Jeremy P. Loenneke's research while affiliated with University of Mississippi and other places

Publications (464)

Article
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The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effects of blood flow restriction training on resting blood pressure and heart rate. A meta-analysis was completed in May 2020 including all previously published papers on blood flow restriction and was analyzed using a random effects model. To be included, studies needed to implement a blood flo...
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Increased plasma volume is often reported as a cause or symptom of hypertension in individuals with obesity. However, these individuals are often compared to normal weight normotensive individuals. Since higher plasma volumes have been reported in larger individuals, it is possible that plasma volume is actually lower in obese hypertensive individu...
Article
Objective: A Smedley hand dynamometer is one of the standard devices for measuring handgrip strength (HGS) for children and adults. The aim was to compare the HGS values using two different types of dynamometers (Grip-A or Grip-D) in young children. To enable comparison between the two devices, we have redesigned the Grip-D (i.e., modified Grip-D)...
Article
Background Orthostatic intolerance occurs in some astronauts following space flight. Although orthostatic blood pressure responses should normalize in the weeks following the return to Earth, there may be situations where an immediate short-term solution is necessary (e.g., emergency evacuation). Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine di...
Article
Isometric handgrip exercise has been suggested to promote some health‐related factors (e.g., lowering blood pressure). However, there is a need to evaluate whether this type of exercise can be included as an option to elicit these health‐related outcomes. The purpose of the article was to systematically review the acute and chronic effects of isome...
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Objective: The previous results from cross-sectional studies indicate that there could be alterations across time in handgrip strength (HGS) asymmetry. One way to investigate this is to test the same children multiple times. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the laterality of HGS in healthy young children at two different time points separated by a...
Article
It is suggested that experience is needed in order to capture valid estimates of muscle size with ultrasound. However, it is unknown whether there is a large degree of skill needed to analyze the images once they are captured. Objective: To determine if less experienced raters could accurately analyze ultrasound images of the forearm by comparing t...
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Objectives: To maintain proper development, it is recommended that children/adolescents focus more on increasing physical activity than dietary restriction when treating obesity. In other words, adults are better able to tolerate the reductions in fat-free body mass that often occur when trying to lose fat mass. In contrast, children and adolescent...
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The purpose was to examine the effect of isometric handgrip exercise with and without blood flow restriction on exercise-induced hypoalgesia at a local and non-local site, and its underlying mechanisms. Sixty participants (21 males & 39 females, 18–35 years old) completed 3 trials: four sets of 2-minute isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of maximum...
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Objective To investigate the role of muscle thickness changes on changes in strength following 6 weeks of unaccustomed resistance training, via retrospective analysis.Methods151 participants completed 6 weeks of no intervention (CONTROL), one-repetition maximum training (1RM-TRAIN), or traditional resistance training (TRAD-TRAIN). Groups were assig...
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The aim of this multi-experiment paper was to explore the concept of the minimum effective training dose (METD) required to increase 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) strength in powerlifting (PL) athletes. The METD refers to the least amount of training required to elicit meaningful increases in 1RM strength. A series of five studies utilising mixed meth...
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Impaired proprioception can provide faulty sensory feedback to the brain during movement, resulting in an increased risk of injury. Although several safety concerns about blood flow restricted exercise have been investigated, no research has observed how this exercise affects proprioception. Objectives: To investigate the effects of walking with an...
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Aim Diseases and bed rest may result in decreased muscle size and function. While exercise is recommended as a countermeasure, there are times when diseases or injuries make it difficult for the patient to partake in an exercise intervention. Pharmaceutical interventions using a myostatin inhibitor, BYM338, have been investigated as a way to increa...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether isometric handgrip exercise, with or without blood flow restriction, would alter interference control and feelings. 60 healthy young adults completed three experimental visits, consisting of four sets of two‐minutes isometric handgrip exercise, at 30% of maximal strength with or without blood flo...
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This systematic review and meta‐analysis examined studies on the chronic effects of exergames on muscle strength in humans. PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, Web of Science, SciELO, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, and Google Scholar were searched, and manual searches of the reference lists of included studies and hand‐searches on Physiotherapy Evidence Databas...
