Jie Zhang's research while affiliated with University of Kansas and other places

Publications (50)

Article
Full-text available
Pronunciation of words or morphemes may vary systematically in different phonological contexts, but it remains unclear how different levels of phonological information are encoded in speech production. In this study, we investigated the online planning process of Mandarin Tone 3 (T3) sandhi, a case of phonological alternation whereby a low-dipping...
Article
Full-text available
The understanding of alternation is a key goal in phonological research. But little is known about how phonological alternations are implemented in speech production. The current study tested the hypothesis that the production of words that undergo a highly productive alternation, Mandarin Tone 3 sandhi, is supported by a computation mechanism, whi...
Article
Full-text available
Although phonological alternation is prevalent in languages, the process of perceiving phonologically alternated sounds is poorly understood, especially at the neurolinguistic level. We examined the process of perceiving Mandarin 3rd tone sandhi (T3 + T3 → T2 + T3) with a mismatch negativity (MMN) experiment. Our design has two independent variable...
Article
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Disyllabic verb-noun (V-N) items in Shanghai Wu have variable surface tone patterns: They can undergo either a rightward extension tone sandhi, which extends the lexical tone of the first syllable over the entire word, or tonal reduction on the first syllable. The current study investigates how the phonological properties of these alternation proce...
Article
This paper investigates the nature of native Mandarin Chinese speakers’ phonotactic knowledge via an experimental study and formal modelling of the experimental results. Results from a phonological well-formedness judgement experiment suggest that Mandarin speakers’ phonotactic knowledge is sensitive not only to lexical statistics, but also to gram...
Article
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Syllable well-formedness judgment experiments reveal that speakers exhibit gradient judgment on novel words, and the gradience has been attributed to both grammatical factors and lexical statistics (e.g., Coetzee, 2008). This study investigates gradient phonotactics stemming from the violations of four types of grammatical constraints in Mandarin C...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous research showed that within-category phonetic details of segments constrain lexical activation. This study investigates how within-category tonal information influences native and non-native Mandarin listeners' spoken word recognition. Native Mandarin listeners and proficient English-speaking Mandarin learners were tested in a visual-world...
Article
Full-text available
The paper aims to examine how the acoustic input (the surface form) and the abstract linguistic representation (the underlying representation) interact during spoken word recognition by investigating left-dominant tone sandhi, a tonal alternation in which the underlying tone of the first syllable spreads to the sandhi domain. We conducted two audit...
Article
Typological studies have shown that there are more falling tones than rising tones in tone languages, including Chinese. We test the hypothesis that this may be due to a perceptually-based advantage for falling tones over rising tones. Two acoustically comparable (and matched for naturalness) tonal continua in Mandarin (level-falling T1-T4, and lev...
Preprint
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This is a preprint version (i.e., not peer-reviewed). You can download the final version of the article using the link (https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1YZZfLixzdkXQ) providing 50 days' free access to it (starting Feb. 14, 2019). Please cite the article as "Qin, Z., Tremblay, A., & Zhang, J. (2019). Influence of within-category tonal information...
Article
Phonological categories are often differentiated by multiple phonetic cues. This paper reports a production and perception study of a laryngeal contrast in Shanghai Wu that is not only cued in multiple dimensions, but also cued differently on different manners (stops, fricatives, sonorants) and in different positions (non-sandhi, sandhi). Acoustic...
Article
The Northern Wu Chinese dialect of Wuxi has two different tone patterns in disyllables—a pattern with tone sandhi that involves a synchronic chain-shift and a no sandhi pattern, and the two patterns apply variably. This study investigates the nature of this variation. Seventy-one native speakers participated in three rating experiments that investi...
