Jochen Kluve's research while affiliated with Humboldt State University and other places

Publications (108)

Article
Full-text available
Using administrative database containing work history and programme participation for the entire national workforce, the paper evaluates Slovenia’s four main active labour market programmes: institutional training, on-the-job training, wage subsidies and public works. The studied outcomes range from post-unemployment employment probability and job...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This Guide is intended for managing authorities (MA) and other bodies responsible for the implementation of ESF+-funded interventions and programmes and aims to aid the planning, design and commissioning of CIEs. It takes into consideration prior experience and provides practical advice on some of the key questions to be considered in developing a...
Article
Improving access to more modern forms of energy requires supply chains that reach further into rural areas. This paper studies a supply-side intervention intended to foster last-mile distribution of energy-access technologies through local small-scale entrepreneurship. We use a staggered-implementation evaluation design to assess the impact on empl...
Article
Full-text available
This paper quantifies labour market effects of changes in the potential benefit duration (PBD). The empirical approach uses a particular unemployment insurance setup from Poland that generates two sources of identifying variation: individual workers' PBD depends directly on the county unemployment rate relative to the national average-12 months of...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper quantifies labour market effects of changes in the potential benefit duration (PBD). The empirical approach uses a particular unemployment insurance setup from Poland that generates two sources of identifying variation: individual workers' PBD depends directly on the county unemployment rate relative to the national average-12 months of...
Article
Labor markets in low- and middle-income countries are characterized by high levels of informality. A multitude of interventions have been implemented to increase the formalization of firms and workers, including information campaigns, simplified registration procedures, reductions of payroll taxes, and interventions enforcing formalization. We comp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Labor markets in low-and middle-income countries are characterized by high levels of informality. A multitude of interventions have been implemented to increase the formalization of firms and workers, including information campaigns, simplified registration procedures, reductions of payroll taxes, and interventions enforcing formalization. We compi...
Article
Full-text available
Given the scale of the university reform induced by the Bologna Process, little is known about how the reform impacted those most immediately affected: the students. This paper uses unique micro data from Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany, to estimate treatment effects on student outcomes. Variation in treatment introduction over time and acr...
Article
Given the scale of the university reform induced by the Bologna Process, little is known about how the reform impacted those most immediately affected: the students. This paper uses unique micro data from Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany, to estimate treatment effects on student outcomes. Variation in treatment introduction over time and acr...
Article
Full-text available
Before 2006, large firms in Germany were obliged to pay for the generous maternity protection of female employees, such that firms’ expected costs depended on employees’ gender and age. From 2006 onward, all firms paid for maternity protection by contributing to the statutory health insurance system, where the contribution depends only on the numbe...
Article
Bringing young people into productive work is a key labor market challenge in both developing and developed economies, and a multitude of labor market interventions have been implemented to assist vulnerable youths. To assess whether these interventions have succeeded in improving young people’s labor market outcomes, this study systematically and...
Article
We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of impact evaluations of active labour market programmes (ALMPs) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We extract 296 impact estimates from 51 programme evaluations to analyse the effects of participation on employment, earnings, hours worked, and formality. Our analysis finds that the probabilit...
Article
Identifying the right human capital investments for disadvantaged youths is a key policy concern worldwide, yet almost no rigorous evidence on the long-run effects of these investments exists outside the United States. The authors present a large-scale randomized controlled trial of a youth training program, estimating effects six years after rando...
Article
Full-text available
This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of youth employment interventions on the labour market outcomes of young people and business performance. The review summarises findings from 113 reports of 107 interventions in 31 countries. Included studies had to: (1) evaluate an active labour market programme (ALMP) which was designed for ‐ or...
Article
We summarize the estimates from over 200 recent studies of active labor market programs. We classify the estimates by type of program and participant group, and distinguish between three different post-program time horizons. Using regression models for the estimated program effect (for studies that model the probability of employment) and for the s...
Article
The authors estimate policy impacts of a generous parental benefit in Germany by using a natural experiment and German census data. They estimate policy effects for the short run (first two years after childbirth) as well as for the medium run (that is, three to five years after childbirth). Although the results confirm the evidence from previous s...
