Jim McCambridge's research while affiliated with CUNY Graduate Center and other places

Publications (338)

Article
Objective: This study examines how the alcohol industry responded to developments in Irish alcohol policy leading to the 2018 Public Health (Alcohol) Act, a set of measures designed to reduce overall alcohol consumption in order to reduce harm to health and society. Previous research has emphasized the political and economic strengths of the alcoh...
Article
Background: Supply of alcohol to adolescents is associated with increased alcohol consumption and harms including alcohol use disorder (AUD). We aimed to identify: (1) trajectories of alcohol supply to adolescents; (2) sociodemographic characteristics associated with supply trajectory; (3) patterns of alcohol consumption by supply trajectory; and...
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Background The Miller Brewing Company (MBC) was wholly owned by Phillip Morris (PM), between 1970 and 2002. Tobacco industry document studies identify alliances between the alcohol and tobacco industries to counter U.S. policies in the 1980s and 1990s. This investigation sought to study in-depth inter-relationships between MBC and PM, with a partic...
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Background The ubiquity of Internet connectivity, and widespread unmet needs, requires investigations of digital interventions for people seeking help with their drinking. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a digital alcohol intervention compared to existing online resources for help seekers. Methods This parallel randomi...
Preprint
Background Person-centred care is integral to high-quality health service provision, though concepts vary and the literature is complex. Validated instruments that measure person-centred practitioner skills, and behaviours within consultations, are needed for many reasons, including in training programmes. We aimed to provide a high-level synthesis...
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Background The UCSF Industry Documents Library has provided public health researchers with key insights into the organization of political activities in the tobacco industry. Much less is known about the alcohol industry. In the US, there is some existing evidence of cooperation between the two industries, particularly in areas where there are mutu...
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Introduction This study explored whether treatment-specific processes linking therapist behaviors, post-session client ratings, and 3-month proximal outcomes (i.e., end of treatment) can explain 12-month outcomes for two contrasting alcohol treatment conditions with equivalent overall outcomes. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the UK...
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Background: NHS England has introduced a new structured medication review (SMR) service within primary care networks (PCNs) forming during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy drivers are addressing problematic polypharmacy, reducing avoidable hospitalisations, and delivering better value from medicines spending. This study explores early implementation...
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Objectives To design and test the psychometric properties of four context-specific norm-related scales around handwashing with soap after toilet use: (1) perceived handwashing descriptive norms (HWDN); (2) perceived handwashing injunctive norms (HWIN); (3) perceived handwashing behaviour publicness (HWP); and (4) perceived handwashing outcome expec...
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Introduction: Debates in the peer-reviewed literature on alcohol industry involvement in science have been polarized, with the activities of the International Center on Alcohol Policies and industry provision of research funding being particularly contentious. We aimed to explore researchers' views on the nature of the debates and the issues raise...
Article
Background Different forms of alcohol-related harm (e.g., hangovers, fighting) may confer differential risk of clinically relevant alcohol problems. We examine: (i) patterns of transition in experiencing alcohol-related harms across adolescence; (ii) whether factors in early adolescence predict transition patterns; and (iii) whether transition patt...
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Background Diarrhoeal diseases are an important cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to evaluate the effect of three handwashing interventions on handwashing with soap (HWWS) after toilet use. Methods In this cluster randomised trial in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, we randomly assigned communal housing com...
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Background Alcohol is challenging to discuss, and patients may be reluctant to disclose drinking partly because of concern about being judged. This report presents an overview of the development of a medications review intervention co-produced with the pharmacy profession and with patients, which breaks new ground by seeking to give appropriate att...
Article
Objective: This article describes the origins and purposes of alcohol industry "social aspects organizations" as portrayed in internal tobacco industry documents. Method: We systematically searched the Truth Tobacco Documents Library for information regarding alcohol industry social aspects organizations. Using content provided by industry actor...
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Background Alcohol's effects on heart health is the site of a major scientific controversy. We conducted a co-authorship network analysis of systematic reviews on the impacts on alcohol on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in order to investigate patterns of co-authorship in the literature, with particular attention given to industry funding. Methods W...
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Objective: There is little formal study of alcohol industry involvement in science, despite longstanding concerns about various activities and broader evidence of corporate manipulation of research. Our aim was to explore the experiences of researchers who had no relationship with the alcohol industry, including how industry involvement in alcohol...
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Background Measurement can affect the people being measured; for example, asking people to complete a questionnaire can result in changes in behaviour (the ‘question–behaviour effect’). The usual methods of conduct and analysis of randomised controlled trials implicitly assume that the taking of measurements has no effect on research participants....