Article
Telugu is one of a small set of languages described as exhibiting three or more place contrasts among sibilant fricatives (less than 4% of languages in UPSID; Maddieson and Precoda, 1990). In a pilot study of alveolar, palatal, and retroflex sibilant productions in VCV sequences, Telugu speakers were found to show consistent inter-speaker variation...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies on tones suggest that Mandarin listeners are more sensitive to pitch direction and slope while English listeners primarily attend to pitch height. In this study, just noticeable differences were established for pitch discrimination using a three-interval, forced-choice procedure with a two-down, one-up staircase design. A high risi...
Article
Full-text available
Mandarin Chinese has dental, palatal, and retroflex sibilants, but their contrasts before [_i] are avoided: The palatals appear before [i] while the dentals and retroflexes appear before homorganic syllabic approximants (a.k.a. apical vowels). An enhancement view regards the apical vowels as a way to avoid the weak contrast /si-ɕi-ȿi/. We focus on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates whether within-category gradience in lexical tones influences native and non-native Chinese listeners’ word recognition. Previous offline research found that Chinese listeners have a more categorical perception of lexical tones, and thus show less sensitivity to within-category variability in tones, than non-native listeners...
Article
Full-text available
underlying representations play a crucial role in capturing predictable relations among different phonetic categories in phonological theory. Tone sandhi is a tonal alternation phenomenon in which a tone changes to a different tone in certain phonological environments. This study investigates whether Taiwanese listeners are more sensitive to the su...
Article
div class="title">SAN DUANMU , The phonology of Standard Chinese, 2nd edn. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. xviii + 361. ISBN: 978-0-19-921578-2 - Jie Zhang
Article
Sixian Hakka is a Hakka dialect spoken in Taiwan. The language has four contrastive tones on non-checked syllables: 24, 11, 31, and 55. But before 24 or 55, a tone sandhi pattern changes 24 to 11, neutralizing the tonal contrast to three. We report two experiments that tap into the nature of this tone sandhi pattern in this paper. The first is a no...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies suggest that Chinese listeners may be more sensitive to pitch direction while American listeners primarily attend to pitch height. The present study sought to establish JNDs for pitch discrimination using a three-interval, forced-choice procedure with a two-down, one-up staircase design (cf. Liu, JASA 2013). We manipulated a high r...
Article
This paper considers whether the phonology of the lexical pitch accent of Kyungsang Korean is being maintained by younger innovative speakers. We examine the pitch-accent patterns of nouns with various suffixes by comparing the speech of innovative Kyungsang speakers to that of older conservative speakers. It will be shown that while innovative spe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates the timing of perception of tonal and segmental information. Its purpose is to determine whether the apparent delay that previous priming studies have reported for the processing of tonal information (relative to the processing of segmental information) may stem from low-level speech perception. Native Chinese listeners and...
Article
Tone sandhi in Wuxi Chinese involves “pattern substitution,” whereby the base tone on the first syllable is first substituted by another tone, then spread to the sandhi domain. We conducted a wug test to investigate native Wuxi speakers’ tacit knowledge of tone sandhi and found that the substituion aspect of the sandhi is not fully productive, but...
Article
Full-text available
Tianjin Chinese has one of the more complex tone sandhi systems in Northern Chinese dialects. Due to its close contact with Standard Chinese, many of its tone sandhi patterns are also variable. This article first reports a detailed acoustic study of tone sandhi patterns in both real lexical items and novel words in Tianjin. The data were collected...
Article
Disyllabic sequences in Shanghai Wu undergo different types of tone sandhi depending on their structure: phonological words (e.g., modifier-nouns) spread the initial tone across the disyllable, while phrases (e.g., non-lexicalized verb-nouns) maintain the final tone and level the contour of the nonfinal tone. We investigated the productivity of the...
Article
Full-text available
Phonological alternation poses problems for spoken word recognition. In Mandarin Tone 3 sandhi, a Tone 3 syllable changes to a Tone 2 syllable when followed by another Tone 3 syllable. A traditional phonological account assumes that the initial syllable of Mandarin disyllabic sandhi words is Tone 3 (T3) underlyingly, but becomes Tone 2 (T2) on the...
