Jeffrey Kaye's research while affiliated with McGill University and other places

Publications (109)

Article
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Objective The objective of this study was to examine associations between level of depressive symptoms in older adult spouse/partner couples and their physical health and social factors (social activity and number of close friends). Methods Using data from 116 community-dwelling couples (age 76.2 ± 8.5), we simultaneously analyzed associations bet...
Article
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The process of identifying suitable genome-wide association (GWA) studies and formatting the data to calculate multiple polygenic risk scores on a single genome can be laborious. Here, we present a centralized polygenic risk score calculator currently containing over 250,000 genetic variant associations from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog for users to...
Article
Objective The Survey for Memory, Attention, and Reaction Time (SMART) was recently introduced as a brief (<5 min), self-administered, web-based measure of cognitive performance in older adults. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop preliminary norms on the SMART; (2) to examine the relationship between demographic variables (i.e....
Article
Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of α-synuclein seed amplification assay (αSyn-SAA) in antemortem and postmortem CSF of autopsy-confirmed patients with different distributions of pathological αSyn, co-pathologies, and clinical diagnoses. Methods: αSyn-SAA was used to test antemortem CSF samples from 119 subjects with a var...
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Changes in the levels of circulating proteins are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), whereas their pathogenic roles in AD are unclear. Here, we identified soluble ST2 (sST2), a decoy receptor of interleukin-33–ST2 signaling, as a new disease-causing factor in AD. Increased circulating sST2 level is associated with more severe pathological ch...
Conference Paper
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Studies find that older adults want control over how technologies are used in their care, but how it can be operationalized through design remains to be clarified. We present findings from a large survey (n=825) of a well-characterized U.S. online cohort that provides actionable evidence of the importance of designing for control over monitoring te...
Article
Background/aims There is a close link between iron and polyamine biosynthesis and metabolism. In a recent study, we reported alterations in the serum levels of hepcidin and other iron-related proteins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients (Sternberg et al., 2017). Based on these findings, this pilot study compared serum levels of one of the polyamin...
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Exploring individual hallmarks of brain ageing is important. Here, we propose the age-related glucose metabolism pattern (ARGMP) as a potential index to characterize brain ageing in cognitively normal (CN) elderly people. We collected 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET brain images from two independent cohorts: the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimagin...
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Introduction: The Alzheimer's Disease Composite Score (ADCOMS) is a tool developed to detect clinical progression and measure treatment effect in patients in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The psychometric properties of the ADCOMS have been established; however, the threshold for clinical meaningfulness has yet to be identified. Method...
Article
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The concept of age acceleration, the difference between biological age and chronological age, is of growing interest, particularly with respect to age-related disorders, such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Whilst studies have reported associations with AD risk and related phenotypes, there remains a lack of consensus on these associations. Here we ai...
Article
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Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/‘proxy’ AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 ris...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is defined by amyloid (A) and tau (T) pathologies, with T better correlated to neurodegeneration (N). However, T and N have complex regional relationships in part related to non-AD factors that influence N. With machine learning, we assessed heterogeneity in 18F-flortaucipir vs. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomo...
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Introduction: Impairment in financial capacity places older adults at risk of fraud or abuse and can be a harbinger of loss of independence. Online automated monitoring of financial transactions offers an objective, unobtrusive, and continuous data collection strategy to minimize risk and to detect early changes in an important complex activity of...
Preprint
Objective To determine the sensitivity and specificity of α-synuclein seed amplification assay (αSyn-SAA) in antemortem and postmortem CSF and brain homogenate samples of autopsy-confirmed patients with a spectrum of Lewy-related pathology (LRP). Methods Antemortem CSF samples were examined from 119 subjects with standardized neuropathological exa...
Article
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Seasonal variation in rest-activity patterns has been observed in healthy adult populations. This study examined seasonal variation in total time spent overnight in the bedroom by cognitively intact older adults and older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We hypothesize that seasonal variation in rest-activity patterns is observed in the...
Article
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Background: α-klotho might play a role in neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: To determine levels of α-klotho and apoE in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and their relationship with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Methods: All subjects were between age 39 to 83+ (n = 94). CDR and MMSE...
