# Jennifer M. Langer-Osuna's research while affiliated with Stanford University and other places

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## Publications (24)

This paper explores peer interactions in an elementary mathematics classroom (ages 9–10) where the teacher intentionally shared authority with her students and supported them in learning to share authority with one another. Authors examine how students shifted between shared, concentrated, and contested social and intellectual authority relations i...

Off-task activity is ubiquitous in classrooms, yet little understood. Building on recent work that illustrates the utility of off-task activity to disrupt relations of power among students, this paper explores the potential functions of off-task participation during collaborative mathematics problem-solving. We examined 56 instances of off-task par...

Collaborative learning requires a lot of talk. Although not all student talk may be related to the task at hand, some off-task talk is actually productive, as it enables students to negotiate how they will work together, gain attention of fellow group members, and draw others into joining the work. Emma C. Gargroetzi, Rosa D. Chavez, Jen Munson, Je...

How students build mathematics knowledge together in classrooms is of central concern in research focused on the role of language in learning and doing mathematics. This paper explores how students compose mathematics knowledge together in relation to the social construction of influence. Drawing on the influence framework (Engle et al. in J Learn...

This paper confronts the myth that all off-task interactions in mathematics classrooms is detrimental to learning. To do so, this paper first explores links between participation, learning, and identity in mathematics education research that points to the importance of positional resources. Positional resources are related to identity processes and...

The field of mathematics education research has seen a resurgence of interest in understanding collaborative learning because students in K-12 classrooms are increasingly expected to make sense of mathematics problems together. This research commentary argues for the importance of understanding student authority relations in collaborative mathemati...

This article describes a study of how students construct relations of authority during dyadic mathematical work and how teachers’ interactions with students during small group conferences affect subsequent student dynamics. Drawing on the influence framework (Engle, Langer-Osuna, & McKinney de Royston, 2014), I examined interactions when students a...

In this chapter, the authors examine the trajectory of the literature on race, culture, and identity in education research through the past century. The literature is first situated within its historical and conceptual foundations, specifically the dehumanizing legacy of scientific racism, the early efforts by African American scholars to rehumaniz...

Mathematics classrooms around the world serve students who are learning the dominant language of instruction. These students’ forms of participation in mathematical activity have often been examined from deficit perspectives. Mathematics education research is in great need of counter-narratives to such prevailing deficit assumptions so that we can...

In this paper, we frame mathematics classrooms as heterogeneous spaces wherein students draw on multiple storylines based on different notions of schooling and school mathematics to both communicate mathematical ideas and position themselves and one another. We focus on a fourth grade (age range 9.4–10.8 years) mathematics classroom discussion in a...

This chapter draws from social semiotics to explore how recent trends in mathematics pedagogy affect classroom interaction. We perform a genre analysis on several excerpts of classroom interaction, drawn from classrooms in transition, from a more teacher-centered approach, toward approaches that invest students with authority to construct mathemati...

The Language in Mathematics (LiM) project builds on multiple theoretical perspectives to create an interdisciplinary professional learning or development (PL) framework for teachers of mathematics. This framework examines academic language and literacy development and mathematical content teaching and learning for English language learners. Specifi...

This article investigates the coconstruction of student identity and engagement in the case of a 9th grader in a project-based algebra classroom that afforded students a great deal of autonomy. The focal student, Terrance, utilized classroom resources to serve both project-related and social functions as he interacted with his peers during multiwee...

It is commonly observed that during classroom or group discussions some students have greater influence than may be justified by the normative quality of those students' contributions. We propose a 5-component theoretical framework in order to explain how undue influence unfolds. We build on literatures on persuasion, argumentation, discourse, and...

This paper draws on the constructs of hybridity, figured worlds, and cultural capital to examine how a group of African-American students in a technology-driven, project-based algebra classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities during group work. Analyses of several vignettes of small...

This symposium brings together researchers interested in studying mathematical proficiency through a focus on students' dispositions toward mathematics-their ideas and affect about mathematics and their patterns of engagement with it. While dispositions are useful for connecting important aspects of students' proficiency, they are also broad and ch...

In this article, mathematics classrooms are conceptualized as heterogeneous spaces in which multiple figured worlds come into contact. The study explores how a group of high school students drew upon several figured worlds as they navigated mathematical discussions. Results highlight 3 major points. First, the students drew on 2 primary figured wor...

This article addresses equity in mathematics classrooms through a focus on students’ co-constructed trajectories of identity and engagement in cooperative learning groups. I examine how two students who served as group leaders in a projects-based algebra classroom constructed markedly different trajectories of identity and engagement across the aca...