Article
Background Adolescents often display heterogenous trajectories of alcohol use. Initiation and escalation of drinking may be an important predictor of later harms. Previous attempts to conceptualise these trajectories lacked adjustment for known confounders of adolescent drinking, which our study has aimed to address by modelling dynamic changes in...
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In order to effectively evaluate complex interventions, there have been calls for the further integration of qualitative methods. Qualitative process studies of brief alcohol interventions and medicines reviews are notably lacking. This article provides a grounded example through the presentation of findings from an embedded qualitative process eva...
Article
Objective: One research group has recently published three articles on the ways in which alcohol companies and industry social aspects organizations (SAOs) communicate with the public. These articles show how the information produced by the alcohol industry works to produce doubt and uncertainty. Replies from SAOs were published in the respective...
Article
Introduction: Sparse attention has been given to the design of control conditions in trials, despite their important role as contrasts for novel treatments, and thus as a key determinant of effect sizes. This undermines valid inferences on effect estimates in trials, which are fundamentally comparative in nature. Such challenges to understanding a...
Article
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Pharmacists have been employed in UK general practice for many years. Their numbers are now expanding and their roles developing. Clinical pharmacists are expected to alleviate workload pressures on GPs. Notwithstanding the COVID-19 vaccination programme, a new Structured Medication Review (SMR) service has been introduced in Primary Care Networks...
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Introduction In 2015/2016 controversy followed the publication of a report on an anthropological study of Australian and New Zealand night-time economies funded by a major alcohol producer. This paper explores the background, moments of public controversy and political uses of the report. Methods Informed by the sociology of scientific controversi...
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Objective: This study (MEasurement Reactions In Trials) aimed to produce recommendations on how best to minimise bias from measurement reactivity in randomised controlled trials of interventions to improve health. Study design and setting: The MERIT study consisted of: (a) an updated systematic review that examined whether measuring participants...
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Despite extensive evidence of bias resulting from industry sponsorship of research across health sciences, and longstanding concerns about alcohol industry research funding, there has not been a strong tradition of empirical research on this subject. This study explores researcher decision-making regarding industry funding at the early career stage...
Article
Aims To estimate change in young people's alcohol consumption during COVID-19 restrictions in Australia in early-mid 2020, and test whether those changes were consistent by gender and level of consumption prior to the pandemic. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort Setting Secondary schools in New South Wales, Tasmania, and Western Australia. P...
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This study investigates how processes of horizontal policy transfer can unfold in context of devolution, examining the development of legislation on minimum unit pricing (MUP) in Wales, following on from Scotland’s earlier policy decision. The study draws on a range of sources, including primary documents, media coverage, and interviews with policy...
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Introduction The Public Health (Alcohol) Act 2018 in Ireland has been hailed as a world-leading package of alcohol policy reforms. Existing studies have identified the events that led to alcohol emerging onto the high-level policy agenda in Ireland, particularly after 2009. Using policy feedback theory, this study specifically investigates the poli...
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Background There is no longer support for the idea that brief intervention programmes alone can contribute meaningfully to the improvement of population health relating to alcohol. As a result, calls for major innovations and paradigm shifts grow, notably among research leaders. This paper briefly examines the history of the development of the evid...
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Existing research has identified numerous barriers to the adoption of public health policies for alcohol, including the cross-cutting nature of the policy problem and industry influence. Recent developments in Ireland suggest that while formidable, such barriers can be overcome. Ireland’s 2018 alcohol legislation adopts key evidence-based measures,...
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Introduction A growing body of literature suggests alcohol industry corporate social responsibility activity, including the creation of ‘social aspects’ organisations (SAO), may harm rather than improve public health. We aimed to explore established researcher experiences of working with SAOs, and the factors informing their decisions to do so. Me...
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Background and Aims The global growth of mobile phone use has led to new opportunities for health interventions, including through text messaging. We aimed to estimate the effects of text messaging interventions on alcohol consumption among risky drinkers. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of reports on randomized controlled trials (RCTs...
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Background Alcohol harms are rising globally, and alcohol policies, where they exist, are weak or under-developed. Limited progress has been made since the formulation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Strategy in 2010. WHO is seeking to accelerate progress in implementing international efforts to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. The...
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Objective Participants in intervention studies are asked to take part in activities linked to the conduct of research, including signing consent forms and being assessed. If participants are affected by such activities through mechanisms by which the intervention is intended to work, then there is confounding. We examine how to account for research...
Article
Introduction: Alcohol poses a range of potential problems to people taking medications, but health professionals are usually not comfortable talking about drinking with patients. The Medicines and Alcohol Consultation aims to increase the capacity of pharmacists to conduct person-centred reviews in which alcohol is regarded as another drug to be d...