Article
Using a randomized trial, we look at employment and earnings of a youth-training program in Brazil that uses arts- and theater-based pedagogic tools. The evidence we present shows youth benefit in the medium-term from economically large employment and earnings impacts. We find no systematic evidence of broad impacts on socio-emotional skills, altho...
Article
We present a meta-analysis of impact estimates from over 200 recent econometric evaluations of active labor market programs from around the world. We classify estimates by program type and participant group, and distinguish between three different post-program time horizons. Using meta-analytic models for the effect size of a given estimate (for st...
Article
Increasing mothers' labor supply is a key policy challenge in many OECD countries. Germany recently introduced a generous parental benefit that allows for strong consumption smoothing after childbirth and, by taking into account opportunity costs of childbearing, incentivizes working women to become mothers and return to the labor force rapidly. Us...
Article
This paper provides findings of a small-scale, innovative labor training program that uses expressive arts and theatre as a pedagogical tool. The corresponding life skills training component is combined with a technical component teaching vocational skills. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of a trai...
Article
We analyze the causal effect of training duration on employment outcomes of unemployed workers. Observed training durations might be endogenous. We use planned duration as an instrument for actual duration. LATE estimates indicate that an increase in duration has a positive impact for short programs and a negative impact for long programs.
Article
In 2007, Germany implemented a generous parental leave regulation in order to make parenthood more attractive and more compatible with a working career, especially for mothers. We evaluate the reform using a natural experiment that compares outcomes of parents with children born shortly after and before the coming into effect of the law, and find a...
Article
  The paper assesses the heterogeneity of treatment effects arising from variation in the duration of training. We use German administrative data that have the extraordinary feature that the amount of treatment varies continuously from 10 days to 395 days (i.e. 13 months). This feature allows us to estimate a continuous dose–response function that...
Article
Full-text available
While high rates of youth unemployment are a severe problem in most European countries, the program evaluation literature shows that disadvantaged youths constitute a group that is particularly difficult to assist effectively. As innovative measures are thus needed, we evaluate a German pilot program that targets low-skilled young unemployed and co...
Article
Full-text available
This paper assesses the importance of reverse causality when evaluating the impact of training duration for unemployed workers. We use planned duration as an instrumental variable for actual duration. Our results suggest that the potential endogeneity of exits seems to be only relevant in the lower and upper part of the treatment duration distribut...
Article
Full-text available
Rural electrification is believed to contribute to the achievement of the MDG. In this paper, we investigate electrification impacts on different indicators. We use household data that we collected in Rwanda in villages with and without electricity access. We account for self-selection and regional differences by using households from the electrifi...
Article
Mit den Leistungen zur Beschäftigungsförderung nach § 16e SGB II ("Beschäftigungszuschuss") wurde dem Maßnahmenkatalog des SGB II zum 01. Oktober 2007 ein zusätzliches Instrument für langzeitarbeitslose erwerbsfähige Leistungsberechtigte mit mehreren Vermittlungshemmnissen hinzugefügt. Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Arbeit und Soziales hat d...
Article
While high rates of youth unemployment are a severe problem in most European countries, the program evaluation literature shows that disadvantaged youths constitute a group that is particularly difficult to assist effectively. As innovative measures are thus needed, we evaluate a German pilot program that targets low-skilled young unemployed and co...
Article
Rural electrification is believed to contribute to the achievement of the MDG. In this paper, we investigate electrification impacts on different indicators. We use household data that we collected in Rwanda in villages with and without electricity access. We account for self-selection and regional differences by using households from the electrifi...
Article
Active Labor Market Programs are widely used in European countries, but despite many econometric evaluation studies analyzing particular programs no conclusive cross-country evidence exists regarding "what program works for what target group under what (economic and institutional) circumstances?". This paper aims at answering this question using a...
Article
Full-text available
Rural electrification is believed to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) via various channels. In this paper, we investigate the impacts of electrification on the household’s lighting usage, home studying, energy expenditures and income. We use household data that we collected in rural Rwanda in villages with an...
Article
This article presents a meta-analysis of recent microeconometric evaluations of active labour market policies. We categorise 199 programme impacts from 97 studies conducted between 1995 and 2007. Job search assistance programmes yield relatively favourable programme impacts, whereas public sector employment programmes are less effective. Training p...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the beginning of economic reform in the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), open unemployment rapidly reached levels comparable to those in Western economies. Governments in the region reacted to this rise by adopting active labour market policies (ALMP) as an important tool in the fight against unemployme...