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IntroductionUnderstanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours...
Preprint
Full-text available
The aim of this multi-experiment paper was to explore the concept of the minimum effective training dose (METD) required to increase 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) strength in powerlifting (PL) athletes. The METD refers to the least amount of training required to elicit meaningful increases in 1RM strength. A series of 5 studies utilising mixed methods...
Article
Exercise and low-calorie diets are common approaches taken to produce an energy deficit for weight loss in obesity. Changes in visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat associated with weight loss are important questions but have not yet been concluded. We investigated the relationship between changes in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue...
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s Objective To review past literature regarding exercise-induced hypoalgesia and pain reduction following blood flow restriction interventions, and to discuss potential mechanisms as well as future considerations towards the efficacy of blood flow restriction in pain reduction following exercise. Methods To be eligible for inclusion, studies had...
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The orbicularis oculi muscle is the sphincter muscle of the eyelids that blinks and closes the eyes. In this review, our aim was threefold: (1) to introduce the performance characteristics of blinking activity in young and older adults, (2) to discuss the influence of aging on the orbicularis oculi muscle in healthy adults, and (3) to provide infor...
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Background It has been observed that gluteal-femoral adipose tissue has a protective effect against risk factors for cardiovascular disease but has not yet been concluded how different evaluation methods of fat distribution affect the results. Methods To test the hypothesis that B-mode ultrasound-measured subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution i...
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Blood flow restriction, in combination with low load/intensity exercise, has consistently been shown to increase both muscle size and strength. In contrast, the effects of blood flow restricted exercise on cognition have not been well studied. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is 1) to review the currently available literature investigating the...
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Over the past several decades, periodization has been widely accepted as the gold standard of training theory. Within the literature, there are numerous definitions for periodization, which makes it difficult to study. When examining the proposed definitions and related studies on periodization, problems arise in the following domains: (1) periodiz...
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Fat-free mass (FFM) estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and densitometric methods (e.g. underwater weighing or air-displacement plethysmography) contains the fat-free component of adipose tissue. Weight loss reduces triglycerides in adipocytes and this automatically reduces the fat-free component of adipose tissue (assuming the fat...
Article
Previous work in non‐resistance trained individuals has found that an increase in muscle size has no additive effect on changes in strength. However, is thought that muscle growth is of increased importance for resistance trained individuals. Purpose Experiment 1: To examine changes in muscle thickness (MT), and one repetition maximum (1RM) streng...
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Accumulating research provides suggestive evidence that acute aerobic exercise may, potentially, enhance episodic memory function post-exercise. Limited research has evaluated whether acute resistance exercise may also enhance episodic memory post-exercise. Further, whether these two exercise modalities have a differential effect on post-exercise e...
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We recently reported the fat fraction percentage of white adipose tissue in adolescents and adults measured by the water-fat separation method, but there was limited discussion about the change in adipose tissue fat fraction with growth. The purpose of this updated review was to examine the fat content of white (subcutaneous) adipose tissue during...
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Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue composed of closely packed adipocytes with collagenous and elastic fibers. These adipocytes store triglycerides at a high percentage and the estimate of this amount is important for the calculation of body fat mass. For example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures adipose tissue volume, but adipos...
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It is unclear whether the measurement of maximum muscle strength in younger children can be performed accurately due to factors such as motivation and maturity (i.e., the ability to receive instruction). If there is a large change in a ratio between muscular strength and size from the youngest to the oldest, then this might provide some indication...
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Blood flow restriction resistance training (BFRT) employs partial vascular occlusion of exercising muscles via inflation cuffs. Compared with high-load resistance training, mechanical load is markedly reduced with BFRT, but induces similar gains in muscle mass and strength. BFRT is thus an effective training strategy for people with physical limita...
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An increased ability to supply energy to skeletal muscle is expected to contribute to greater athletic performance, and therefore, a variety of training methods are used for improving these energy supply systems. These methods are classified into two broad categories: a bout of continuous exercise at a given load/intensity and intermittent bouts of...
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Aerobic and resistance exercise (acute and chronic) independently and collectively induce beneficial responses in the brain that may influence memory function, including an increase in cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, neuroelectrical alterations, and protein production. However, whether aerobic and resistance exercise improve memory via similar o...
