Jennifer Evans's research while affiliated with Queen's University Belfast and other places

Publications (191)

Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization (WHO) is developing a Package of Eye Care Interventions (PECI) to facilitate the integration of eye care into Universal Health Coverage. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines for cataract in adults, to help inform PECI development. We searched academic and guideline data...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In response to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) World report on vision, the WHO is developing a Package of Eye Care Interventions (PECI) to support the integration of eye care into health systems within countries. This study was done to systematically review clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) related to age-r...
Article
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss globally. The current diagnostic thresholds for diabetes are still based on historic data correlating glycaemic parameters with retinopathy; however, an excess prevalence of retinopathy has also been reported in prediabetes. We aimed to determine the reported prevalence of retinopathy in adults...
Article
Background: Myopic macular degeneration (MMD) is a primary cause of blindness and visual impairment in many parts of the world. A review of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for intervention selection are required with the increasing demand for MMD management in clinical practice as well as in national health services. Therefore, we aim to syste...
Article
Purpose: The World Health Organization's Package of Eye Care Interventions (PECI) aims to support incorporation of amblyopia detection and treatment into health service provision. The aim of this study was to systematically review clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for amblyopia to inform the development of this package. Methods: MEDLINE, Embas...
Article
Full-text available
UN member states have committed to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. This Review examines the published evidence on how improving eye health can contribute to advancing the SDGs (beyond SDG 3). We identified 29 studies that showed direct benefits from providing eye health services on SDGs related to one or more of poverty...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The World Health Organization is developing a Package of Eye Care Interventions (PECI) to support the integration of eye health care into national health programmes. Interventions included in the PECI should be based on robust evidence where available. Refractive error is a leading cause of blindness and vision impairment and is a PECI pr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To conduct a systematic review to identify and critically appraise clinical practice guidelines on the assessment, diagnosis and management of childhood glaucoma. Methods and analysis A systematic literature search of databases and professional websites for clinical practice guidelines published on eye conditions between 2010 and April 2...
Article
Background: We undertook a Grand Challenges in Global Eye Health prioritisation exercise to identify the key issues that must be addressed to improve eye health in the context of an ageing population, to eliminate persistent inequities in health-care access, and to mitigate widespread resource limitations. Methods: Drawing on methods used in previ...
Article
Full-text available
Background We undertook a Grand Challenges in Global Eye Health prioritisation exercise to identify the key issues that must be addressed to improve eye health in the context of an ageing population, to eliminate persistent inequities in health-care access, and to mitigate widespread resource limitations. Methods Drawing on methods used in previou...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose People who are distinct from the dominant ethnic group within a country can experience a variety of barriers to accessing eyecare services. We conducted a scoping review to map published interventions aimed at improving access to eyecare for non-Indigenous, non-dominant ethnic groups residing in high-income countries. Methods We searched M...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To systematically review and critically appraise clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and summarise the recommendations for non-infectious and infectious conjunctivitis Methods CPGs published on non-infectious and infectious conjunctivitis between 2010 and March 2020 were reviewed, evaluated, and selected using nine items from the Appraisal...
Article
Background: Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is a clouding of the posterior part of the lens capsule, a skin-like transparent structure, which surrounds the crystalline lens in the human eye. PCO is the most common postoperative complication following modern cataract surgery with implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL). The...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Cochrane Eyes and Vision (CEV) is an international network of individuals working to prepare, maintain and promote access to systematic reviews of interventions to treat, prevent or diagnose eye diseases or vision impairment. CEV plans to undertake a priority setting exercise to identify systematically research questions relevant to ou...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Globally, there are ~370 million Indigenous peoples. Indigenous peoples typically experience worse health compared with non-Indigenous people, including higher rates of avoidable vision impairment. Much of this gap in eye health can be attributed to barriers that impede access to eye care services. We conducted a scoping review to identify...
Article
Importance More than 1 billion people worldwide have vision impairment or blindness from potentially preventable or correctable causes. Quality of life, an important measure of physical, emotional, and social well-being, appears to be negatively associated with vision impairment, and increasingly, ophthalmic interventions are being assessed for the...
Article
Full-text available
Background The number of individuals with vision impairment worldwide is increasing because of an ageing population. We aimed to systematically identify studies describing the association between vision impairment and mortality, and to assess the association between vision impairment and all-cause mortality. Methods For this systematic review and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy can largely be prevented or delayed through treatment. Patients with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy are typically offered laser or intravitreal injections which often require more than one treatment cycle. However, treatment is not always initiated, or it is not completed, resulting in poo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction There is growing evidence of a higher than expected prevalence of retinopathy in prediabetes. This paper presents the protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis of retinopathy in prediabetes. The aim of the review is to estimate the prevalence of retinopathy in prediabetes and to summarise the current data. Methods and analysis...