Article
Over the last decades fertility rates have decreased in most developed countries, while female labour force participation has increased strongly over the same time period. To shed light on the relationship between women's fertility and employment decisions, we analyse their transitions to the first, second, and third child as well as their employme...
Article
Over the last decades many OECD countries introduced parental leave regulations in order to counteract low and decreasing birth rates. In general, these regulations aim at making parenthood more attractive and more compatible with a working career, especially for women. The recent German Elterngeld reform is one example: By replacing 67 per cent of...
Article
The aggregate average unemployment rate in a given country is essentially the result of individual workers' transitions between the three core labor force states, employment, unemployment, and inactivity. The dynamics of these transitions depend both on individual duration in a particular state and the transition probabilities between states. Indiv...
Article
Against the background of the current discussion of statutory minimum wages in Germany, this paper analyzes the potential employment and fiscal effects of such a policy. Based on estimated labor demand elasticities obtained from a structural labor demand model, the empirical results imply that minimum wages in Germany will be associated with signif...
Article
This paper assesses the dynamics of treatment effects arising from variation in the duration of training. We use German administrative data that have the extraordinary feature that the amount of treatment varies continuously from 10 days to 395 days (i.e. 13 months). This feature allows us to estimate a continuous dose-response function that relate...
Article
Deciding on the allocation of scarce societal resources to life-saving activities is a problem that a wide variety of regulations and government programs face. In particular, it is a problem arising in very similar ways for social and public policy across countries. A commonly used approach to empirically assess the life-saving benefits of regulati...
Article
This paper estimates treatment effects of two active labor market policies - a training program and a wage subsidy scheme - on participants' employment probabilities. The analysis is based on unique data from the 18th wave of the Polish Labor Force Survey containing detailed and extensive individual labor force status histories. We discuss two vari...
Article
Full-text available
In Deutschland wird bereits seit einiger Zeit eine lebhafte Debatte um die Einführung von Mindestlöhnen geführt. Kritiker des Mindestlohns verweisen insbesondere auf zu erwartende erhebliche Beschäftigungsverluste durch Einführung einer Lohnuntergrenze, Befürworter dagegen argumentieren mit erhöhter Kaufkraft der Arbeitnehmer bei gleichbleibender o...
Article
Full-text available
Ergänzend zu den Beiträgen im ifo Schnelldienst 6/2008 stellen Ronald Bachmann, Thomas K. Bauer, Jochen Kluve und Christoph M. Schmidt, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI) Essen, erste Ergebnisse einer Unternehmensbefragung zu den Auswirkungen des Postmindestlohns vor. Die Befragung zeigte, wie Mindestlohnregelungen bere...
Article
This paper assesses the dynamics of treatment effects arising from variation in the duration of training. We use German administrative data that have the extraordinary feature that the amount of treatment varies continuously from 10 days to 395 days (i.e. 13 months). This feature allows us to estimate a continuous dose-response function that relate...
Article
Numerous studies, in particular for the US, have shown that individuals in occupations with high injury risk are compensated for that risk by corresponding bonus payments. At the same time, male workers are overrepresented in the most dangerous occupations like scaffolders or miners, while females typically work in relatively safe occupations with...
Article
This paper investigates the method of matching regarding two crucial implementation choices, the distance measure and the type of algorithm. We implement optimal full matching – a fully efficient algorithm – and present a framework for statistical inference. The implementation uses data from the NLSY79 to study the effect of college education on ea...
Article
"Having faced high unemployment rates for more than a decade, the German government implemented a comprehensive set of labour market reforms during the period 2003-2005. This paper describes the economic and institutional context of the German labour market before and after these so-called Hartz reforms. Focussing on active policy measures, we deli...
Book
Measures of Active Labor Market Policy-such as training, wage subsidies, public employment measures, and job search assistance-are widely used in European countries to combat unemployment. Little, however, is known about what each country can learn from experiences in other countries. This study provides novel insight on this important policy issue...
