Jérôme Chave's research while affiliated with Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III and other places

Publications (395)

Article
Very high-resolution satellite images and deep learning are achieving the mapping of individual trees and shrubs over large areas in Africa. Each woody plant is precisely georeferenced and defined by its crown area and, sometimes, its height. The challenge is to build allometric equations for foliage, wood and root dry masses based either on crown...
Article
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Biomonitoring of plant communities is essential when evaluating outcomes of ecological restoration, but morphology‐based inventories can impede consistency across spatial and temporal scales. The Eden Project botanic garden (Cornwall, UK) offers an opportunity to test whether soil eDNA reflects plant species richness, community composition and dive...
Article
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Extreme drought events in Amazon forests are expected to become more frequent and more intense with climate change, threatening ecosystem function and carbon balance. Yet large uncertainties exist on the resilience of this ecosystem to drought. A better quantification of tree hydraulics and mortality processes is needed to anticipate future drought...
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Full-text available
Forests contribute to climate change mitigation through carbon storage and uptake, but the extent to which this carbon pool varies in space and time is still poorly known. Several Earth Observation missions have been specifically designed to address this issue, e.g. NASA's GEDI, NASA-ISRO's NISAR and ESA's BIOMASS. Yet, all these missions' products...
Article
Determining the relative importance of dispersal and vicariance events across neotropical regions is a major goal in biogeography. These events are thought to be related to important landscape changes, notably the transition of Amazonia toward its modern hydrological configuration ca. 10 million years ago. We investigated the spatio-temporal contex...
Book
The earth's forests are havens of nature supporting a diversity of life. Shaped by climate and geography, these vast and dynamic wooded spaces offer unique ecosystems that shelter complex and interdependent webs of flora, fungi, and animals. The World Atlas of Trees and Forests offers a beautiful introduction to what forests are, how they work, how...
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During the last two decades, inventory data show that droughts have reduced biomass carbon sink of the Amazon forest by causing mortality to exceed growth. However, process‐based models have struggled to include drought‐induced responses of growth and mortality, and have not been evaluated against plot data. A process‐based model, ORCHIDEE‐CAN‐NHA,...
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To investigate the geographic patterns and ecological correlates in the geographic distribution of the most common tree dispersal modes in Amazonia (endozoochory, synzoochory, anemochory and hydrochory). We examined if the proportional abundance of these dispersal modes could be explained by the availability of dispersal agents (disperser‐availabil...
Article
Intact tropical rainforests have been exposed to severe droughts in recent decades, which may threaten their integrity, their ability to sequester carbon, and their capacity to provide shelter for biodiversity. However, their response to droughts remains uncertain due to limited high-quality, long-term observations covering extensive areas. Here, w...
Preprint
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Satellite radar backscatter contains unique information on land surface moisture, vegetation features, and surface roughness, and can be acquired in all weather conditions, thus has been used in a range of earth science disciplines. However, there is no single global radar data set that spans more than two decades. This has limited the use of radar...
Preprint
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The consistent monitoring of trees both inside and outside of forests is key to mitigating climate change. Current monitoring systems either ignore trees outside forests or are too expensive to be applied consistently across countries on a repeated basis. Here we make use of the PlanetScope nanosatellite constellation, which delivers global very hi...
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Forests that regrow naturally on abandoned fields are important for restoring biodiversity and ecosystem services, but can they also preserve the distinct regional tree floras? Using the floristic composition of 1215 early successional forests (≤20 years) in 75 human-modified landscapes across the Neotropic realm, we identified 14 distinct floristi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The consistent monitoring of trees both inside and outside of forests is key to mitigating climate change. Current monitoring systems either ignore trees outside forests or are too expensive to be applied consistently across countries on a repeated basis. Here we make use of the PlanetScope nanosatellite constellation, which delivers global very hi...
Article
Full-text available
Amazonian forest plays a crucial role in regulating the carbon and water cycles in the global climate system. However, the representation of biogeochemical fluxes and forest structure in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) remains challenging. This situation has considerable implications to simulate the state and dynamics of Amazonian forest....
Article
The 2015/16 El Niño brought severe drought and record-breaking temperatures in the tropics. Here, using satellite-based L-band microwave vegetation optical depth, we mapped changes of above-ground biomass (AGB) during the drought and in subsequent years up to 2019. Over more than 60% of drought-affected intact forests, AGB reduced during the drough...
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Data capturing multiple axes of tree size and shape, such as a tree's stem diameter, height and crown size, underpin a wide range of ecological research - from developing and testing theory on forest structure and dynamics, to estimating forest carbon stocks and their uncertainties, and integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring prog...