Article
Full-text available
Background Diabetic retinopathy is the most common ocular complication of diabetes and a cause of vision loss in adults. Diabetic retinopathy screening leading to early identification of the disease followed by timely treatment, can prevent vision loss in people living with diabetes. A key barrier to the implementation of screening services in low-...
Article
Full-text available
Background Uncorrected refractive errors can be corrected by spectacles which improve visual functioning, academic performance and quality of life. However, spectacle wear can be low due to teasing/bullying, parental disapproval and no perceived benefit. Hypothesis: higher proportion of children with uncorrected refractive errors in the schools all...
Article
Background: Ophthalmia neonatorum is an infection of the eyes in newborns that can lead to blindness, particularly if the infection is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antiseptic or antibiotic medication is dispensed into the eyes of newborns, or dispensed systemically, soon after delivery to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis and potential vision im...
Article
Background: Radiotherapy has been proposed as a treatment for new vessel growth in people with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objectives: To examine the effects of radiotherapy on neovascular AMD. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and three trials registers and checked references of included stud...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To describe the rational for, and the methods that will be employed to develop, the WHO package of eye care interventions (PECI). Methods and analysis The development of the package will be conducted in four steps: (1) selection of eye conditions (for which interventions will be included in the package) based on epidemiological data on t...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Vision impairment and eye disease are major global health concerns and have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and lower quality of life. Quality of life, whether generic, vision-specific or disease-specific, is an important measure of the impact of eye health on people’s daily activities, well-being and visual fun...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction For many people, settling in a new country is associated with a new identity as an ‘ethnic minority’, one that can remain through future generations. People who are culturally distinct from the dominant population group may experience a variety of barriers to accessing healthcare, including linguistic and cultural barriers in communica...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Due to growth and ageing of the world’s population, the number of individuals worldwide with vision impairment (VI) and blindness is projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades. VI and blindness are an important cause of years lived with disability. However, the association of VI and blindness with mortality, including the ri...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a rapid review of the evidence on effectiveness of interventions to increase the uptake of referral to eye health services - for people who require interventions for DR and/or diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a rapid review of the evidence on the the question “Is vial-sharing of anti-VEGF for multiple patients safe in the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macula oedema in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared with using a new vial in each patient”?
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Diabetic retinopathy is the most common ocular complication of diabetes and a cause of vision loss in adults. Diabetic retinopathy screening leading to early identification of the disease, followed by timely treatment, can prevent vision loss in people living with diabetes. A key barrier to the implementation of screening services in low...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy can largely be prevented or delayed through treatment. Patients with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy are typically offered laser or intravitreal injections which often require more than one treatment cycle. However, treatment is not always initiated, or it is not completed, resulting in poo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy can largely be prevented or delayed through treatment. Patients with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy are typically offered laser or intravitreal injections which often require more than one treatment cycle. However, treatment is not always initiated, or it is not completed, resulting in poo...
Article
Objective We sought to understand the extent to which Cochrane Eyes and Vision systematic reviews of interventions for cataract, and primary studies, consider equity. Study design and Setting Review of Cochrane systematic reviews (CSR) on cataract published on the Cochrane Library (end of March 2019) (n=23), and recently published primary studies...
Article
Background/aims To describe and summarise the outcomes reported in randomised controlled trials of multifocal versus monofocal intraocular lenses in cataract surgery. Methods We identified all randomised controlled trials of multifocal versus monofocal lenses in a Cochrane review (last search date June 2016). We extracted and summarised data on al...
Article
Full-text available
The human genetic factors that affect resistance to infectious disease are poorly understood. Here we report a genome-wide association study in 17,000 severe malaria cases and population controls from 11 countries, informed by sequencing of family trios and by direct typing of candidate loci in an additional 15,000 samples. We identify five replica...
Article
Background: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world, and clinically significant astigmatism may affect up to approximately 20% of people undergoing cataract surgery. Pre-existing astigmatism in people undergoing cataract surgery may be treated, among other techniques, by placing corneal incisions near the limbus (limbal relaxing in...
Article
Background: Trachoma is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. In 1996, WHO launched the Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by the year 2020, based on the 'SAFE' strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement). Objectives: To assess the evidence supporting the antibiotic arm of the SAFE...
Method
Full-text available
In most regions of the world, women access eye care services less frequently than men and subsequently experience disproportionate levels of blindness and visual impairment. The aim of this review is to identify and summarise the evidence from published systematic reviews that report on: i) gender inequality in eye health (e.g. from prevalence s...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Globally, there are an estimated 370 million Indigenous people across 90 countries. Indigenous people experience worse health compared with non-Indigenous people, including higher rates of avoidable visual impairment. Countries such as Australia and Canada have service delivery models aimed at improving access to eye care for Indigenou...
