Joachim R. Frick's research while affiliated with German Institute for Economic Research and other places

Publications (151)

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The EU-wide survey “Statistics on Income and Living Conditions” (EU-SILC) is extremely important for international social science research and policy advice. It is therefore crucial to ensure that the data are of the highest quality and international comparability. This paper is aimed at identifying unexpected developments in income levels, income...
Chapter
Pension entitlements—whether statutory, occupational, or private—represent a considerable source of wealth. But despite the importance of this wealth component in obtaining unbiased wealth estimates, it has not been adequately investigated in research on wealth distributions. This chapter aims to show the relevance and magnitude of public pension w...
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Using population representative survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and administrative pension records from the Statutory Pension Insurance, the authors compare four statistical matching techniques to complement survey information on net worth with social security wealth (SSW) information from the administrative records. The uni...
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This chapter aims to give a comprehensive view of the joint impact of two components of investment income, namely (monetary) capital income (CI) and (nonmonetary) imputed rent (IR). It uses more than twenty waves of consistently measured income data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. After describing the microdata used and the methods applied to...
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We explore the determinants of individual wellbeing as measured by self‐reported levels of satisfaction with income and life. Making use of the German Socio‐Economic Panel, we provide empirical evidence for wellbeing depending on absolute and relative income levels in a dynamic framework where status and signal effects play a role. This finding hol...
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Using representative microdata from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), we show that the welfare measure choice has a substantial impact on the degree of welfare-related health inequality. To assess the sensitivity of welfare-related health inequality measures, we combine a unique set of income and wealth measures with different subjectiv...
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In trying to capture complete within-household heterogeneity, household panel surveys typically try to interview all adult household members. Following from this, such surveys tend to suffer from partial unit nonresponse (PUNR), that is, the nonresponse of at least one member of an otherwise participating household, most likely yielding an underest...
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In Deutschland werden die Geburtskohorten der 1956 bis 1965 Geborenen als Babyboomer bezeichnet. Diese Gruppe kennzeichnet sich nicht nur durch eine überdurchschnittliche Kohortenstärke aus, sondern diese waren Profiteure des Ausbaus des Wohlfahrtsstaates und deren Kindheit und Jugend: waren durch einen Zeitraum wirtschaftlicher Prosperität und pol...
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Social security entitlements are a substantial source of wealth that grows in importance over the individual’s lifecycle. Despite its quantitative relevance, social security wealth has been thus far omitted from wealth inequality analyses. In Germany, it is the lack of adequate micro data that accounts for this shortcoming. The two main contributio...
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Economic research on the determinants of gender differences in economic outcomes particularly in income and consumption is well established. Extending these investigations to other outcomes such as wealth up till now has been limited due to lack of individual-level data. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) we find a significant 'raw' gende...
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Most empirical distributional studies of well-being in developed countries rely on distributions of disposable income. From a theoretical point of view this practice is contentious since a household’s command over resources is determined not only by its spending power over commodities it can buy in the market but also on resources available to the...
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In recent years, the social policy discussion in Germany—but elsewhere as well—has been heavily dominated by the issue of income inequality and rising poverty risk rates. Yet very little research has been done on the personal wealth distribution to date, not least of all due to the severe lack of appropriate data. Using representative micro-data fr...
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Based on recommendations from the “Commission to Improve the Informational Infrastructure (KVI)”, the Council for Social and Economic Data (RatSWD) has issued guidelines for Germany’s new Research Data Centers (RDCs, Forschungsdatenzentren). The RatSWD has been tasked by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research with “improving data use and d...
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Using data on annual individual labor income from three representative panel datasets (German SOEP, British BHPS, Australian HILDA) we investigate a) the selectivity of item non-response (INR) and b) the impact of imputation as a prominent post-survey means to cope with this type of measurement error on prototypical analyses (earnings inequality, m...
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The EU is currently drawing up its agenda EU2020 for the next decade. In doing so, account must be taken of the successes and limitations of the Lisbon Agenda 2000-2009, notably the failure to achieve a decisive impact on the eradication of poverty and social exclusion. From the experience of the Lisbon Agenda, we learn that social policy and econo...
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This paper concentrates on the trends in peer-reviewed longitudinal panel studies under scientific direction. Household panel studies have succeeded in broadening their disciplinary scope. Numerous innovations such as questions dealing with psychological concepts, and age-specific topical modules, physical health measures, measures of cognitive cap...
