Jess D Reed's research while affiliated with University of Wisconsin–Madison and other places

Publications (118)

Article
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The interaction between A‐type interflavan bonds from cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) and surface virulence factors of extra‐intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) was studied. Electrospun nanofibers (ESNF) were fabricated using PAC and polycaprolactone (PCL) solutions and their physical and chemical properties were characterized. The abi...
Article
Full-text available
Consumption of cranberries is associated with the putative effects of preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) contain unusual double A-type linkages, which are associated with strong interactions with surface virulence factors found on UTI-causing bacteria such as extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (E...
Chapter
The lack of analytical methods to determine authenticity of proanthocyanidins (PAC) in functional foods and dietary supplements is a problem in market regulation and development of efficacious products. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of PAC structure offers good potential for rapid analys...
Article
The aims of this study were to determine the proximate and amino acid compositions, mineral content, and fatty acid and proanthocyanidins (PAC) profiles of peanut skins (PS) from three varieties of peanuts. Proximate composition showed that PS had a moisture content from 9.71-11.0%, ash content from 2.07-2.13%, fat content from 9.59-10.2%, protein...
Article
Cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan nanoparticles (PAC-CHT NPs) loaded with antibiotic gentamicin (GEN) (PAC-CHT-GEN NPs) were formulated and characterized according to size, polydispersity (PDI), surface charge, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency (EE). PAC-CHT-GEN NPs were evaluated for their ability to agglutinate E. coli, S. aureus, and P....
Article
Proanthocyanidin (PAC, condensed tannin) containing forages have well-documented anti-parasitic effects against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants. Although extensive research has been conducted on the inhibition of exsheathment of the L3 stage of Haemonchus contortus by in vitro exposure to the extracts of PAC containing plants, o...
Article
Background Cranberry proanthocyanidins (c-PAC) are oligomeric structures of flavan-3-ol units, which possess A-type interflavan bonds. c-PAC differs from other botanical sources because other PAC mostly have B-type interflavan bonds. Cranberry products used to alleviate and prevent urinary tract infections may suffer from adulteration, where c-PAC...
Article
Proanthocyanidin (PAC) profiles of apples (a-PAC), cranberries (c-PAC), and peanut skins (p-PAC) were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Deconvolution of overlapping isotopic patterns indicated that in apples, only 5% of the PAC oligomers contain one or more A-type bonds, where...
Article
Background: Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ols with putative health benefits. PAC are prevalent in a wide variety of natural products and dietary supplements. Objective: An inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate the 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) colorimetric assay using a 96-well plate spectrophoto...
Patent
Methods of purifying mucin, purified mucin, and products comprising the purified mucin. The methods include combining a mucin-containing substance with water and one or more purification agents to form a purification mixture, incubating the purification mixture for a time sufficient to form a mucin precipitate in a liquid phase, and separating the...
Article
Background Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ols with putative health benefits. PAC are prevalent in a wide variety of natural products and dietary supplements. Objective An inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate the 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) colorimetric assay using a 96-well plate spectrophotom...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effect of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) paste (ABP) on visceral fat accumulation in rats. ABP is a rich source of indigestible carbohydrates (18.5%) with fiber and resistant starch (RS) contents of 14.5% and 4.0%, respectively. Animals were fed one of the following diets, control (CON), 30% A...
Article
This special edition is intended to mark the XXIX International Conference on Polyphenols (ICP) and the 9th Tannin Conference (TC) which were held together in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, in July 2018. This special edition is a collection of some papers presented during the conference, addressing many research issues involving polyphenols from genetics...
Article
Chitosan (CHT) interacts with proanthocyanidins (PAC) by a mechanism involving hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole interactions, allowing the spontaneous formation of PAC-CHT composite nanoparticles (PAC-CHT NPs). The interaction between PAC and CHT was characterized by ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to determi...
Article
Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) can be partitioned into soluble PAC, which are extracted with solvents, and insoluble PAC, which remain associated with fibers and proteins after extraction. Most research on cranberry products only quantifies soluble PAC because proper standards for quantifying insoluble PAC are lacking. In this study, we evaluate...
Article
Highbush blueberries contain anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. We isolated and characterized three polyphenolic fractions, a total polyphenol fraction (TPF), an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AEF), and a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction (PEF), from freeze-dried blueberry powder and eva...