Article
Background : The CHAMP-1 ( C ommunity pharmacy: H ighlighting A lcohol use in M edication a P pointments) pilot trial aimed to explore an intervention discussing alcohol during medication consultations with community pharmacists. It presented various challenges regarding patient retention, as participants were recruited by their pharmacist and foll...
Article
Introduction Community pharmacies have an increasingly prominent public health function. This includes addressing alcohol, but guidance on delivery of alcohol interventions in this setting is lacking. We have developed an intervention that integrates attention to alcohol within existing community pharmacy medicine review services. This paper examin...
Article
Background and aims Experience of alcohol‐induced memory blackouts in adolescence may be an important risk factor for later harms. This longitudinal study i) modelled trajectories of alcohol‐related blackouts throughout adolescence, ii) explored early‐adolescent predictors of blackout trajectories, and iii) examined the association between blackout...
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Introduction This study explores the role of the public health advocacy coalition in alcohol policy development in Ireland. Compared with industry actors, much less is known about the membership, activities and influence of public health advocates in alcohol policymaking. To address this gap, this paper identifies several advocacy strategies, drawn...
Article
Objective: In 2016, the U.K. Chief Medical Officers published revised low-risk drinking guidelines, based on an updated evidence review. These guidelines advised that men and women drink no more than 14 units per week--a reduction for men--while emphasizing the dangers of drinking in pregnancy and as a risk factor for cancer. The aim of this study...
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Background: In England, many people of South Asian origin consume smokeless tobacco (ST). ST use can lead to oral cancer, which is disproportionately high in South Asians. Our aims were to assess the compliance of ST product retailers with statutory regulations and to explore the supply chain of ST. Methods: We undertook a multi-methods study betwe...
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The Scottish government’s plans for a minimum unit price for alcohol were vehemently opposed by the alcohol industry leading to a 6-year delay in implementation after legislation was passed. This article seeks to explain the consequences of devolution and European Union membership for the development of minimum unit price in Scotland through the co...
Article
Background This scoping review aims to map the extent, range and nature of qualitative research on people’s ‘perceptions’ of their own alcohol consumption. Methods A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted. A total of 915 abstracts were screened and 452 full texts examined, of which 313 papers met the inclusion criteria (inclu...
Article
Community pharmacy faces ongoing challenges to its economic and social standing. A concern to legitimate professional status explains the attraction of public health. Interventions currently advocated by UK State‐sponsored health care seek to reconcile the autonomous ‘entrepreneurial’ patient with market‐driven solutions. Engaging critically with r...
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Background Alcohol interventions are important to the developing public health role of community pharmacies. The Medicines and Alcohol Consultation (MAC) is a new intervention, co-produced with community pharmacists (CPs) and patients, which involves a CP practice development programme designed to integrate discussion of alcohol within existing NHS...
Article
Objectives: Adolescents often display heterogenous trajectories of alcohol use. Initiation and escalation of drinking may be important predictors of later harms, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Previous conceptualizations of these trajectories lacked adjustment for known confounders of adolescent drinking, which we aimed to address by modeli...
Article
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Background: Alcohol industry actors are known to be involved in scientific research. Despite concerns regarding bias, the extent of involvement and coverage of this research are unknown. Methods: We aimed to investigate the extent and type of scientific research 1918-2019 which was supported by the alcohol industry, including alcohol companies t...
Article
Aims: The AUDIT-C is a brief and commonly used alcohol screening tool, with few data available on the relative validity of the three individual items in older adult populations. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of the AUDIT-C items in identifying unhealthy drinking among older people, with a view to developing a single-item screen...
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Background : Community pharmacies support a range of patients and medical conditions, and form an important part of comprehensive, holistic healthcare services. The role of a community pharmacist has changed significantly over recent years, developing to include research activities. The CHAMP-1 ( C ommunity pharmacy: H ighlighting A lcohol use in M...
Conference Paper
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Introduction: Recent studies have shown nicotine salts, which yield protonated nicotine, gave higher plasma nicotine concentrations than free base (unprotonated) nicotine. Although the reason behind it is not well understood, it is important to classify e-liquids based on their free base or protonated nicotine yield in pre and post vaporization. He...
Article
Background Parents frequently supply alcohol to their children, often only sips. We investigated whether supply of sips and whole drinks, from parents and other sources, are differentially associated with subsequent drinking outcomes. Methods A cohort of 1,910 adolescents (mean age 12.9yrs) were surveyed annually over seven years from 2010-11. We...
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In this article, we demonstrate the applicability of a 3-I (interests, institutions, and ideas) framework to alcohol policy research. The analysis uses literature from political science research to provide a core theoretical framework. To help illustrate the argument, we draw on relevant examples from alcohol policy in the UK as well as initial fin...