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Die EU-Kommission hat 2010 zum Europäischen Jahr gegen Armut und soziale Ausgrenzung ausgerufen. Ein Ziel dieser Aktion ist es, das öffentliche Bewusstsein für die Risiken von Armut und sozialer Ausgrenzung zu stärken und deren Ursachen und Auswirkungen besser zu verstehen. Neue Analysen zur Einkommensverteilung in Deutschland auf Basis der Daten d...
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Die 1990 eingeführte Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion der BRD mit der DDR und schließlich die deutsche Wiedervereinigung war und ist für jede Statistik, die versucht die Lebensverhältnisse in Ost und West zu vergleichen, eine große Herausforderung. In seinem einleitenden Teil dokumentiert dieser Aufsatz die unmittelbar nach der Wiedervereinigung und...
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Entitlements from old-age pension schemes - statutory, company, and private - represent a considerable source of wealth. For data-related reasons, analyses of the personal wealth distribution have so far failed to take this into account, however. According to recent calculations based on the 2007 data of the German Socio- Economic Panel (SOEP), the...
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In this paper we review the available summary measures for the magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in health. Measures which have been used differ in a number of important respects, including (1) the measurement of "relative" or "absolute" differences; (2) the measurement of an "effect" of lower socio-economic status, or of the "total impact"...
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Anwartschaften an Alterssicherungssysteme - gesetzliche, tarifliche und private - stellen erhebliche Vermögensbestände dar. Analysen zur personellen Vermögensverteilung haben dies bislang aus Datengründen allerdings nicht vollständig berücksichtigt. Nach neuen Berechnungen auf Basis der 2007 erhobenen Vermögensdaten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (...
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Anwartschaften an Alterssicherungssysteme - gesetzliche, tarifliche und private - stellen erhebliche Vermögensbestände dar. Analysen zur personellen Vermögensverteilung haben dies bislang aus Datengründen allerdings nicht vollständig berücksichtigt. Nach neuen Berechnungen auf Basis der 2007 erhobenen Vermögensdaten des Sozio- oekonomischen Panels...
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Empirical analyses of economic inequality, poverty, and mobility in Germany are, to an increasing extent, using microdata from the German Federal Statistical Office’s contribution to the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) as well as data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). In addition to their significance...
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Using representative and consistent microdata from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) from 1985-2007, we illustrate that capital income (CI = return on financial investments) and imputed rent (IR = return on investments in owner-occupied housing) have become increasingly important sources of economic inequality in Germany over the last tw...
Article
For a long time, the social policy discussion in Germany has been heavily dominated by income inequality and poverty risk rates, while at the same time the analysis of personal wealth distribution was underdeveloped, last but not least due to a severe lack of appropriate data. Using representative micro data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Stu...
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Accepted international assessments of living standards in retirement rely on comparing social pension incomes. These assessments conclude that European countries with contributory pension schemes provide retirees with higher living standards than liberal Anglo-American regimes in which many citizens rely on flat rate old age pensions. Comparisons b...
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The relationship between an individual’s economic well-being and satisfaction with own life has been the focus of many studies both within and across countries, in one period of time and over time. As a proxy of economic well-being household income both adjusted and unadjusted for household needs has been generally used. The aim of the present pape...
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Using representative income and time use-data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we estimate non-monetary income advantages arising from home production and analyse their impact on economic inequality. As an alternative to existing measures, we propose a predicted wage approach based on a bias-adjusted measure of hours spent on home produ...
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After 25 years as a multidisciplinary household panel containing information on all individuals residing in panel households and thus covering all age cohorts, the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) has become a true cohort study as well. The increasing success of the SOEP research infrastructure comes above all from the increasing analytical power...
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Im Fokus dieses Beitrags steht die empirische Untersuchung der Wohnsituation privater Haushalte in West- und Ostdeutschland seit dem Fall der Mauer 1989. Auf Basis der bev�lkerungsrepr�sentativen und zeitlich konsistent gemessenen Mikrodaten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) l�sst sich belegen, dass die aus der DDR-Wohnungswirtschaft resultiere...
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Das individuelle Nettovermögen in Deutschland betrug zum Jahresbeginn 2007 im Durchschnitt rund 88 000 Euro und ist damit gegenüber 2002 um rund zehn Prozent gestiegen. Maßgeblich für diese Entwicklung war die Zunahme des Geldvermögens sowie der Vermögen aus privaten Versicherungen. Im Zusammenhang mit der insgesamt sehr ungleichen Verteilung des V...
