a so-called Friendship Paradox: they are less popular than their friends on average. This effect may explain recent findings that widespread social network media use leads to reduced happiness. However the relation between popularity and happiness is poorly understood. A Friendship paradox does not n...
Article
Citations are commonly held to represent scientific impact. To date, however, there is no empirical evidence in support of this postulate that is central to research assessment exercises and Science of Science studies. Here, we report on the first empirical verification of the degree to which citation numbers represent scientific impact as it is ac...
Article
This paper presents a novel model of science funding that exploits the wisdom of the scientific crowd. Each researcher receives an equal, unconditional part of all available science funding on a yearly basis, but is required to individually donate to other scientists a given fraction of all they receive. Science funding thus moves from one scientis...
Conference Paper
The proliferation of social media is bringing about significant changes in how people make sense of their world and adopt new information. However, social, cultural and political divisions continue to separate users and information into different social media systems. Twitter and Facebook, for example, are strictly forbidden in mainland China. As a...
Article
Full-text available
Most individuals in social networks experience a so-called Friendship Paradox: they are less popular than their friends on average. This effect may explain recent findings that widespread social network media use leads to reduced happiness. However the relation between popularity and happiness is poorly understood. A Friendship paradox does not nec...
Article
Full-text available
The widespread adoption of mobile devices that record the communications, social relations, and movements of billions of individuals in great detail presents unique opportunities for the study of social structures and human dynamics at very large scales. This is particularly the case for developing countries where social and economic data can be ha...
Article
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There is an error in the last sentence of the “Validation on factual statements” section of the Results. The sentence should read: With this method we estimate that, in the four subject areas, true statements are assigned higher truth values than false ones with probability 95%, 98%, 100%, and 95%, respectively. Fig 4 is incorrect. Please view the...
Article
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Human history has been marked by social instability and conflict, often driven by the irreconcilability of opposing sets of beliefs, ideologies, and religious dogmas. The dynamics of belief systems has been studied mainly from two distinct perspectives, namely how cognitive biases lead to individual belief rigidity and how social influence leads to...
Article
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Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding th...
Article
Full-text available
Economies are instances of complex socio-technical systems that are shaped by the interactions of large numbers of individuals. The individual behavior and decision-making of consumer agents is determined by complex psychological dynamics that include their own assessment of present and future economic conditions as well as those of others, potenti...
Article
The traditional peer review system for grant proposals is not always optimal. A new crowdfunding proposal based on advances in technology and mathematics could improve efficiency while retaining peer judgement.
Article
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Is social media a valid indicator of political behavior? There is considerable debate about the validity of data extracted from social media for studying offline behavior. To address this issue, we show that there is a statistically significant association between tweets that mention a candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives and his or her...
Patent
Full-text available
Although recording of usage data is common in scholarly information services, its exploitation for the creation of value-added services remains limited due to concerns regarding, among others, user privacy, data validity, and the lack of accepted standards for the representation, sharing and aggregation of usage data. A technical, standards-based a...
Conference Paper
In addition to its broad popularity Wikipedia is also widely used for scholarly purposes. Many Wikipedia pages pertain to academic papers, scholars and topics providing a rich ecology for scholarly uses. Scholarly references and mentions on Wikipedia may thus shape the "societal impact" of a certain scholarly communication item, but it is not clear...
Article
Public agencies like the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) award tens of billions of dollars in annual science funding. How can this money be distributed as efficiently as possible to best promote scientific innovation and productivity? The present system relies primarily on peer review of project pr...
Article
Is social media a valid indicator of political behavior? We answer this question using a random sample of 537,231,508 tweets from August 1 to November 1, 2010 and data from 406 competitive U.S. congressional elections provided by the Federal Election Commission. Our results show that the percentage of Republican-candidate name mentions correlates w...
Data
Full-text available
Public agencies like the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) award tens of billions of dollars in annual science funding. How can this money be distributed as efficiently as possible to best promote scientific innovation and productiv-ity? The present system relies primarily on peer review of project p...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the online response to the preprint publication of a cohort of 4,606 scientific articles submitted to the preprint database arXiv.org between October 2010 and May 2011. We study three forms of responses to these preprints: downloads on the arXiv.org site, mentions on the social media site Twitter, and early citations in the scholarly rec...
Article
The detection of communities in large social networks is receiving increasing attention in a variety of research areas. Most existing community detection approaches focus on the topology of social connections (e.g., coauthor, citation, and social conversation) without considering their topic and dynamic features. In this paper, we propose two model...
Article
Full-text available
Users frequently express their information needs by means of short and general queries that are difficult for ranking algorithms to interpret correctly. However, users' social contexts can offer important additional information about their information needs which can be leveraged by ranking algorithms to provide augmented, persona