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Extreme wind blowdown events can significantly modify the structure and composition of forests, and the predicted shift in tropical cyclone regimes due to climate change could strongly impact forests across the tropics. In this study, we coupled an individual-based and spatially-explicit forest dynamics model (TROLL) with a mechanistic model estima...
Preprint
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Spatially heterogeneous plant mortality rates are an important predictor of the distribution of vegetation carbon in Amazonia. Reproducing the spatial gradients of vegetation carbon in Amazonia and the observed decline in the intact Amazonian carbon sink since 1990 is a challenge faced by dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). In this paper, we...
Preprint
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Trees sustain livelihoods and mitigate climate change, but a predominance of trees outside forests and limited resources make it difficult for many developing countries to conduct frequent nation-wide inventories. Here, we propose a rapid and accurate approach to map the carbon stock of each individual tree and shrub at the national scale of Rwanda...
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We explored a 320-km transect in the Tumucumaque mountain range along the border between southern French Guiana and Brazil, sampling all trees and lianas with DBH ≥ 10 cm in seven 25 x 25-m plots installed near seven boundary milestones. We isolated DNA from cambium tissue and sequenced two DNA barcodes (rbcLa and matK) to aid in species identifica...
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NASAs Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is collecting space-borne full waveform lidar data with a primary science goal of producing accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass density (AGBD). This paper presents the development of the models used to create GEDIs footprint-level (~25 m) AGBD (GEDI04_A) product, including a descript...
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Lakes play a key role in the global water cycle, providing essential water resources and ecosystem services for humans and wildlife. Quantifying long-term changes in lake volume at a global scale is therefore important to the sustainability of humanity and natural ecosystems. Yet, such an estimate is still unavailable because, unlike lake area, lak...
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Low-coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing (or genome skimming) has emerged as a cost-effective method for acquiring genomic data in non-model organisms. This method provides sequence information on chloroplast genome (cpDNA), mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and nuclear ribosomal regions (rDNA), which are over-represented within cells. However, nume...
Article
The interferometric coherence of repeat-pass C-band synthetic aperture radar observations has shown potential for mapping forest above-ground biomass (AGB) when images were acquired with short temporal repeat intervals and under stable environmental conditions. Since 2014, Sentinel-1 collects repeated interferometric image pairs at global scale wit...
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Full-text available
Terrestrial biosphere models typically use the biochemical model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (1980) to simulate photosynthesis, which requires accurate values of photosynthetic capacity of different biomes. However, data on tropical forests are sparse and highly variable due to the high species diversity, and it is still highly uncertain...
Article
is collecting spaceborne full waveform lidar data with a primary science goal of producing accurate estimates of forest aboveground biomass density (AGBD). This paper presents the development of the models used to create GEDI's footprint-level (~25 m) AGBD (GEDI04_A) product, including a description of the datasets used and the procedure for final...
Article
Individual-based forest models (IBMs) are useful to investigate the effect of environment on forest structure and dynamics, but they are often restricted to site-specific applications. To build confidence for spatially distributed simulations, model transferability, i.e. the ability of the same model to provide reliable predictions at contrasting s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extreme drought events in Amazon forests are expected to become more frequent and more intense with climate change, threatening ecosystem function and carbon balance. Yet large uncertainties exist on the resilience of this ecosystem to drought. A better quantification of tree hydraulics and mortality processes is needed to anticipate future drought...
Article
Significance Tropical forests disappear rapidly through deforestation but also have the potential to regrow naturally through a process called secondary succession. To advance successional theory, it is essential to understand how these secondary forests and their assembly vary across broad spatial scales. We do so by synthesizing continental-scale...
Article
Key messageWe used lightweight terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to detect over 3000 stems per hectare across a 12-ha permanent forest plot in French Guiana, 81% of them < 10 cm in trunk diameter. This method retrieved 85% of the trees of a classic inventory. Finally, TLS revealed that stem positions of the classic inventory had geolocation errors o...
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Humiria balsamifera is an infraspecific complex of high phenotypic variation and widely distributed in northern South America. Leaf traits are traditionally considered the most relevant taxonomic characters for varietal level delimitation in the group. However, substantial phenotypic overlap among vegetative characters complicates taxonomic diagnos...
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As a key component of the Earth system, roots play a key role in linking Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. Here we combine 10 307 field measurements of forest root biomass worldwide with global observations of forest structure, climatic conditions, topography, land management and soil characteristics to derive a spatially...
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The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the “critical priority pathogens” due to its multidrug resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. Its ability to invade and damage host tissues is due to the use of quorum sensing (QS) to collectively produce a plethora of virulence factors. Inhibition of QS is an attractive strategy for n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Terrestrial biosphere models typically use the biochemical model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (1980) to simulate photosynthesis, which requires accurate values of photosynthetic capacity of different biomes. However, data on tropical forests are sparse and highly variable due to the high species diversity, and it is still highly uncertain h...
