Jeffrey L Gauthier's research while affiliated with Salk Institute for Biological Studies and other places

Publications (22)

Article
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This study combines for the first time two major approaches to understanding the function and structure of neural circuits: large-scale multielectrode recordings, and confocal imaging of labeled neurons. To achieve this end, we develop a novel approach to the central problem of anatomically identifying recorded cells, based on the electrical image:...
Article
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Amacrine cells are the most diverse and least understood cell class in the retina. Polyaxonal amacrine cells (PACs) are a unique subset identified by multiple long axonal processes. To explore their functional properties, populations of PACs were identified by their distinctive radially propagating spikes in large-scale high-density multielectrode...
Article
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It has recently become possible to identify cone photoreceptors in primate retina from multi-electrode recordings of ganglion cell spiking driven by visual stimuli of sufficiently high spatial resolution. In this paper we present a statistical approach to the problem of identifying the number, locations, and color types of the cones observed in thi...
Article
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Sensory neurons have been hypothesized to efficiently encode signals from the natural environment subject to resource constraints. The predictions of this efficient coding hypothesis regarding the spatial filtering properties of the visual system have been found consistent with human perception, but they have not been compared directly with neural...
Conference Paper
Early investigations of efficient coding with the linear-Gaussian model showed striking similarities to experimental data (Atick & Redlich, 1990; van Hateren, 1992). However, direct comparison with the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) receptive fields has been hampered by three limitations: (a) RGC receptive fields under photopic conditions should be wr...
Article
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To understand a neural circuit requires knowledge of its connectivity. Here we report measurements of functional connectivity between the input and ouput layers of the macaque retina at single-cell resolution and the implications of these for colour vision. Multi-electrode technology was used to record simultaneously from complete populations of th...
Article
Retinal ganglion cells exhibit substantial correlated firing: a tendency to fire nearly synchronously at rates different from those expected by chance. These correlations suggest that network interactions significantly shape the visual signal transmitted from the eye to the brain. This study describes the degree and structure of correlated firing a...
Article
Current understanding of visual processing in the retina and central visual system is largely driven by measurements of receptive field structure. However, relatively little is known about how receptive fields are assembled from their elementary inputs, the photoreceptors. Here we report the first measurements of complete receptive field structure...
Article
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Small bistratified cells (SBCs) in the primate retina carry a major blue-yellow opponent signal to the brain. We found that SBCs also carry signals from rod photoreceptors, with the same sign as S cone input. SBCs exhibited robust responses under low scotopic conditions. Physiological and anatomical experiments indicated that this rod input arose f...
Article
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Author Summary All visual information reaching the brain is transmitted by retinal ganglion cells, each of which is sensitive to a small region of space known as its receptive field. Each of the 20 or so distinct ganglion cell types is thought to transmit a complete visual image to the brain, because the receptive fields of each type form a regula...
Article
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The collective representation of visual space in high resolution visual pathways was explored by simultaneously measuring the receptive fields of hundreds of ON and OFF midget and parasol ganglion cells in isolated primate retina. As expected, the receptive fields of all four cell types formed regular mosaics uniformly tiling the visual scene. Surp...
Article
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Synchronized firing among neurons has been proposed to constitute an elementary aspect of the neural code in sensory and motor systems. However, it remains unclear how synchronized firing affects the large-scale patterns of activity and redundancy of visual signals in a complete population of neurons. We recorded simultaneously from hundreds of ret...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Efficient coding has long been suggested as a fundamental principle underlying the structure and functional properties of sensory systems (Barlow, 1961), and the basic response properties of mammalian retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) appear to be consistent with this (Atick and Redlich, 1990; van Hateren, 1992). These earlier models, however, included...
Conference Paper
One fundamental goal of sensory systems is to transmit sensory information efficiently under the condition that both the input and the neural representation are noisy, and that the number of available neurons is limited. Previous results based on this idea provide a great deal of insight into the optimality of sensory coding, in particular with reg...
Article
Full-text available
The primate visual system consists of parallel pathways initiated by distinct cell types in the retina that encode different features of the visual scene. Small bistratified cells (SBCs), which form a major projection to the thalamus, exhibit blue-ON/yellow-OFF [S-ON/(L+M)-OFF] light responses thought to be important for high-acuity color vision. H...
Article
Full-text available
The primate retina communicates visual information to the brain via a set of parallel pathways that originate from at least 22 anatomically distinct types of retinal ganglion cells. Knowledge of the physiological properties of these ganglion cell types is of critical importance for understanding the functioning of the primate visual system. Nonethe...
Article
Full-text available
Current understanding of many neural circuits is limited by our ability to explore the vast number of potential interactions between different cells. We present a new approach that dramatically reduces the complexity of this problem. Large-scale multi-electrode recordings were used to measure electrical activity in nearly complete, regularly spaced...
Article
Full-text available
All visual signals in the brain originate in the electrical activity of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Standard models implicitly assume that RGCs signal information independently of one another. However, several studies have demonstrated significant concerted activity in nearby pairs of RGCs which may fundamen-tally alter visual signals. Very litt...