Article
The present study investigates the representation of sandhi-undergoing words during speech production in Mandarin, using the odd-man-out implicit priming paradigm, a task in which participants respond faster to words in sets that are phonologically homogeneous in some respect than in sets that are phonologically heterogeneous. We test whether primi...
Article
The current paper investigates the nominal pitch accent system in South Kyungsang Korean through an acoustic study and presents a phonological analysis for the system based on the acoustic results. The data were collected from four male South Kyungsang speakers by recording monosyllabic and disyllabic nouns with various types of suffixes. The pitch...
Article
In a production study of tonal contrasts in lexically stressed but grammatically stressless syllables vs. lexically stressless syllables in Nanchang, a Gan dialect spoken in southeastern China, we found that tonal neutralization only occurs in lexically stressless syllables. We argue that the main phonetic ground for such a tonal contrast distribut...
Conference Paper
An open question in psycholinguistics is the nature of the phonological representations used during speech production and the processes that are applied to them, particularly between lexical access and articulatory implementation. While phonological theory posits that speakers' grammar includes mechanisms for transforming from input to output forms...
Article
We present in this article an acoustic study on tone sandhi and tonal coarticulation in Tianjin Chinese. Our results indicate that Tianjin tone sandhi is likely influenced by Standard Chinese and is undergoing a number of changes, causing variations and exceptions to the sandhi patterns, and the majority of the sandhis are non-neutralizing, contra...
Article
Shanghai Chinese is noted for its structure‐dependent tone sandhi patterns: its five lexical tones undergo two types of tone sandhi: a word with a modifier‐noun structure undergoes a left‐dominant sandhi, whereby the initial tone is spread across the entire word; a word with a verb‐noun structure, however, may undergo a right‐dominant sandhi that r...
Article
Recent studies on productivity have shown that native speakers’ phonological knowledge not only includes statistical patterns in the lexicon, but also patterns that cannot be gleaned from the lexicon. This is demonstrated in speakers’ analytical bias towards abstract phonological representations (Davidson, 2005), single-feature dependency (Moreton,...
Article
Chinese tone has played an important role in the development of phonological theory from distinctive features and autosegmental phonology to Optimality Theory and its various adaptations. This article reviews some past and current issues in the analysis of Chinese tone and points out how the development of theoretical phonology has shaped the highs...
Article
In Tianjin Chinese, three of its four lexical tones (L, H, LH, HL) undergo tone sandhi on the initial syllable of disyllabic words: L becomes LH before L, LH becomes H before LH and L before H and HL, and HL becomes H before L and L before HL. This study provides a detailed acoustic description of tone sandhi patterns in both real lexical items and...
Article
Phonological patterns often have phonetic bases. But whether phonetic substance should be encoded in synchronic phonological grammar is controversial. We aim to test the synchronic relevance of phonetics by investigating native Mandarin speakers' applications of two exceptionless tone sandhi processes to novel words: the contour reduction 213→21/—T...
Article
The present study adopts the gating paradigm to investigate the roles of tone, onset sonorancy, and nasal coda in Mandarin spoken word recognition. Duration-blocked gates generated from eight monosyllabic quadruplets with matching frequencies of occurrence were used as stimuli. The initial consonant of each syllable formed the first gate, with late...
Article
Full-text available
A wug test study of tone sandhi patterns in Taiwanese indicates that sandhi productivity is affected by phonological opacity as well as the durational property and lexical frequency of the sandhi. Opacity outweighs phonetics and frequency as a global effect; frequency effects are evident for everyday users of the language; phonetic effects only sur...
Article
Full-text available
Research on spoken word recognition in Indo-European languages often does not incorporate prosody. In Mandarin Chinese, however, lexical prosody is used extensively and has been shown to affect word processing in previous studies. The present study uses the gating paradigm to investigate the processing of the four Mandarin tones as well as the role...