Article
Total polyphenol content (TPC), flavonoid content (TFC), anthocyanin content (TAC), and proanthocyanidin (PAC) content were determined in fruit from three tropical Vaccinium species (V. consanguineum, V. floribundum, and V. poasanum) from Costa Rica sampled at three stages of fruit development. Results show that TAC content increased as the fruit d...
Article
Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the TDF, soluble and insoluble fibers, comparing the results with the new analytical method and for minerals associated with fiber. This is the first reporting of date fibers comparing the methods of analysis. Methods: TDF methods AOAC 2011.25 methods were updated using Rapid Integrated (RI)...
Article
Cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan composite nanoparticles (PAC-CHT NPs) were formulated using 2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1 20:1, 25:1, and 30:1 PAC to CHT weight ratio to form round shaped particles. The PAC-CHT NPs were characterized by size, polydispersity, surface charge, morphology, and PAC content. PAC-CHT NPs bioactivity was measured by agglutinati...
Conference Paper
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Purpose: Simplified liquid nutrition is an effective means of nutrient delivery for individuals suffering from certain chronic diseases, such as short bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and certain cancers of the head and neck. However, a simplified liquid diet can lead to gut barrier and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) dysfunction partially due...
Article
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Secondary plant compounds have shown bioactivity against multi-drug resistant Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. This study screened 51 strains of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus ) crude aqueous extracts (BFT-AqE) for anti-parasitic activity in vitro against egg hatching, and of those 51 strains, 13 were selected for further testin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cranberry fruits contain polyphenolic compounds called proanthocyanidins (PAC). Upon implementation of the PAC extraction process, PAC can be divided into two categories-soluble and insoluble. Soluble PAC are extracted by polar organic solvents and may be quantified by the 4-(dimethylamino) cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) method. Insoluble PAC remained bound...
Article
Chitosan interacts with proanthocyanidins through hydrogen-bonding, which allows encapsulation and development of stable nanoparticles via ionotropic gelation. Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are associated with the prevention of urinary tract infections and PAC inhibit invasion of gut epithelial cells by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia c...
Article
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Date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) consumption reduces serum triglyceride levels in human subjects. The objective of this study was to prepare an extract from dates and determine whether it acts as a ligand for the farnesoid x receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor important for maintaining triglyceride and cholesterol homeostasis. Freeze-dried extr...
Article
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The Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine model is well-characterized and used for studies of both spontaneous and inducible atherosclerosis but has not been used for studies of metabolic dysfunction to date. We examined whether parameters of metabolic syndrome including weight and adiposity, serum cholesterol, and glucoregulatory functio...
Article
In this work we characterize the interaction of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PAC) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and determine the effects of these complexes...
Article
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The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) c...
Article
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Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and environmental, dietary and pathogen antigens play a key role in immune homeostasis and regulation of inflammation. Dietary polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins (PAC) may reduce inflammation, and we therefore hypothesised that PAC may suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in human DCs and...
Article
In this work we characterize the interaction of pomegranate hydrolyzable tannins (HT) with hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and determine the effects of non-covalent tannin-protein complexes on macrophage endocytosis, processing and presentation of antigen. We isolated HT from pomegranate and complex to HEL, the resulting non-covalent tannin-protein co...
Article
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Recent advances in cranberry research have expanded the evidence for the role of this Vaccinium berry fruit in modulating gut microbiota function and cardiometabolic risk factors. The A-type structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins seems to be responsible for much of this fruit's efficacy as a natural antimicrobial. Cranberry proanthocyanidins inte...
Article
The 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay is currently used to quantify proanthocyanidin (PAC) content in cranberry products. In a multi-operator/multi-day study design, a cranberry proanthocyanidin (c-PAC) standard was compared to procyanidin A2 (ProA2) dimer for accurate quantification of PAC in commercial cranberry juices, lab generated c...
Data
Video S1. Intracardiac echocardiography of 3‐year‐old RFH swine exhibiting normal leaflet characteristics and function.
Article
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Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a prevalent hereditary disease associated with increased atherosclerosis and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, in both FH and non‐FH individuals, the role of hypercholesterolemia in the development of CAVD is poorly understood. This study used Rapacz FH (RFH) swine, an established model...