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Analysen zu Einkommensungleichheit, Armut und Mobilit�t in Deutschland basieren �berwiegend auf den Mikrodaten der amtlichen deutschen Stichprobe der European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) und des wissenschaftsgetragenen Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP). Dabei kommt den EU-SILC-Daten neben ihrer Relevanz f�r die nation...
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Die zuverlässige Erhebung von hohen Einkommen und des Vermögens gilt im Rahmen von Surveys als schwierig (Wagner und Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik 2003). Dabei werden neben der oft monierten zu geringen Stichprobengröße insbesondere Probleme bei der Erfassung der Ränder der Verteilungen, also von sehr niedrigen und sehr hohen Einkommen bzw. Vermögen, betont (W...
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The aim of this paper is to estimate non-monetary income advantages arising from publicly provided education and to analyze their impact on the income distribution and on economic inequality in Germany. Using representative micro-data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and taking into consideration regional and education-specific variation...
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Unter Berücksichtigung neuer Informationen zu regionalen Preisniveaus in Deutschland fallen die realen Einkommensunterschiede zwischen West- und Ostdeutschland geringer aus als bisher berechnet. Nach Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panel (SOEP) und den vom Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung zur Verfügung gestellten Preisinformationen waren die re...
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Welfare-oriented analyses of economic outcome measures such as income and wealth generally rest on the assumption of pooled and equally shared resources among all household members. Yet the lack of individual-level data hampers the distribution of income and wealth within the household context. Based on unique individual-level wealth data from the...
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Dieser Aufsatz ist der Frage der Weiterentwicklung des SOEP insgesamt gewidmet. Daher nehmen wir in einem ersten Teil eine Bestandsaufnahme der Entscheidungsstrukturen zum Erhebungsprogramm ("Governance") vor. Im zweiten Abschnitt beschäftigen wir uns mit den Inhalten der SOEP-Erhebung - also dem SOEPsurvey. Danach gehen wir auf die Weiterentwicklu...
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Im Januar des Jahres 2008 begann die Feldarbeit der 25. Welle des SOEP. Im Jahr 2009 werden damit etwa 2 500 anonymisierte Datensätze von Personen zur Auswertung zur Verfügung stehen, die seit 1984 ununterbrochen an 25 Befragungen in den westdeutschen SOEP-Teilstichproben A und B teilgenommen haben. Im Jahr 2009 wird außerdem bereits die 20. Welle...
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Fünfundzwanzig Wellen SOEP - das ist ein Vierteljahrhundert an Erfahrungen mit einer Längsschnitterhebung, mit der Aufbereitung sowie der Analyse von sozial-, wirtschafts- und verhaltenswissenschaftlichen Haushalts-Paneldaten. Dieses Heft nimmt die 25. Erhebungswelle des SOEP im Jahr 2008 zum Anlass, um nicht nur eine aktualisierte methodische Gesa...
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Die Schicht der Bezieher mittlerer Einkommen ist in Deutschland in den vergangenen Jahren deutlich geschrumpft. Ihr Anteil an der gesamten Bevölkerung ging von 62 Prozent im Jahr 2000 auf 54 Prozent 2006 zurück. Entsprechend gestiegen ist der Bevölkerungsanteil an den Rändern der Einkommensverteilung, wobei in der Mittelschicht die Abwärtsmobilität...
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In den vergangenen 30 Jahren haben mehrere Industrienationen zunehmend in Entwicklung, Aufbau und Durchführung von sozialwissenschaftlichen Haushalts- und Personenbefragungen investiert, wobei Längsschnitt- und Panelstudien eine besondere Rolle zukommt. In vielen Fällen von der Wissenschaft vorangetrieben, unterstützen diese Studien die Erfassung,...
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Nach einer mehrjährigen Phase kontinuierlich steigender Einkommensungleichheit und Einkommensarmut ist es im Zuge des konjunkturellen Aufschwungs der letzten Jahre zu einer Umkehr der Entwicklung gekommen. Nach den 2007 erhobenen Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) zum Einkommen der Haushalte im Jahr 2006 ging die "Armutsrisikoquote" von 18...
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The proportion of middle income earners in Germany has shrunk significantly in recent years: from 62 percent of the total population in the year 2000 to only 54 percent in 2006. Correspondingly, the proportion of the population at the margins of the income distribution has increased as well, while the downward mobility among the middle class was mo...