Article
Full-text available
The Wnt signaling pathway controls multiple events during embryonic development of multicellular animals and is carcinogenic when aberrantly activated in adults. Breast cancers are dependent on Wnt pathway overactivation mostly through dysregulation of pathway component protein expression, which necessitates the search for therapeutically relevant...
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Urban expansion and associated habitat transformation drives shifts in biodiversity, with declines in taxonomic and functional diversity. Forests fragments within urban landscapes offer a number of ecosystem services, and help to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Here, we focus on a tropical forest environment, and on the soil biota. U...
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Resorption is the active withdrawal of nutrients before leaf abscission. This mechanism represents an important strategy to maintain efficient nutrient cycling; however, resorption is poorly characterized in old-growth tropical forests growing in nutrient-poor soils. We investigated nutrient resorption from leaves in 39 tree species in two tropical...
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Plant transpiration links physiological responses of vegetation to water supply and demand with hydrological, energy, and carbon budgets at the land–atmosphere interface. However, despite being the main land evaporative flux at the global scale, transpiration and its response to environmental drivers are currently not well constrained by observatio...
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The forests of Amazonia are among the most biodiverse plant communities on Earth. Given the immediate threats posed by climate and land-use change, an improved understanding of how this extraordinary biodiversity is spatially organized is urgently required to develop effective conservation strategies. Most Amazonian tree species are extremely rare...
Article
Tropical forests are the most diverse and productive ecosystems on Earth. While better understanding of these forests is critical for our collective future, until quite recently efforts to measure and monitor them have been largely disconnected. Networking is essential to discover the answers to questions that transcend borders and the horizons of...
Preprint
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In a time of rapid global change, the question of what determines patterns in species abundance distribution remains a priority for understanding the complex dynamics of ecosystems. The constrained maximization of information entropy provides a framework for the understanding of such complex systems dynamics by a quantitative analysis of important...
Article
Understanding how species diversify and evolve in species-rich areas like the lowland rain forest in the Neotropics is critical for conservation in times of unprecedented threats. To determine how the Andean uplift, the formation of the Panama land bridge, and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations affected dispersal and diversification in the Sapotacea...
Article
Aim The carbon sink in tropical forests is a highly uncertain component of the global carbon budget. An understanding of the processes controlling this sink requires better quantification of carbon allocation, stocks and turnover times. Location Tropical forests. Time period 2010–2017. Major taxa studied Tropical forest ecosystem. Methods We de...
Preprint
Full-text available
As a key component of the Earth system, root plays the key role in linking Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere. Here we combine 10307 field measurements of forest root biomass worldwide with global observations of forest structure, climatic conditions, topography, land management and soil characteristics to derive a spatiall...
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Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20537-x
Book
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the full text can be found at: https://lpvs.gsfc.nasa.gov/PDF/CEOS_WGCV_LPV_Biomass_Protocol_2021_V1.0.pdf
Article
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Aim Tree crowns determine light interception, carbon and water exchange. Thus, understanding the factors causing tree crown allometry to vary at the tree and stand level matters greatly for the development of future vegetation modelling and for the calibration of remote sensing products. Nevertheless, we know little about large‐scale variation and...
Article
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Tropical forests are being deforested worldwide, and the remaining fragments are suffering from biomass and biodiversity erosion. Quantifying this erosion is challenging because ground data on tropical biodiversity and biomass are often sparse. Here, we use an unprecedented dataset of 1819 field surveys covering the entire Atlantic Forest biodivers...
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Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was introduced for basic forest measurements, such as tree height and diameter, in the early 2000s. Recent advances in sensor and algorithm development have allowed us to assess in situ 3D forest structure explicitly and revolutionised the way we monitor and quantify ecosystem structure and function. Here, we provid...
Article
We studied the evolutionary history of Chrysobalanaceae with phylogenetic analyses of complete plastid genomes from 156 species to assess the tempo of diversification in the Neotropics and help to unravel the causes of Amazonian plant diversification. These plastid genomes had a mean length of 162 204 base pairs, and the nearly complete DNA sequenc...
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The chemical diversity of biologically active fungal strains from 42 Colletotrichum, isolated from leaves of the tropical palm species Astrocaryum sciophilum collected in pristine forests of French Guiana, was investigated. The collection was first classified based on protein fingerprints acquired by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time...
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The carbon sink capacity of tropical forests is substantially affected by tree mortality. However, the main drivers of tropical tree death remain largely unknown. Here we present a pan-Amazonian assessment of how and why trees die, analysing over 120,000 trees representing > 3800 species from 189 long-term RAINFOR forest plots. While tree mortality...