Data
Data S1. Expanded methods. Figure S1. Characterization of valvular interstitial cell (VIC) proliferation and apoptosis in juvenile and 2‐year‐old RFH leaflets. A, Immunostaining for Ki67 indicated ≈0.7% VIC proliferation in both juvenile and 2‐year‐old RFH swine. B, Few to no apoptotic cells were detected in either juvenile or 2‐year‐old RFH swine...
Data
Video S2. Intracardiac echocardiography of 3‐year‐old RFH swine exhibiting mild valvular sclerosis.
Article
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequent extra-intestinal infections caused by Escherichia coli (ExPEC). Cranberry juice has been used for decades to alleviate symptoms and prevent recurrent UTI. The putative compounds in cranberries are proanthocyanidins (PAC), specifically PAC with "A-type" bonds. Since PAC are not absorbed, th...
Article
Full-text available
Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (RFH) swine are a well-established model of human FH, a highly prevalent hereditary disease associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, while these animals have been used extensively for the study of atherosclerosis, the heart valves from RFH swine...
Article
There is substantial interest in the role of plant secondary metabolites as protective dietary agents. In particular, the involvement of flavonoids and related compounds has become a major topic in human nutrition research. Evidence from epidemiological and human intervention studies is emerging regarding the protective effects of various (poly)phe...
Article
Many publications describe separation and quantification techniques for anthocyanins. However, chromatographic conditions to optimize the separation were seldom reported. We developed a sensitive and reliable HPLC method and validated the method for anthocyanin separation, identification, and quantification. Separation was performed on a Zorbax SB...
Article
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) removed lipophilic compounds and low molecular weight flavonoids from cranberries. However, SFE did not extract proanthocyanidins (PAC). The SFE PAC-enriched residue was submitted to fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 using ethanol, ethanol/methanol and 80% acetone. PAC degree of polymerization (DP) and ratios of "...
Article
PurposeTo assess measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and wall shear stress (WSS) in a swine model of atherosclerosis.Materials and Methods Nine familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine with angioplasty balloon catheter-induced atherosclerotic lesions to the abdominal aorta (injured group) and 10 uninjured FH swine were evaluated with a 4D pha...
Article
Gut colonization by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) increases the risk of subsequent infections, including urinary tract infection and septicemia. Previous work suggests that cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) interact with bacterial surface factors, altering bacterial interaction with host cells. Methods were developed to deter...
Article
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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections, and over 50% of women will have a UTI during their lifetimes. Antibiotics are used for prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs but can lead to emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate nutritional strategies for prevention of UTIs. Cranberr...
Article
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Introduction: Parenteral nutrition (PN) increases the risk of infection in patients with contraindication to enteral feeding. Paneth cells produce and secrete antimicrobial products that protect the mucosa from pathogens. Their loss is associated with increased host-pathogen interactions, mucosal inflammation, and altered microbiome composition. Hy...
Article
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The heterogeneous progression of atherosclerotic disease in the peripheral arteries is currently not well understood. In humans, artery specific disease progression is partly attributed to the local hemodynamic environments. However, despite similar hemodynamic environments, porcine brachial arteries are protected while femoral arteries are highly...
Article
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The "A-type" proanthocyanidins in cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are bioactive components associated with prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI). Cranberry juice, fruit (fresh and dried), functional foods, and cranberry dietary supplements are promoted for prevention of UTI and for maintenance of urinary tract health (UTH), on t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) decreases gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) function, including fewer Peyer’s patch lymphocytes, lower levels of the tissue Th2 cytokines and mucosal transport protein polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), leading to lower luminal sIgA levels. Since we recently demonstrated cranberry proanthocya...
Article
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Background: Lamina propria Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, stimulate goblet cell (GC) proliferation and MUC2 production, which protect the intestinal mucosa. Elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) reduces tissue IL-4 and impairs barrier function. Proanthocyanidins (PACs) stimulate oral mucin levels. We hypothesized that adding PAC to EEN w...
Article
The 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay is currently used to quantify proanthocyanidin (PAC) content in cranberry products. However, this method suffers from issues of accuracy and precision in the analysis and comparison of PAC levels across a broad range of cranberry products. Current use of procyanidin A2 as a standard leads to an under...
Article
Antioxidant and antiplatelet properties of grape products are thought to be responsible for observed antiatherosclerotic effects. Diverse classes of phenolics are derived from the seed and skin (GSK) of grapes. The relative contributions of the classes of phenolics to observed properties of grape products are unknown. In this paper, GSK fractions w...