Jens Westheide's research while affiliated with University of Bonn and other places

Publications (20)

Article
Full-text available
This report concerns the case of a 29-year-old male patient suffering from severe psychotic illness who had been satisfactorily treated with clozapine for 4 months. Clozapine had also been successfully administered during a psychotic episode 5 years previously. Though symptoms of psychosis were successfully controlled following the most recent psyc...
Article
Sexual dysfunction is a frequent side-effect of antipsychotic medication. Many patients become non-compliant, once ascribing their sexual impairment to their psychotropic medication. Quetiapine has been associated with only minor sexual side-effects compared with other atypical neuroleptics. It has not been examined yet whether quetiapine is equall...
Article
Sexual dysfunction is a frequent side effect of antipsychotic treatment. Increased prolactin levels are believed to be responsible for this sexual impairment despite contradictory results. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, subjective well-being and prolactin levels in patients wit...
Article
Full-text available
Suicidal ideation has been related to cognitive rigidity whereas suicidal behaviour itself was associated with specific executive deficits. Yet it remains unclear if a distinct cognitive suicidal phenotype does exist. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of suicidal thinking for the neuropsychological performance in depr...
Article
Only few studies have investigated executive impairment in the euthymic phase of unipolar affective disorders, yielding diverging results. The role of impulsivity/orbitofrontal associated executive functioning in remitted depression has not yet been examined. Partly remitted male out-patients (n = 15) with non-psychotic major depression (MDD) were...
Article
The majority of psychiatric patients suffer from sexual dysfunction. Although sexual impairment is a major cause for non-compliance in psychiatric patients, it remains underdiagnosed by the attending physician. Therefore, the aim of the following study was to examine sexual behaviour and sexual dysfunction in a large sample of psychiatric patients....
Article
Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antipsychotic medication. Although increased prolactin levels caused by antipsychotic agents are believed to play a major role with regard to sexual side effects, the underlying mechanism of antipsychotic agent-induced sexual dysfunction remains poorly understood. In a multicentric study 587 psychiatric...
Article
Although sexual side effects are a common reason for noncompliance with medication, information on impairment of sexuality in psychiatric inpatients is scarce. In the present multi-center study, data on several aspects of sexual functioning were collected in psychiatric inpatients using a previously validated questionnaire. A high overall prevalenc...
Article
Full-text available
In animal studies, the common club drug 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") consistently caused a prolonged loss of presynaptic serotonergic neurons, and evidence suggests that MDMA consumption may also affect the human serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the regulation of impulsivity and such executive funct...
Article
Zusammenfassung Sexuelle Funktionsstörungen stellen eine häufige unerwünschte Nebenwirkung von Psychopharmaka dar, bei männlichen Patienten treten insbesondere die Ejakulationsstörung und die erektile Dysfunktion auf. Trotz ihrer hohen Prävalenz werden sie in der psychiatrischen Diagnostik nicht ausreichend erfasst. Die medikamentöse Compliance kan...
Article
Disturbances in sexual functioning are a common side effect in the treatment of psychopharmacological agents. In male patients ejaculatory disturbance and erectile dysfunction are the common complaints on presentation. Despite their high prevalence these disturbances are not consistently documented. Patient compliance can be markedly reduced as a r...
Article
Until now, there is a lack of useful biological markers to predict suicidal behavior in depressive patients. However, it is consistently found that suicidality is associated with a central serotonin deficit. Animal data suggest that prepulse inhibition (PPI) as well as habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR), which are established as ope...
Article
Full-text available
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) are widely used biological markers in the study of psychiatric disorders and have been shown to be homologous across species. Previous studies in humans suggested that PPI is a stable and reliable measure between test sessions, but that PPI decreases within sessions. T...
Article
Full-text available
Schizophrenic patients exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR). Recent studies suggested that PPI deficits and habituation deficits are normalized after antipsychotic treatment. Despite clear evidence of gating and habituation mechanisms in animal models, it is still unknown which neur...
Article
Full-text available
Combined serotonin-2A (5-HT(2A)) and dopamine-2 (D2) receptor blockade has been proposed as a candidate mechanism by which second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) improve both cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients, in contrast to antipsychotics of the first generation. The SGA amisulpride, however, only binds to D2/D3 receptors,...
Conference Paper
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in habituation and sensorimotor gating of the acoustic startle response (ASR). Despite of clear evidence of gating and habituation mechanisms in animal models, it is still unknown which neurotransmitter systems are involved in schizophrenia. We investigated the influence of two antipsychotic agents wi...
Article
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) possesses several receptors and their subtypes, some of which are polymorphic, such as the 5-HT(2C) receptor. The latter has been implicated in the control of neuroendocrine function, and has been discussed in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder...