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Individual net wealth in Germany totaled an average of around 88,000 Euros at the beginning of 2007 which was about 10 percent higher than in 2002. Decisive for this development was an increase in monetary wealth as well as wealth from private insurance. In connection with the overall quite unequal division of wealth, the median i.e., the value whi...
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Using data on annual individual labor income from three representative panel datasets (German SOEP, British BHPS, Australian HILDA) we investigate a) the selectivity of item non-response (INR) and b) the impact of imputation as a prominent post-survey means to cope with this type of measurement error on prototypical analyses (earnings inequality, m...
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This paper presents preparatory steps that we carried out in order to prepare two longitudinal micro datasets for a statistical matching procedure, namely the Scientific Use File "Completed Insurance Biographies 2004" (SUF Vollendete Versichertenleben 2004 - SUF VVL2004) provided by the Research Data Centre of the Federal German Pension Insurance,...
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The aim of this paper is to estimate income advantages arising from publicly provided education and to analyse their impact on the income distribution in Germany. Using representative micro-data from the SOEP and considering regional and education-specific variation, from a cross-sectional perspective the overall result is the expected levelling ef...
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This paper explores the determinants of individual well-being as measured by self-reported levels of satisfaction with income. Making full use of the panel data nature of the German Socio-Economic Panel, we provide empirical evidence for well-being depending on absolute and on relative levels of income in a dynamic framework. This finding holds aft...
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The definition and operationalization of wealth information in population surveys and the corresponding microdata requires a wide range of more or less normative assumptions. However, the decisions made in both the pre- and post-data-collection stage may interfere considerably with the substantive research question. Looking at wealth data from the...
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Using representative micro data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) for the year 2002, we analyse non-take-up behaviour of Social Assistance (SA) in Germany. According to our simulation as much as 67 percent of the eligible population did not claim SA in that year which is slightly higher than reported in previous work. We particularl...
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There is general agreement about the importance of integrating non-monetary income components into cash-based income measures in order to improve the comparability of distribution results across time and space. Based on micro-data from the first round of EU-SILC (EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) collected in 12 EU countries in 2004 an...
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After the introduction in Section 2, we very briefly sketch out current theoretical and empirical developments in the social sciences. In our view, they all point in the same direction: toward the acute and increasing need for multidisciplinary longitudinal data covering a wide range of living conditions and based on a multitude of variables from t...
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Over the past thirty years industrialized nations have increasingly invested resources to develop and maintain general purpose social science surveys of households and individuals. This investment, in many cases driven by the scientific communities, has allowed academic and government researchers to document and track how socio-economic characteris...
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This paper explores the relationship between two well-established concepts of measuring individual well-being: the concept of happiness, i.e. self-reported level of satisfaction with income, and relative deprivation, i.e. the gaps between the individual’s income and the incomes of all individuals richer than him. Operationalizing both concepts usin...
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Das private Vermögen in Deutschland ist vor dem Hintergrund der Erbschaftsteuerreform und der zunehmenden Privatisierung der sozialen Vorsorge verstärkt in den Blickpunkt der wirtschafts- und sozialpolitischen Diskussion gerückt. Mit den Ergebnissen der Vermögenserhebung im Rahmen des sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) steht nun erstmals eine Datenb...
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The migration policies of the European Union (EU) and the other Member States of the European Economic Area (EEA) are characterized by a two-fold approach. On the one hand, the free movement of labor has been defined since the Treaty of Rome (which established the EU in the 1950s) as one of the fundamental freedoms of the Common Market and has been...
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A wildly discussed shortcoming of panel surveys is a potential bias arising from selective attrition. Based on data of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), the authors analyze potential artifacts (level, structure, income inequality) by comparing results for two independently drawn panel subsamples started in 1984 and 2000. They apply ANOG...
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Sport trägt zu einer besseren gesundheitlichen Konstitution bei. Sportliche Betätigung weiter Kreise der Bevölkerung könnte demnach über den individuellen Nutzen hinaus positive gesundheitsökonomische und gesamtwirtschaftliche Effekte nach sich ziehen. Im Mittelpunkt dieses Berichtes steht die Analyse des Sportverhaltens von 17-jährigen Jugendliche...
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This paper delivers new insights into the development of income inequality and regional stratification in Germany after unification using a new method for detecting social stratification by a decomposition of the GINI index which yields the obligatory between- and within-group components as well as an overlapping index for the different sup-populat...
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The increases in human longevity in recent decades and the trends for early retirement have posed new challenges for policy makers, and require a holistic understanding of the processes that influence the economic resources of older people. This paper contributes to this knowledge by examining the income mobility experienced by older people living...