Citations

... Therefore, visual centers just beyond the retina are able to combine information across the different parallel channels. Important for the scope of population codes, correlation is significant between nearest neighbor ganglion cells in each mosaic [42][43][44] as well as among ganglion cells of different functional type [13,30,45]. And combinations of firing among multiple ganglion cells have been shown to encode different visual features than those encoded by the constituent cells [46][47][48]. ...
... Therefore, the feasibility of separating ON-parasol and OFF-parasol cells, two of the numerically dominant cell types in the primate retina, 14 from all other recorded types using only intrinsic features of electrical activity was tested. The axon conduction velocity of each cell, estimated from the propagation of spikes along the axon over the multi-electrode array, was effective for this purpose ( Fig. 1): parasol cells exhibited a relatively higher axon conduction velocity, while ON-midget, OFF-midget, small bistratified cells, and unidentified cell types, had lower axon conduction velocities, 15,16 with nearly non-overlapping distributions. The remaining analysis focuses on the ON-parasol and OFF-parasol cells. ...
... To use such data and make sense of it we need to fi nd systematic ways to build mathematically tractable descriptions of the data, descriptions with lower dimensionality than the data itself, but involving relevant dimensions. In recent years, binary pairwise models have attracted a lot of attention as parametric models for studying the statistics of spike trains of neuronal populations (Schneidman et al., 2006; Shlens et al., 2006 Shlens et al., , 2009 Tang et al., 2008; Roudi et al., 2009a,b ), the statistics of natural images (Bethge and Berens, 2008), and inferring Roudi et al. Statistical physics of pairwise probability models the inference and model quality problems may thus be affected by the choice of this time bin size. ...
... As mentioned in the Methods, our technique affords the advantage of being able to record from hundreds of cells simultaneously, a feat matched by multi-electrode arrays [e.g. 35,39,49,55,[103][104][105] but without the same spatial control or ability to view the cells during recording. However, when imaging hundreds of cells from a wide field of view in our technique, there is the possibility of optical crosstalk from cell responses originating from different depths in the ganglion cell layer. ...
... Our results bear some resemblance to previous attempts to derive retinal properties as optimal solutions . Most notably, optimal linear transforms that optimize information transmission under a constraint on total response power have been shown to be consistent with center-surround [4] and more detailed [34] shapes of retinal receptive fields. But such linear models do not provide a unique solution, nor can they make predictions about nonlinear behaviors. ...
... A number of other studies have also investigated different optimal coding models that extended the basic idea of redundancy reduction, but with different assumptions and conditions. A commonly assumed objective is information maximization, which maximizes the number of discriminable states about the environmental signal in the neural code [6,25,27,56,57,59,[62][63][64], whereas the present study assumed error minimization, which minimizes the MSE of reconstruction from the neural code [24,31]. These objectives can be interpreted as different mathematical approaches to the same general goal (some predictions from these different objectives are qualitatively similar [24,62]; an equivalence can be established between the two under some settings [65]). ...
... Fortunately, as we show here, given the shotgun sampling scheme, we do not have to infer the unobserved spikes. We considerably simplify the network model loglikelihood using the expected loglikelihood approximation [11][12][13], and a generalized Central Limit Theorem (CLT) [14] argument to approximate the neuronal input as a Gaussian variable when the size of the network is large. This approximate loglikelihood and its gradients depend only on the empiric second order statistics of the spiking process (mean spike rate and spike correlations). ...
... As more commonly formulated, it seeks to maximize the mutual information between sensory data and neural representations, with the most common cost in the retinal case being the energetic cost of action potentials transmitted by the RGCs. Despite its simplicity, this principle has proven useful, predicting the center-surround structure of RFs [8], the frequency response profile of contrast sensitivity [9], the structure of retinal mosaics [10,11], the role of nonlinear rectification [12], different spatiotemporal kernels [13], and inter-mosaic arrangements [14,15]. ...
... Colour information features are encoded in the retina with cone-opponency circuits, through which cone signals are compared by either lateral processing in the outer plexiform layer (centre surround antagonistic) or through the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that stratify and synapse with different types of ON-/OFF bipolar cells in the inner plexiform layer ). According to Field et al. (Field et al. 2010), three types of ganglion cells, namely, the parasol midget and small bistratified ganglion cells account for about 75% of all RGCs, responsible for transmitting frequency-coded action potentials to retinorecipient brain nuclei (Solomon and Lennie 2007;Smith et al. 2008) (see Fig. 3). The ganglion cells' axons project to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, the relay station (Solomon and Lennie 2007), i.e. gateway to the brain's primary visual cortex V1 that processes that visual sensory information further (see Fig. 1). ...
... As mentioned in the Methods, our technique affords the advantage of being able to record from hundreds of cells simultaneously, a feat matched by multi-electrode arrays [e.g. 35,39,49,55,[103][104][105] but without the same spatial control or ability to view the cells during recording. However, when imaging hundreds of cells from a wide field of view in our technique, there is the possibility of optical crosstalk from cell responses originating from different depths in the ganglion cell layer. ...