Article
Die Debatte um eine Einführung von Mindestlöhnen wird zunehmend vehement geführt. Und obwohl die Auseinandersetzung inzwischen als Prüfstein für die Stabilität der Großen Koalition und als Vorbote des anstehenden Wahlkampfes interpretiert wird, so ist doch andererseits die inhaltliche Diskussion keineswegs zum Erliegen kommen. Dies mag auch daran l...
Article
Measures of Active Labor Market Policy are widely used in European countries, but despite many econometric evaluation studies no conclusive cross-country evidence exists regarding "what program works for what target group under what (economic and institutional) circumstances?". This paper results from an extensive research project for the European...
Article
The aggregate average unemployment rate in a given country is essentially the result of individual workers' transitions between the three core labour force states, employment, unemployment, and inactivity. The dynamics of these transitions depend both on individual duration in a particular state and the transition probabilities between states. Indi...
Article
The recent reform of jobs with reduced social security contributions (the so-called Minijobs) was associated with the expectation that such jobs could serve as a bridge into regular employment for unemployed workers. However, recent experiences with the reform cast substantial doubts on the potential of Minijobs in this regard. Hence, this article...
Article
Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Effekte der im Rahmen der Hartz-Reformen vorgenommenen Neuregelungen der Arbeitnehmerüberlassung und der geringfügigen Beschäftigung. Der Fokus liegt hierbei jeweils auf den Wirkungen auf die gesamtwirtschaftliche Anzahl und Struktur der Beschäftigung in Zeitarbeit, Minijobs und Midijobs. Für alle drei Beschäftigungsfo...
Article
Dieser Beitrag untersucht die kausale Wirkung des regional unterschiedlichen Einsat- zes arbeitsmarktpolitischer Instrumente mit Hilfe von Daten für 176 Agenturbezirke für den Zeitraum 2000Ð2004. Dies umfasst auch eine Analyse der Veränderungen, die durch die Hartz-Reformen hinsichtlich der Effektivität des Instrumenteneinsatzes ausgelöst wurden. A...
Article
"This paper investigates the causal effect of regional variation in active labor market policy utilizing data for 176 German employment offices and a period covering 2000-2004. In this endeavor, we also analyze the impact of the recent labor market reforms ('Hartz reforms'). We use flow measures of the labor market as outcomes in a fixed-effects pa...
Article
Determining the optimal age at which a child should enter school is a controversial topic in education policy. In particular, German policy makers, pedagogues, parents, and teachers have since long discussed whether the traditional, established age of school entry at 6 years remains appropriate. Policies of encouraging early school entry or increas...
Article
Full-text available
Das Ruhrgebiet hat in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten einen bemerkenswerten Strukturwandel durchlaufen. Stellenweise sind durchaus beachtliche Ansätze zu seiner wirtschaftlichen Revitalisierung erkennbar, es präsentiert sich heute wirtschaftlich vielfältiger als je zuvor. Nichtsdestoweniger sind auch weiterhin massive ungelöste Probleme nicht zu überse...
Article
Over the last year the German government has introduced a comprehensive set of labor market policy reforms, the so-called Hartz reforms, which aim at a significant reduction of unemployment. To this end, (a) many of the existing instruments of active labor market policy are modified considerably, (b) a set of new instruments is introduced, and (c)...
Article
Causal inference in the empiricalsciences is based on counterfactuals. The mostcommon approach utilizes a statistical model ofpotential outcomes to estimate causal effectsof treatments. On the other hand, one leadingapproach to the study of causation inphilosophical logic has been the analysis ofcausation in terms of counterfactualconditionals. Thi...
Article
This paper estimates treatment effects of two active labor market policies – a training program,and a wage ,subsidy scheme ,– on ,employment probabilities. The analysis is based ,on unique data from ,the 18, wave ,of the ,Polish Labor Force Survey that contains detailed and extensive individual labor force status histories. We discuss ,three stages...
Article
Matching estimators have received substantial attention in the recent literature on causal inference in observational studies. While causal inference has traditionally focused on the case of binary treatment, recent results regarding the generalized propensity score have made possible explicit extensions to cases where treatment is multivalued. Thi...
Article
Active policy evaluation Problems, methods and results European countries with poorly performing labour markets and labour market institutions conducive to high unemployment also feature considerable expenditures on active labour market policy, and such policies are emphasized by the European Union's employment strategy. However, the practice of th...
