Jennifer L. Eberhardt's research while affiliated with Stanford University and other places

Publications (39)

Article
The healthcare workforce in the United States is becoming increasingly diverse, gradually shifting society away from the historical overrepresentation of White men among physicians. However, given the long-standing underrepresentation of people of color and women in the medical field, patients may still associate the concept of doctors with White m...
Article
Children begin interacting less across racial lines around middle childhood, but it remains unclear why. We examine the novel possibility that, at that time, children's prejudice theories—their understanding of prejudice as a fixed or malleable attribute—begin to influence their desire for interracial affiliation. We devise immersive behavioral exp...
Article
When children return to school from juvenile detention, they face a severe stigma. We developed a procedure to orient educators and students toward each other as positive relationship partners during this period. In Study 1, through a structured exercise, students reentering school powerfully articulated to an educator of their choosing their proso...
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Full-text available
Research has shown that Black parents are more likely than White parents to have conversations about race with their children, but few studies have directly compared the frequency and content of these conversations and how they change in response to national events. Here we examine such conversations in the United States before and after the killin...
Article
Most adults are better at recognizing recently encountered faces of their own race, relative to faces of other races. In adults, this race effect in face recognition is associated with differential neural representations of own- and other-race faces in the fusiform face area (FFA), a high-level visual region involved in face recognition. Previous r...
Article
Of the $69.1 trillion global financial assets under management across mutual funds, hedge funds, real estate, and private equity, fewer than 1.3% are managed by women and people of color. Why is this powerful, elite industry so racially homogenous? We conducted an online experiment with actual asset allocators to determine whether there are biases...
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We apply computational dialog methods to police body-worn camera footage to model conversations between police officers and community members in traffic stops. Relying on the theory of institutional talk, we develop a labeling scheme for police speech during traffic stops, and a tagger to detect institutional dialog acts (Reasons, Searches, Offerin...
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Background Health mindsets are mental frameworks that help people recognize, organize, interpret, and respond to health-relevant information. Although mindsets shape health behaviors and outcomes, no study has examined the health mindsets of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse Americans. Purpose We explored the content, cultural patterning, a...
Article
Many scholars and activists assume the public would be motivated to fight inequality if only they knew the full extent of existing disparities. Ironically, exposure to extreme disparities can cause people to become more, not less, supportive of the very policies that create those disparities (Hetey & Eberhardt, 2014). Here, we focus on the criminal...
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Using footage from body-worn cameras, we analyze the respectfulness of police officer language toward white and black community members during routine traffic stops. We develop computational linguistic methods that extract levels of respect automatically from transcripts, informed by a thin-slicing study of participant ratings of officer utterances...
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People are better at remembering faces from their own race than other races–a phenomenon with significant societal implications. This Other Race Effect (ORE) in memory could arise from different attentional allocation to, and cognitive control over, same- and other-race faces during encoding. Deeper or more differentiated processing of same-race fa...
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Social psychologists have long demonstrated that people are stereotyped on the basis of race. Researchers have conducted extensive experimental studies on the negative stereotypes associated with Black Americans in particular. Across 4 studies, we demonstrate that the physical spaces associated with Black Americans are also subject to negative raci...
Article
Can social–psychological theory provide insight into the extreme racial disparities in school disciplinary action in the United States? Disciplinary problems carry enormous consequences for the quality of students’ experience in school, opportunities to learn, and ultimate life outcomes. This burden falls disproportionately on students of color. In...
Article
Eyewitness misidentification is the primary cause of wrongful convictions in North America. Discovering a discernible pattern to these errors is a critical step toward creating procedures that reduce the occurrence of these tragic mistakes. To these ends, we hypothesized that both the victims’ race and the victims’ sex may impact eyewitness identif...
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Full-text available
Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic r...
Article
There are large racial disparities in school discipline in the United States, which, for Black students, not only contribute to school failure but also can lay a path toward incarceration. Although the disparities have been well documented, the psychological mechanisms underlying them are unclear. In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that s...
Article
During the past few decades, punitive crime policies have led to explosive growth in the United States prison population. Such policies have contributed to unprecedented incarceration rates for Blacks in particular. In this article, we consider an unexamined relationship between racial disparities and policy reform. Rather than treating racial disp...
Conference Paper
Long ago, those of African descent were likened to apes. Professor Eberhardt will discuss research findings demonstrating the continued dehumanization of African Americans in contemporary society. She will discuss the consequences of the Black-ape association and will highlight a potential culprit in maintaining that association: lay notions of hum...
Article
Full-text available
Legal precedent establishes juvenile offenders as inherently less culpable than adult offenders and thus protects juveniles from the most severe of punishments. But how fragile might these protections be? In the present study, simply bringing to mind a Black (vs. White) juvenile offender led participants to view juveniles in general as significantl...
Article
Without visual attention, even the obvious–like a gorilla walking through a scene of people–goes undetected (Mack & Rock, 1998; Simons & Chabris, 1999). This “inattentional blindness” is a persistent, well-documented limitation of the human visual system. The current research examines whether social meaning reduces this visual bias by imbuing unexp...
Article
Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social-cognition processes typically elicited by human targets. The current studies examine the effect of perceivers' sexist attitudes on associations of agency with, and neural responses to, images of sexualized and clothed men and women. In St...
Article
A net work of brain areas are involved in processing faces, including the amygdala, a region in the STS and a region in the fusiform gyrus also known as the FFA. It is unknown if face selectivity in these regions is based on the structural characteristics of faces. Here we asked if the canonical configuration of internal face parts (i.e. two eyes a...
Article
The present studies demonstrate that conceiving of racial group membership as biologically determined increases acceptance of racial inequities (Studies 1 and 2) and cools interest in interacting with racial outgroup members (Studies 3-5). These effects were generally independent of racial prejudice. It is argued that when race is cast as a biologi...
Article
Historical representations explicitly depicting Blacks as apelike have largely disappeared in the United States, yet a mental association between Blacks and apes remains. Here, the authors demonstrate that U.S. citizens implicitly associate Blacks and apes. In a series of laboratory studies, the authors reveal how this association influences study...
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Full-text available
High-level visual cortex in humans includes functionally defined regions that preferentially respond to objects, faces and places. It is unknown how these regions develop and whether their development relates to recognition memory. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the development of several functionally defined regions inclu...
Article
Researchers previously have investigated the role of race in capital sentencing, and in particular, whether the race of the defendant or victim influences the likelihood of a death sentence. In the present study, we examined whether the likelihood of being sentenced to death is influenced by the degree to which a Black defendant is perceived to hav...
Article
Researchers have recently begun to use the tools of neuroscience to examine the social psychological responses associated with race. This article serves as a review of the developing literature in this area. It advances the argument that neuroscience studies of race have the potential to shape fundamental assumptions about race, and the interplay b...
Article
Using police officers and undergraduates as participants, the authors investigated the influence of stereotypic associations on visual processing in 5 studies. Study 1 demonstrates that Black faces influence participants' ability to spontaneously detect degraded images of crime-relevant objects. Conversely, Studies 2-4 demonstrate that activating a...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies tested whether racial category labels and lay beliefs about human traits have a combined effect on people's perception of, and memory for, racially ambiguous faces. Participants saw a morphed target face accompanied by a racial label (Black or White). Later, they were asked to identify the face from a set of two new morphed faces, one m...
Article
Many studies have shown that people remember faces of their own race better than faces of other races. We investigated the neural substrates of same-race memory superiority using functional MRI (fMRI). European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) males underwent fMRI while they viewed photographs of AA males, EA males and objects under intentio...