This paper examines the development of student authority in a case of one student assigned the role of topic expert in a classroom that utilized distributed expertise as a participation structure during collaborative projects. Using video data of a heated student-led debate, we show how this student successfully positioned himself with greater auth...

During unmoderated discussions it is commonly observed that some people end up having more influence than seems justified by the actual quality of their contributions. In this paper, we propose and illustrate a spreading-activation architecture for modeling such differential influence. In our model, each participant's level of influence vis-à-vis o...

This paper offers an empirical approach for the coordinated analysis of learning and identity in mathematics classrooms, by drawing upon (a) Saxe's (2004, 1999, 1991) framework for the study of mathematical cognition in cultural practices and (b) practice theories of identity (Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, & Cain, 1998; Wenger, 1998). This paper ar...

## Citations

... For students to exercise agency (the third interactional aspect in this study) it is not enough to ask students to work collaboratively on mathematical tasks for agency to automatically occur (Mueller et al., 2012). Students are afforded the agency to "author mathematical ideas" in cases where teachers distribute shared authority between students and teacher (Langer-Osuna et al., 2020). Teacher actions for sharing authority, so that students can exercise agency, is to offer students opportunities to address mathematics problems, and holding students accountable to their strategies, solutions, and ideas (Bell & Pape, 2012;Hamm & Perry, 2002as referred to in Langer-Osuna, 2018. ...

... Behavioral engagement (BE) characterizes the degree to which a group jointly participates and persists on assigned tasks or chooses to go off-task (Fredricks, et al., 2004). Sustained group participation amongst group members yields potential for building from others' perspectives, while temporary off-task exchanges can reinvigorate positive interpersonal interactions when returning to task (Barron, 2000;Langer-Osuna, et al., 2020). Both socioemotional engagement and collaborative engagement are extensions to individual engagement dimensions, accounting for the interpersonal nature of group engagement . ...

... In those first foundational weeks, Lauren's team frequently focused on social interactions at the expense of mathematical discussion. These social interactions may have been important early practice for later mathematical discussion; the team learned to function as a social group first to accomplish team-based mathematical goals later [10,17]. That said, based on her regular redirection of the group, Ms. Mayen was clearly displeased that the team was frequently off-task. ...

... Alternatively, to funneling is what Wood (1998) calls focusing, where the intellectual responsibility is with the students, hence to a larger degree than funneling actions are teacher actions for promoting productive interactions as reviewed in the first part of this section, zooming in on reasoning (Ayalon & Even, 2016;Lithner, 2017;Maher et al., 2018), collaboration (Howe et al., 2007;Staples, 2007;van de Pol et al., 2018), and agency (Langer-Osuna, 2018;Mueller et al., 2012). ...

... Further, research from the math ed. community argues off-task discussion can support greater equity in learning outcomes in small group work, including studies suggesting off-task participation may be particularly important for low-status students [9][10][11]. ...

... First, identity has been proposed as the "missing link" that connects the complex interface "between learning and its sociocultural context" [35, p. 15]. Second, identity is related to important equity and inclusion issues [13] such as access [12], authority [22], institutional structures [27], and power [16,32]. Third, identity provides a counternarrative for why different students may continue (or discontinue) the learning of school mathematics that doesn't focus merely on demographic labels [7,17,18,27]. ...

... Research has established that learning is linked to identity development, which in turn is predicated on caring relationships (Langer-Osuna & Nasir, 2016). Critical and sociocultural perspectives necessitate changes in the ways educators and students relate to one another, which goes beyond conceptions of roles. ...

... Learning general processes for fixing new (not-yet-recurring) impasses (Katz & Anderson, 1987;Pea et al., 1987). 4. Engaging with authority: Contributing with voice and action to the process of handling the impasse (Engle & Conant, 2002;Foster, 2014;Langer-Osuna, 2016). ...

... We noted previously that there have been recent debates around what counts as mathematics (e.g., Greiffenhagen & Sharrock, 2008;Nemirovsky et al., 2017), which is typically grounded in school-specific ways of doing mathematics that are usually detached from real-world applications (e.g., Goldman & Booker, 2016). We argue that one significant contribution of this study is the provision of a counternarrative to deficit views and assumptions of caregivers as mathematics educators (Langer-Osuna et al., 2016). This study highlights how young children may be engaged as mathematics learners within a larger learning ecosystem that extends to anywhere and everywhere within their communities (Rogoff, 2008). ...

... meaning (Langer-Osuna & Avalos, 2015), key components in collaborative learning (Akkerman et al., 2007;Beers, Boshuizen, Kirschner, & Gijselaers, 2006). Dynamics marked by marginalization also create inequitable learning opportunities (Wood, 2013). ...