Article
This paper estimates causal effects of two Polish active labor market policies - Training and Intervention Works - on employment probabilities. Using data from the 18th wave of the Polish Labor Force Survey we discuss three stages of an appropriately designed matching procedure and demonstrate how the method succeeds in balancing relevant covariate...
Article
Over the last two decades most European countries have been subject to a strong and persistent increase in their unemployment rates, leading these countries to attempt to combat obdurately high unemployment by exercising measures of Active Labor Market Policy (ALMP). These measures can be classified into three types of labor market programs: (i) tr...
Article
This paper uses a natural experiment approach to identify the effects of an exogenouschange in future pension benefits on workers’ training participation. We use uniquematched survey and administrative data for male employees in the Dutch public sectorwho were born in 1949 or 1950. Only the latter were subject to a major pension reformthat diminish...
Chapter
In Deutschland werden derzeit für die aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik beträchtliche Ressourcen verwendet. So wurden im Jahre 1998 mehr als 30 Mrd. DM aufgebracht, was beinahe dem gesamten Aufkommen aus der Körperschaftssteuer dieses Jahres entspricht. Gleichzeitig besteht kein ausreichendes Wissen über die Effektivität (Wirksamkeit) und die (Kosten-) Ef...
Chapter
Im Jahr nach der Verleihung des Nobelpreises für Wirtschaftswissenschaften für die methodischen Fortschritte bei der Evaluation von Arbeitsmarktpolitik hat die Diskussion über die adäquaten Konsequenzen in Deutschland erst begonnen. Das große Spannungsverhältnis zwischen den erheblichen Aufwendungen für aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik in der Größenordnu...
Chapter
Programme aktiver Arbeitsmarktpolitik zur Bekämpfung von Arbeitslosigkeit sind ein eher junges Phänomen in Europa — nach Jahrzehnten wirtschaftlicher Prosperität begann sich hohe Arbeitslosigkeit erst in den achtziger und neunziger Jahren des letzten Jahrhunderts zu einem alle europäischen Staaten nahezu ausnahmslos umfassenden Problem zu entwickel...

Citations

... Additional childcare hours are either purchased by working parents, shared between parents or supported by grandparents. A key difference in childcare use is between mothers who return to work full time after parental leave who mostly use public childcare, and the majority who return part-time, who are more often supported by grandparents or other informal forms of childcare (Kluve and Tamm, 2009). This has implications for the risk of poverty and underemployment of low-income mothers, and of their children -educational outcomes are poorest for those children who do not attend formal day care prior to school (Esping-Andersen, 2009). ...
... Formalisation policies address the informal sector more than informal employment, although formalisation targeting the latter proves more effective than targeting the former (Jessen & Kluve 2019). Enacting laws does not ensure alone the transition of workers from informal to formal jobs; beyond design and implementation, monitoring and assessment are crucial steps in the policy cycle (ILO, 2017a). ...
... They find that after ten years, the impact on earnings and probability to work in the formal sector remained positive and significant. Another evaluation study by Ibarrarán et al. (2015) claims that despite the disappointing impact on labour earnings and quantity of employment, the training programme in the Dominican Republic increases the quality of employment, measured as the probability of being a formal employee, in the long run. Although evaluation studies from LAC provide insight into training impacts in the context of developing countries, most of the LAC programmes target the youth only. ...
... Op grond van deze uitkomsten concluderen we dat men het beleid voor Rotterdam-Zuid terecht sterk heeft gericht op intensivering van loopbaanoriëntatie en -begeleiding (LOB). Deze intensivering, middels het met Europese steun uitgevoerde BRIDGE-project, heeft echter vooralsnog geen zichtbaar stimulerend effect gehad op de keuze voor genoemde richtingen met een goed arbeidsmarktperspectief (Beurs, Verbeek, Duysak, Witvliet, & Kuijpers, 2019;De Koning, Gelderblom, De Hek, Van der Toorn, & De Vleeschouwer, 2020;Gelderblom, De Hek, De Koning, Van de Toorn, & De Vleeschouwer, 2019). Buitenlands onderzoek geeft echter aan dat LOB hierin wel degelijk effectief kan zijn. ...