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Drawing on panel data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), we compare the economic performance of immigrants to Great Britain, West Germany, Denmark, Luxembourg, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Austria to that of the respective indigenous population...
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Seit dem Jahr 2000 ist in Deutschland ein neuerlicher Anstieg sowohl der Ungleichheit der Einkommen als auch der relativen Einkommensarmut zu beobachten. Dies geht übereinstimmend aus Berichten hervor, die in jüngster Zeit auf Grundlage unterschiedlicher Einkommenskonzepte und Datenquellen veröffentlicht wurden. Viele der Einzelergebnisse basieren...
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This paper deals with item nonresponse on income questions in panel surveys and with longitudinal and cross–sectional imputation strategies to cope with this phenomenon. Using data from the German SOEP, we compare income inequality and mobility indicators based only on truly observed information to those derived from observed and imputed observatio...
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In Ostdeutschland gab es 2004 - anders als in Westdeutschland - eine weitere, wenngleich geringe Zunahme von Einkommensungleichheit und Armut gegenüber den Vorjahren. Diese Entwicklung steht in engem Zusammenhang mit der in Ostdeutschland weiter stark gestiegenen Arbeitslosigkeit, was sich besonders in der zunehmenden Ungleichheit der Markteinkomme...
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We examine the physical and mental health effects of providing care to an elderly mother on the adult child caregiver. We address the endogeneity of the selection in and out of caregiving using an instrumental variable approach, and carefully control for baseline health and work status of the adult child using fixed effects and Arellano-Bond estima...
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A particular shortcoming of panel surveys is potential bias arising from selective attrition. Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) we analyze potential artifacts (level, structure, inequality of income) by comparing results from two independently drawn panel sub-samples, started in 1984 and 2000, respectively. Both sub-sa...
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Based on data from the BHPS and the SOEP, we analyse the economic performance of various ethnic groups in the UK and West Germany, as well as the effects of income redistribution on these populations. Taking the indigenous population of each country as the reference category, we find that, as a whole, the non-indigenous population in the UK fares m...
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This article deals with income advantages derived from owner-occupied housing and their impact on the personal income distribution. Using micro-data from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS), the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), and the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) we find distinct cross-national differences in terms of the pre...
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Description and analysis of the personal income distribution in Germany rely heavily on two major surveys, the EVS (Income and Consumption Survey) and the SOEP (Socio-Economic Panel Study). These surveys, however, do not deliver exactly the same results in terms of income levels and structure, as well as on inequality and poverty. Some of the discr...
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In der derzeitigen Debatte zur Finanzierung der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung (GRV) werden verschiedene Wege zu einer ausgewogenen Beteiligung sowohl der Beitragszahler als auch der Rentenbezieher diskutiert. Neben einer Aussetzung bzw. Reduktion der Rentenanpassung und einer Anhebung der Regelaltersgrenze besteht auch die Möglichkeit, die Vorsch...
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This paper deals with the question of selectivity of missing data on income questions in large panel surveys due to item-non-response and with imputation as one alternative strategy to cope with this issue. In contrast to cross-section surveys, the imputation of missing values in panel data can profit from longitudinal information which is availabl...
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Für die Form und den Umfang der Betreuung hat bei den Vorschulkindern der sozioökonomische Hintergrund eine größere Bedeutung als bei Schulkindern. So nimmt in Westdeutschland die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Besuchs einer Kindertageseinrichtung mit steigendem Einkommen der Eltern zu. In Ostdeutschland trifft dieser Einkommenszusammenhang auf die Inanspr...
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This article deals with income advantages derived from owner occupied housing (Imputed Rent, IR) and their impact on the personal income distribution. Following a brief description of different methods with which to calculate IR in household surveys, we conduct a cross-national comparative study based on micro-data from the British Household Panel...
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Are immigrants on welfare because they are more likely to be eligible or because they are more likely to claim benefits for which they are eligible? The answer is politically important, but because most current research on immigration and welfare is based on data from the United States, the answer is difficult due to the complexities of the transfe...
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Zusammenfassung Die vorliegende Untersuchung befaßt sich mit alternativen Verfahren zur Berücksichtigung von Einkommensvorteilen aus selbstgenutztem Wohneigentum („Imputed Rent“) und deren Einfluß auf individuelle Einkommen sowie die personelle Einkommensverteilung in Deutschland. Nach einer theoretischen Darstellung der Verfahren und ihrer jeweili...