Jimi Kirvesoja's research while affiliated with University of Jyväskylä and other places

Publications (5)

Article
Full-text available
The persistence of intrapopulation phenotypic variation typically requires some form of balancing selection since drift and directional selection eventually erode genetic variation. Heterozygote advantage remains a classic explanation for the maintenance of genetic variation in the face of selection. However, examples of heterozygote advantage, oth...
Preprint
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Colour is often used as an aposematic warning signal, with predator learning expected to lead to a single colour pattern within a population. However, there are many puzzling cases where aposematic signals are also polymorphic. The wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis , uses bright hindwing colours as a signal of unpalatability, and males have discr...
Article
Full-text available
The definition of colour polymorphism is intuitive: genetic variants express discretely coloured phenotypes. This classification is, however, elusive as humans form subjective categories or ignore differences that cannot be seen by human eyes. We demonstrate an example of a 'cryptic morph' in a polymorphic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis), a ph...
Article
Full-text available
Aposematic organisms warn predators of their unprofitability using a combination of defenses, including visual warning signals, startling sounds, noxious odors, or aversive tastes. Using multiple lines of defense can help prey avoid predators by stimulating multiple senses and/or by acting at different stages of predation. We tested the efficacy of...
Article
Full-text available
Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic systems are enigmatic because predator learning should favor the most common form, creating positive frequency-dependent survival. However, many populations exhibit variation in warning signals. There are various selective mechanisms that can counter positive frequency-dependent selection and lead to tempor...

Citations

... The wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) represents a compelling study species to investigate how different selective pressures can act on a single color locus and maintain within-population trait variation. In this system, male hindwing coloration is determined by a simple genetic basis (Suomalainen 1938;Nokelainen et al., 2022b;Brien et al., 2022): a one locustwo allele polymorphism (dominant W allele and recessive y allele), which translates into white (genotype: WW, Wy) and yellow (genotype: yy) males. Because this is an aposematic moth species, the color trait is not only used for intraspecific communication (i.e., sexual selection) but also to advertise their unpalatability to predators (i.e., interspecific communication). ...
... The wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) represents a compelling study species to investigate how different selective pressures can act on a single color locus and maintain within-population trait variation. In this system, male hindwing coloration is determined by a simple genetic basis (Suomalainen 1938;Nokelainen et al., 2022b;Brien et al., 2022): a one locustwo allele polymorphism (dominant W allele and recessive y allele), which translates into white (genotype: WW, Wy) and yellow (genotype: yy) males. Because this is an aposematic moth species, the color trait is not only used for intraspecific communication (i.e., sexual selection) but also to advertise their unpalatability to predators (i.e., interspecific communication). ...
... Previous studies have indeed shown that multiple selective pressures act on the male coloration. The two male morphs are differently protected against predators (Nokelainen et al., 2014;Rojas et al., 2017;Winters et al., 2021), with yellow males generally having higher survival (Nokelainen et al., 2012; Rojas et al., 2017). In addition, male morph mating advantage is dependent on the morph frequency and males that origin from "mixed-morph lines" have higher mating success compared to the moths that originated from more monomorphic lines (Gordon et al., 2018), which suggests that heterozygote advantage may also contribute to the color polymorphism in this species. ...
... Ecologists and evolutionary biologists need a diversity of study systems to achieve our goal of conceptual unification, and we must be thoughtful and creative about how we use and develop those systems. This Special Feature highlights a variety of ways in which model systems are currently being used to address timely and important questions in ecology and evolutionary biology (García-Robledo and Baer 2021; Gordon et al. 2021;Grant et al. 2021;Wale and Duffy 2021). In this introduction, we first seek to define what we mean by the term "model system" (a surprisingly challenging task). ...