Citations

... PPI is a measure of reduction of the acoustic startle response when a weaker pre-stimulus (pre-pulse) is presented before the startling stimulus (Braff et al., 1978), representing a measure of sensorimotor gating. Reduced PPI is demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia (Braff et al., 1992; Quednow et al., 2006), but also their first-degree relatives (Cadenhead et al., 2000), subjects with schizotypal personality disorder (Cadenhead et al., 2002) and in healthy subjects carrying schizophrenia risk polymorphisms (Roussos et al., 2009a). It is proposed to be one of the more robust endophenotypes in patients with schizophrenia (Swerdlow et al., 2008; Turetsky et al., 2007). ...
... (Filip and Bader 2009). Stimulation of HTR1A results in PRL release, which can be blocked with selective HTR1A antagonists (Jørgensen et al. 2001;K€ uhn et al. 2002). The HTR2 family consists of three subtypes: HTR2A, HTR2B (embryological) and HTR2C. ...
... Interestingly, data on the effects of AMI on cognitive function in schizophrenia patients is limited to a few open-label studies and randomized controlled trials (Tyson et al., 2004;Wagner et al., 2005;Mortimer et al., 2007;Wang et al., 2008;Kumar and Chaudhury, 2014). Consistent with our findings, AMI ameliorated cognitive impairments in all studies. ...
... Inconsistent PPF has similarly been observed in human (Hong et al., 2008) and rodent studies (Sasaki et al., 1998). It is possible that while PPI may get attenuated with habituation over pulse-only trials (Quednow et al., 2006), the opposite is true for PPF, and it will emerge in the second session after exposure to (and habituation over) pulse-only trials, with or without the presence of PPI (prepulse + pulse) trials. Alternatively, PPF may be affected by context, such as task order, in this case. ...
... Our finding of male-specific diminished startle response with intact prepulse inhibition is a notable finding, given that in human patients, lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala can reduce baseline startle amplitude [42][43][44][45][46] . Diminished startle responses have also been observed in patients with disorders that have been genetically linked to Ca V 1.2, including bipolar disorder 47 and schizophrenia 48,49 , both of which have some evidence for differences in clinical manifestation between male and female patients [50][51][52] . More work will be required to understand the mechanism underpinning the role of Ca V 1.2 in startle responses. ...
... While MDMA shares most of the acute effects of AMPH and METH, the effects that most likely motivate recreational MDMA use are increased sociability, closeness to others, and hallucinogenic-like alterations in visual perception (Baylen and Rosenberg, 2006;Bershad et al., 2016). However, the chronic use of all of these ATS can be associated with long-term negative consequences such as mental health problems (Cruickshank and Dyer, 2009;Kalant, 2001;Steinkellner et al., 2011) and cognitive impairments, including executive dysfunctions (Potvin et al., 2018;Quednow et al., 2006;Roberts et al., 2016b;Scott et al., 2007). Executive functions combine a set of higher-level cognitive processes that allow to willingly regulate and control behavior in order to enable goal-directed and situation-appropriate behavior (Diamond, 2013). ...
... The few studies of PPI in individuals with MDD suggest that PPI is not impaired in this condition [96][97][98], although this may differ in depressed men versus depressed women. Tryptophan (TRP) depletion, which is used experimentally to reduce central serotonin levels and is associated with relapse of depression symptoms among vulnerable groups [99], reduced baseline ASR in a sample of healthy female controls but did not affect PPI [100]. ...
... An inversely proportionate association between depression and FSFI was discovered in a prior study that was conducted in Polish women, but the correlation's strength was low [35]. On the other hand, Cohen et al. found that persons with depressive conditions had a higher rate of sexual dysfunction [36]. Ilgen et al. demonstrated that during the pandemic, anxiety and sadness levels increased [37]. ...
... Los resultados mostraron que los pacientes con depresión no exhibieron el aumento esperado en la actividad frontal izquierda durante el proceso de recompensa (Shankman, Klein, Tenke & Bruder, 2007). Aunque los pacientes con depresión tengan un mejor rendimiento en la tarea de juego de Iowa, los autores concluyeron que los pacientes deprimidos evitan las altas recompensas potenciales en la tarea de la misma manera que lo hacen en la vida cotidiana (Smoski, Lynch, Rosenthal, Cheavens, Chapman & Krishnan, 2008), y que el desempeño en la prueba de juego de Iowa depende del estado de ánimo, al observarse un mejor desempeño en la tarea en pacientes deprimidos con remisión (Westheide, Wagner, Quednow, Christian-Hoppe, Cooper-Mahkorn, Strater, Maier, Kai-Uwe, 2007). En conjunto, los resultados de estos estudios sugieren que algunos pacientes que actualmente sufren de depresión muestran alteración neuronal en las estructuras involucradas en la toma de decisiones. ...
... It is known to affect all domains of sexual function, including desire, arousal, erection, ejaculation, and orgasm [6], and despite being known to be a major cause of poor quality of life and non-adherence to medication, it is generally underestimated, often neglected, and poorly managed [7]. So far, sexual dysfunction has been largely attributed to the deleterious effect of antipsychotic medication [8], although recent data suggest that it may be a consequence of the disease itself and may also be related to symptom severity [9]. ...