Article
Objective: The Anglo-Celtic colonists of Australia and New Zealand brought with them heavy beer-drinking customs, and each country later developed similar temperance movements and alcohol policies. Yet their beer markets differed throughout the 20th century; for example, Australian men typically drank lager with 5% alcohol-by-volume (ABV), whereas...
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This article adopts a multiple streams approach to examine the failure to implement minimum unit pricing (MUP) for alcohol in England. It demonstrates that the multiple streams model provides a valuable conceptual tool for explaining how and why policies are, and are not, enacted. However, it finds that while problem streams and policy streams are...
Preprint
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Background Policies which reduce affordability and availability of alcohol are known to be effective in reducing alcohol harms. Public support is important in policy decision making and implementation, and it may be possible to intervene to improve public support for alcohol policy measures. This systematic review aims to explore the effects of int...
Article
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Background Patient and public involvement and co‐production are widely used, but nevertheless contested concepts in applied health research. There is much confusion about what they are, how they might be undertaken and how they relate to each other. There are distinct challenges and particular gaps in public involvement in alcohol research, especia...
Article
Background and aims: Recent research suggests parental supply of alcohol is associated with more risky drinking and alcohol-related harm among adolescents. However, the overall effect of parental supply across adolescence remains unclear because parental supply of alcohol varies over adolescence. Due to the complexity of longitudinal data, standar...
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This article examines the alcohol industry's legal challenges to minimum unit pricing (MUP) in Scotland through the stages heuristic of the policy process. It builds on previous studies of alcohol pricing policy in Scotland and across the UK, and of the use of legal challenges by health harming industries to oppose health policy globally. Having fa...
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Background: The term 'commercial determinants of health' (CDOH) is increasingly focussing attention upon the role of tobacco, alcohol and food and beverage companies and others-as important drivers of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the CDOH do not seem to be clearly represented in the most common social determinants of health (SDOH) fr...
Article
The National Institutes of Health stopped the worldwide Moderate Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health (MACH) trial in 2018 because of institutional failings that led to the biased design of this major study. Drawing on e-mail correspondence among officials, researchers, and alcohol companies, we provide the first, to our knowledge, detailed analysis o...
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Aims: To evaluate the effects of the two main components of a Personalised Normative Feedback (PNF) (Normative feedback only -NFO; and Consequences feedback only - CFO) compared with the full intervention (PNF) in reducing alcohol use and consequences. Design: Three-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial with dismantling design and 1-, 3-, an...
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Background: The 2010-2015 Conservative-led Coalition Government launched their flagship Public Health Responsibility Deal (PHRD) for England in 2011; a year before their alcohol strategy. This co-regulatory regime placed alcohol industry actors at the heart of policy-making, but was viewed with scepticism by public health actors. This article exam...
Article
Objective: Non-response can bias prevalence estimates in population surveys. Effects of selective participation in behaviour change intervention trials have been little studied. We tested hypotheses that trial participants who are hard to recruit are (1) more likely to be lost-to-follow-up and (2) less responsive to intervention. Study design and...
Article
Alcohol consumption has been linked to a wide range of social and health problems, and it is known that drinking among older age groups has been increasing. Relatively little qualitative research has examined how older drinkers make sense of their drinking practices, including how they seek to normalise their consumption when talking about it. This...
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Background: Harmful use of alcohol continues to be a leading contributor to premature deaths globally. Not only does harmful drinking have consequences for the individuals consuming at increased levels, but it may also result in a range of negative consequences for their family members and friends. Interventions delivered via mobile phones (mobile...
Article
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Aims To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary cost‐effectiveness of a lay counsellor delivered psychological treatment for men with alcohol dependence in primary care. Design Single‐blind individually randomized trial comparing Counselling for Alcohol Problems [CAP] plus Enhanced Usual Care [EUC]) versus EUC only. Setting Ten pr...
Article
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Background: Medicines Use Reviews (MURs) and the New Medicine Service (NMS) are services delivered by UK community pharmacists to improve adherence, improve patient understanding of their medicines and reduce medicines wastage. Aim: In this scoping review we aim to identify, map and critically examine the nature of existing empirical evidence in...
Article
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Background There is a strong rationale for clinicians to identify risky drinking among young people given the harms caused by alcohol. This systematic review evaluates the quality of evidence in the validation literature on alcohol screening and assessment measures for young people under 25. Methods Six electronic databases (MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsycI...
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Background Effective alcohol policy measures conflict with the interests of the alcohol industry. In this study we addressed how various alcohol industry actors in Norway have responded to research findings and police data relating to the possible impacts of changes in on-premise trading hours on violent offending. Methods A content analysis of do...