Article
Muscle quality is typically defined as muscle strength relative to muscle size. Echo intensity has gained popularity as an index of skeletal muscle quality. There is common agreement that muscle size is related to strength at baseline and echo intensity is purported to impact this relationship. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether...
Preprint
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Objectives: To determine how the onset of COVID-19, and the associated ‘lockdown’, affected RT behaviours, in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed resistance training RT prior to the pandemic. Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Online surveys in multiple l...
Article
The purpose was to determine if post activation performance enhancement is specific to the muscle being conditioned or if it is also observed within the homologous muscles of the contralateral limb (after accounting for the warm‐up and random error). We also investigated if this differed based on training status or muscle size. One hundred seven pa...
Article
Maximal strength testing is often performed to assess the efficacy of training programs or as a way to prescribe exercise load. Generally, it is believed that high load exercise is superior to low load exercise at increasing absolute strength, however this is not always the case (i.e. strength increases similarly between groups). We hypothesized th...
Article
Narrow cuffs cause less discomfort than wide cuffs immediately following elbow flexion exercise in combination with blood flow restriction, possibly due to a balling up effect of the bicep underneath the cuff. In this study, we sought to examine the impact of cuff width, sex, and pressure on perceived discomfort in the quadriceps, following knee ex...
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The effect of blood flow restriction therapy on recovery after experimentally induced muscle weakness and pain. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2020—The purpose was to determine if blood flow restriction with no external load could be used as a means of active therapy after experimentally induced fatigue and soreness. Twelve women and 7 men (ag...
Article
Objective: To develop a valid method of applying blood flow restriction when the pressure cannot be known. This method involves conditioning the individual to what the goal pressure should be, such that the participant is able to recognize the sensation associated with that specific pressure. Approach: Participants were conditioned to 40% of the...
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Objective In healthy adults, it is generally accepted that women have less upper body muscle mass compared to men. However, it is unknown whether there are sex differences in skeletal muscle distribution in highly trained large‐sized athletes. Our aim was to compare the skeletal muscle size distribution between large‐sized male and female athletes....
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PurposeThe aponeurosis, a sheet of fibrous tissue, is the deep and superficial fascia where muscle fibers attach in pennate muscles. It is quite possible that the aponeurosis size increases in response to resistance training-induced fiber hypertrophy due to an increase in connection area. As a result, it leads to an increase in anatomical muscle cr...
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There are currently many different approaches to performing exergames and there is still no consensus as to whether exergames are able to reduce anxiety levels, as well as whether exergames provide greater reductions on anxiety levels when added to traditional forms of clinical interventions. Therefore, the aim of the present systematic review and...
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International Journal of Exercise Science 13(6): 859-872, 2020. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of horizontal and incline bench press as well as the combination of both exercises on neuromuscular adaptation in untrained young men. Forty-seven untrained men were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: 1) a horizonta...
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(1) Background: Increasing tongue and lip strength may help improve various speech and swallowing disorders, but it is unclear if instrumentalists who use these muscle groups for long periods of time have greater strength and endurance compared to controls. It is also unclear if instrumentalists can more accurately estimate various exercise intensi...
Chapter
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INTRODUÇÃO Os métodos alternativos de treinamento para exercícios tradicionais de resistência a altas cargas começaram a se tornar mais populares na literatura, como o treinamento funcional (La Scala Teixeira et al., 2017) e restrição ao fluxo sanguíneo (BFR) (Patterson et al., 2019). A principal justificativa para a pesquisa envolvendo esses tópic...
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Background: The association of physical activity (PA) intensities and duration spent in those activities with different walking tasks remains unclear. Objectives: To examine the association between the duration of PA intensities and three walking speeds (usual walking speed, maximal walking speed and zig-zag walking speed). Design: Multiple li...
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Background Swallowing disorders (dysphagia) occur in a large proportion of individuals over the age of 60. The improvement of tongue strength by resistance exercise is postulated to be directly related to lingual-palatal pressure generation and bolus propulsion into the pharynx during swallowing. To the best of our knowledge, however, there is no e...
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