Article
Importance Cataract surgery, with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, is the most common ocular surgical procedure worldwide. It has been suggested that IOLs that selectively attenuate short wavelength visible light (blue light–filtering IOLs) may be beneficial for macular health. Whether blue light–filtering IOLs impart retinal photoprotection is...
Preprint
Full-text available
We conducted a genome-wide association study of host resistance to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in over 17,000 individuals from 11 malaria- endemic countries, undertaking a wide ranging analysis which identifies five replicable associations with genome-wide levels of evidence. Our findings include a newly implicated variant on chromosome 6...
Article
In 1972, Archie Cochrane wrote “It is surely a great criticism of our profession that we have not organised a critical summary, by specialty or subspecialty, adapted periodically, of all relevant randomised controlled trials”. The Cochrane Collaboration arose in response to Archie Cochrane’s challenge. Cochrane Eyes and Vision aims to prepare and p...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Visual impairment from uncorrected refractive errors affects 12.8 million children globally. Spectacle correction is simple and cost-effective; however, low adherence to spectacle wear, which can occur in all income settings, limits visual potential. Objective: To investigate predictors of spectacle wear and reasons for nonwear in st...
Article
Background: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication of diabetic retinopathy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) can reduce oedema, improve vision and prevent further visual loss. These drugs have replaced laser photocoagulation as the standard of care for people with DMO. Objectives: Th...
Article
In this issue of JAMA Ophthalmology, Lindsley et al¹ present the results of a prioritization process aiming to build on the existing American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Patterns (AAO PPP),² which were first published in 2015 and provided guidance on the clinical management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Guideline develo...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Human genetic factors are important determinants of malaria risk. We investigated associations between multiple candidate polymorphisms-many related to the structure or function of red blood cells-and risk for severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its specific phenotypes, including cerebral malaria, severe malaria anaemia, and respi...
Article
Throughout the world, people who are socially or economically disadvantaged disproportionately experience blindness and vision impairment caused by cataract. Reducing vision loss from cataract and its unequal distribution must be a priority if the WHO’s aim of ‘universal eye health’ is to be realised. To help achieve this, decision-makers and servi...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: To investigate the safety, effectiveness and follow up rates after transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation as primary treatment for seeing eyes with primary open angle glaucoma in Bauchi, Nigeria. Background: There is a high prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in Africa where adherence to medical treatment and acceptance o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to...
Article
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser...
Article
Topic: To estimate the prevalence of nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness in European persons 55 years of age and older. Clinical relevance: Few visual impairment and blindness prevalence estimates are available for the European population. In addition, many of the data collected in European population-based studies currently are unpubl...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Acquired brain injury can cause eye movement disorders which may include: strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus, causing visual symptoms of double, blurred or 'juddery' vision and reading difficulties. A wide range of interventions exist that have potential to alleviate or ameliorate these symptoms. There is a need to evaluate the ef...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Visual problems in older people are common and frequently under-reported. The effects of poor vision in older people are wide reaching and include falls, confusion and reduced quality of life. Much of the visual impairment in older ages can be treated (e.g. cataract surgery, correction of refractive error). Vision screening may therefo...
Article
Background: Although the benefits of vision screening seem intuitive, the value of such programmes in junior and senior schools has been questioned. In addition there exists a lack of clarity regarding the optimum age for screening and frequency at which to carry out screening. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of vision screening progra...
Article
To the Editor We read with interest the systematic review of the risk of intraocular bleeding with novel oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin. Sun and colleagues¹ identified a modest relative risk reduction in intraocular bleeding with novel anticoagulants compared with warfarin in a meta-analysis of 12 randomized clinical trials with more th...
Article
Purpose: To assess whether adapted motivational interviewing (MI) has any impact on the proportion of participants who subsequently underwent surgery or laser treatment for glaucoma. Materials and methods: A single site randomized controlled trial in Bauchi, Nigeria. Participants were new patients with a confirmed diagnosis of primary open-angle...
Article
Visual impairment and dementia are both conditions of aging. For this reason, the prevalence of both these age-related conditions is increasing as our populations become older. In this issue of JAMA Ophthalmology, Chen et al¹ report the association between visual impairment and cognitive function in 2 large, nationally representative, cross-section...
Article
Background: It has been proposed that antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the retina by reacting with free radicals that are produced in the process of light absorption. Higher dietary levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals may reduce the risk of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objectives: The objective of thi...
Article
Background: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication of diabetic retinopathy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) modalities can reduce oedema and thereby improve vision and prevent further visual loss. These drugs have replaced laser photocoagulation as the standard of care for people with...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Uncorrected refractive errors are the commonest cause of visual loss in children despite spectacle correction being highly cost-effective. Many affected children do not benefit from correction as a high proportion do not wear their spectacles. Reasons for non-wear include parental attitudes, overprescribing and children being teased/bu...
Data
Prevalence of onchcercal skin disease related to indicators of onchocercal infection (DOCX)