Article
Chinese tone sandhi systems are often classified as left-dominant or right-dominant depending on the position of the syllable retaining the citation tone. An asymmetry exists between the two types of systems: left-dominant sandhi often involves rightward extension of the initial tone to the entire sandhi domain; right-dominant sandhi, however, ofte...
Article
Full-text available
Monosyllabic adjectives can undergo double reduplication in Taiwanese to mark intensification. We argue in this paper that the phonological analysis for the tonal patterns of Taiwanese double reduplication relies on three elements: a floating High tone that prefers to dock onto the left edge of the output, tonal correspondence between the two redup...
Article
In traditional autosegmental analyses of tone, the gravitation of contour tones to prosodic-final syllable and syllables in shorter words is conceived as the result of the one-to-one, left-to-right Association Conventions that govern the mapping of tonal melodies. I argue in this paper that these properties of contour tone distribution are not an a...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports patterns of phonological assimilation in consonant clusters in Urban Jordanian Arabic (UJA). We examine all possible C1C2 combinations across a word boundary as well as the concatenations of consonant-final prefixes //in/ and //il/ and consonant-initial stems. The data show that place assimilation in UJA is regressive, and it can...
Article
In this paper, I argue that the positional restrictions of contour tones do not result from their bimoraicity requirement for licensing. The arguments come from the licensing advantage of syllables in positions that are not moraically privileged, the extra levels of markedness distinction in contour tones that go beyond the maximum mora count allow...
Article
Full-text available
33 Yuwen Lai The University of Kansas yuwen@ku.edu It has long been noted that phonological patterning is influenced by phonetic factors. But phonologists diverge on whether phonetic motivations take effect in synchronic or diachronic phonology. This article aims to tease apart the two theories by investigating native Mandarin speakers’ application...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies on productivity have shown that native speakers' phono- logical knowledge not only includes statistical patterning of irregularities reflected in the lexicon, but also patterns that cannot be gleaned from the lexicon. This is demonstrated in speakers' analytical bias towards abstract phonological represen- tations (Davidson 2005) and...

Citations

... nd Lai, 2010). It has been argued that this process cannot be attributed to a pure articulatory process like tonal co-articulation (Shih, 1986;Xu, 1997;J. Zhang and Lai, 2010). There has been an intense debate over the encoding process of Mandarin T3 sandhi in previous literature (e.g., Y. Chen et al., 2011;Nixon et al., 2015;C. Zhang et al., 2015;J. Zhang et al., 2022). Studies on phonological alternations propose that phonological alternations could be generated during speech production in at least two ways: either via the online computation (e.g., through phonological rules) operated on a presumed underlying representation for phonological variants, or via the direct retrieval of the pre-stored phon ...
... These syllables were all phonotactically legal. Some syllables were tonal gaps, i.e., syllables attested in other tones (e.g., gao R , which is not attested in standard Mandarin even though gao H is); others were accidental gaps, i.e., syllables not attested in any tone but also not violating any phonotactic constraint (e.g., neither tei H , tei R , tei L , nor tei F exist in standard Mandarin, even though there is no obvious general constraint barring the segmental sequence tei -e.g., dei is attested); see Gong & Zhang (2021) for further details on types of Mandarin pseudowords. These stimuli ensured a word-nonword ratio of 50% (96 critical targets, their 96 primes, plus 48 filler targets and their 48 primes, adds up to 288 words). ...
... The word frequency effect is also reported where high-frequency targets elicit significantly faster reaction times than low-frequency ones. Chien et al. (2016b) to my knowledge is the first to study the tone sandhi in TSM using auditory-auditory priming. In the experiment, a lexical decision task is adopted to compare two sandhi rules in TSM, namely (1) T51 → T55 and (2) T24 → T33. ...