Citations

... However, despite the benefits of intergroup contact, not all families have the opportunity to engage in direct contact (Turner and Brown 2008). A first solution could be to increase parents' and adolescents' interest in intercultural and interracial interactions (Pauker et al. 2022). In this direction, there are several initiatives, such as the human library, which is a community event aimed at increasing awareness and reducing prejudice towards stigmatized groups (Bagci and Blazhenkova 2020). ...
... Accordingly, the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) established the Emergency Taskforce on Black Youth Suicide and Mental Health and called for research to identify risk and protective factors for STBs among Black youth in 2019 [9,10]. Moreover, the issue of suicide among Black youth, including males, overrepresented in the youth punishment system (stereotypical terms such as "juvenile offenders" and "juvenile justice system" promote stigma, and some use terms like "hypercriminalization" to describe the manner by which boys have been stigmatized and labeled as deviant and criminal, so they have been deliberately changed to "youth" and "youth punishment system" throughout this paper [11][12][13][14][15]), including youth with criminal activity histories, is of even greater concern. ...
... Despite White parents' stated beliefs that their children should learn about race and racism, they often avoid these discussions [5,8,9,10], suggesting a discrepancy between what they say and their actions. White parents actively avoid talking with their children about race, in general, and about contemporary high-profile instances of racism, in particular [5,8,9,10]. ...
... These early attentional biases ultimately contribute to the development of the "other-race effect"-the tendency for individuals to better remember own-race faces than faces of other, less familiar races (see Meissner & Brigham, 2001;Singh et al., 2021). For example, while White American 3month-olds similarly remember faces from different races (e.g., White and Black), between 6 and 9 months of age, infants show better memory for own-race (White) faces (Balas et al., 2011), which persists into childhood and adulthood (Feinman & Entwisle, 1976;Golarai et al., 2020;Hughes et al., 2019). ...
... However, there are also reasons to expect that a priori certification will not change racial disparities in attention. Studies suggest that credentials held by Black job applicants or employees may matter less than identical ones held by Whites (31)(32)(33). Research, both archival and experimental, questions the possibility of reducing bias or encouraging diversity through the provision of information (34)(35)(36)(37). ...
... In the case of flagging objectionable content ( §4.2), extracting the deeper intents and implications corresponds to the reasons for the action of flagging the content. Another example is building an automatic institutional dialog act annotator for traffic police conversations (Prabhakaran et al., 2018). These dialog acts contain the rationales of the two agents in the conversation: the police officer and the civilian stopped for breaking traffic rules. ...
... Our findings are consistent with previous research showing that health mindsets vary with age, perhaps because older patients have more experience with illness, more resources to draw from, and more nuanced understandings of health (Conner et al., 2019). Similarly, people of different racial, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds likely hold different beliefs about health and resources to cope, given inequalities in the United States (Wardle & Steptoe, 2003). ...
... Advantaged groups: Reminders of racial disparities can prompt people to justify systems that produce those disparities (Hetey & Eberhardt, 2018). ...
... Second, this study carefully considers the impacts of total lethal policing events involving Black victims as well as events when decedents were identified as unarmed. Black Americans typically experience worse interactions with police [27,28], and the legalized and extrajudicial killing of Black people is historically significant [7,8,29]. Consequently, the salience and health significance of police killings are most likely heightened for Black men and women particularly when decedents are unarmed. ...
... This can be summarized in a simple phrase; "they all look alike to me." This however suggests that some intricate factors are necessary for identifying people of the same racial background as those outside the race (Brown et al. 2017). This feature in human beings can be due to social prejudice as well as the amount of reasonable contact and experience shared with people of a different race. ...