... However, since there are many different types of phonological alternations (Bürki, 2018;Bürki et al., 2010Bürki et al., , 2011Bürki et al., , 2014Bürki and Gaskell, 2012), it remains to be investigated how the current results generalize to other types of phonological alternations. Even regarding tone sandhi, some recent research suggests that different processing mechanisms may be involved in the tone sandhi processing in other Chinese dialects (Chang et al., 2019;Chien et al., 2017;Yan et al., 2020Yan et al., , 2021. Moreover, the application of tone sandhi is also subject to other factors such as morphosyntactic structure and prosodic structure (Chen, 2000), and recent research suggests that the processing of disyllabic Mandarin T3 sandhi words with different morphological structures (e.g., lexical compounds vs. reduplication) may also differ (Gao et al., 2021). ...
... However, since there are many different types of phonological alternations (Bürki, 2018;Bürki et al., 2010Bürki et al., , 2011Bürki et al., , 2014Bürki and Gaskell, 2012), it remains to be investigated how the current results generalize to other types of phonological alternations. Even regarding tone sandhi, some recent research suggests that different processing mechanisms may be involved in the tone sandhi processing in other Chinese dialects (Chang et al., 2019;Chien et al., 2017;Yan et al., 2020Yan et al., , 2021. Moreover, the application of tone sandhi is also subject to other factors such as morphosyntactic structure and prosodic structure (Chen, 2000), and recent research suggests that the processing of disyllabic Mandarin T3 sandhi words with different morphological structures (e.g., lexical compounds vs. reduplication) may also differ (Gao et al., 2021). ...
... On the other hand, L2 learners' performance in integrating tones in lexical representations has been investigated less often (Wiener et al., 2018;Pelzl et al., 2019Pelzl et al., , 2021aQin et al., 2019;Han and Tsukada, 2020;Ling and Grüter, 2022). The existing evidence of L2 lexical tonal processing generally suggests a persistent difficulty in tone processing. ...
... Moreover, a gender difference was reported by [9] and [10] that the difference in CQ between high and low register tones was less for female than for male speakers. In addition, young speakers in Shanghai Wu are losing the breathy voice, as shown by [12] and [13]. To our knowledge, no EGG study has been done for Suzhou Wu. ...
... In terms of the role of tonal information in lexical access and selection, some behavioral studies suggest that tone might be a weaker cue compared to segmental information, using tasks of speeded classification (Repp and Lin, 1990), vowel and tone monitoring (Ye and Connine, 1999), word reconstruction (Wiener and Turnbull, 2016) and priming (Sereno and Lee, 2015). However, more recent studies using online measures such as eye-tracking and event related potentials (ERPs) showed parallel processing of segments and tones in word recognition, arguing that the role of tonal information is comparable to that of segmental information (Schirmer et al., 2005;Joanisse, 2010, 2012;Zhao et al., 2011;Connell, 2017). It might be the case that the difference between tones and vowels is partly due to the difference in temporal availability of the cues. ...
... Overall, this line of research 5 In this specific case, the context favoring variation is the presence of contiguous non-high vowels. 6 For Forrest (2017) Zhang, Meng (2016) and Yan (2018) on the variable realization of Shanghai Wu tone sandhi and, lastly, by Yan, Zhang (2017) and Yan (2018) on the same phenomenon in Wuxi Wu. 8 Here I cluster together these two definitions for practicality; however, it should be kept in mind that some differences between the two concepts have been underpinned, especially from the procedural point of view (Balota, Pilotti & Cortese, 2001). finds significant correspondences between subjects' perceived word frequencies and corpus data, not without some discrepancies (see e.g. ...
... Because recent studies on tone learning and perception have suggested that naïve tone learners rely on F0 less than L1 speakers of a tone languages during lexical access (e.g., [11]), we decided to build two separate lexicons for week 1 and week 15 L2 learners. The words in the week-1 learner lexicon contained 20% of tonal information that an L1 lexicon would have; the words in the week-15 learner lexicon had 40% of the tonal information compared to an L1 lexicon. ...