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Background and Objectives The Remote Assessment and Dynamic Response (READyR) Program was developed in order to address the current lack of early-stage dementia care planning programs that assess the care needs of persons with dementia. The goal was to create a program informed by care values and ongoing ecologically-valid data. The objectives of t...
Article
Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated that polygenic risks shape Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To elucidate the polygenic architecture of AD phenotypes at a cellular level, we established induced pluripotent stem cells from 102 patients with AD, differentiated them into cortical neurons and conducted a genome-wide analysis of the neuronal p...
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Introduction: Reproducibility and replicability of results are rarely achieved for digital biomarkers analyses. We reproduced and replicated previously reported sample size estimates based on digital biomarker and neuropsychological test outcomes in a hypothetical 4-year early-phase Alzheimer's disease trial. Methods: Original data and newly col...
Conference Paper
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Results from a June 2020 survey on comfort with two forms of artificial companion (AC) robots in normal compared with pandemic times will be presented. 1,082 adults age 21-92 (mean 64) completed the online survey for a response rate of 45%. Significantly greater comfort is reported with small AC robots relative to larger human-shaped robots in both...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the economic security of millions of older adults. Job loss and reductions in personal income were significant in 2020 stemming from pandemic-induced shutdowns that temporarily closed large swaths of the U.S. economy. Yet, the specific financial impacts of the pandemic on older adults, including family car...
Article
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Background In a progressively technology-infused world, older adults are becoming accustomed to the digitization of research participation. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it became necessary to conduct remote study visits typically carried out over the telephone or using video calling programs (e.g. Zoom). Methods The National Alzheimer’s Coordinat...
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Online cognitive tests offer a cost-effective, accessible means of cognitive screening and may prove especially important for individuals with memory complaints, a risk factor for cognitive impairment (Kaup et al., 2015). Although older adults’ perceptions of everyday technologies impact their uptake and adoption, there is limited understanding abo...
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Indoor room transition is an underexplored real-world activity outcome. We estimated the stability and variability of indoor room transitions and their associations with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older adults. Older adults living-alone (n=159, age=78.3±8.8 years, 14% MCI) from the Oregon Center for Aging & Technology (ORCATECH) and the Min...
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Socially isolated older adults with MCI are at greater risk of developing ADRD. This study compares the emotional status of older adults with MCI to their cognitively normal counterparts within a socially isolated sample. We used baseline data from the Internet-based Conversational Engagement Clinical Trial (NCT02871921). MCI status was determined...
Poster
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Actigraphy has been used to detect agitation in persons with dementia, although this technology must be worn by participants. Another promising sensing methodology is passive infrared (PIR) motion, which provides continuous, low-cost, and unobtrusive data, and may also improve the detection of agitated periods. Using data from the MODERATE (Monitor...
Conference Paper
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This study aimed to simultaneously examine the associations between social activity and connectedness and depressive symptoms in older adult couples. Using SEM and data from 116 community-dwelling couples (age 76.18 ± 8.49), we found that engagement in social activities was associated with lower depressive symptoms in men (p = 0.014), whereas more...
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Subjective assessments of dementia caregiver burden are vulnerable to recall and recency biases. Objective continuous home assessment using passive technologies (e.g., bed mats, actigraphy watches) can provide ecologically valid detail on caregiver stress and family function. We tested the utility of objective assessment of activity before, during...
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Heterogeneity of brain diseases is a challenge for precision diagnosis/prognosis. We describe and validate Smile-GAN (SeMI-supervised cLustEring-Generative Adversarial Network), a semi-supervised deep-clustering method, which examines neuroanatomical heterogeneity contrasted against normal brain structure, to identify disease subtypes through neuro...
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Plasma phosphorylated-tau181 (p-tau181) showed the potential for Alzheimer’s diagnosis and prognosis, but its role in detecting cerebral pathologies is unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether it could serve as a marker for Alzheimer’s pathology in the brain. A total of 1189 participants with plasma p-tau181 and PET data of amyloid, tau or FDG PET wer...
Article
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A biological research framework to define Alzheimer’ disease with dichotomized biomarker measurement was proposed by National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer’s Association (NIA–AA). However, it cannot characterize the hierarchy spreading pattern of tau pathology. To reflect in vivo tau progression using biomarker, we constructed a refined topographic...
Article
Home-based sensor platforms offer novel methods to evaluate individuals with cognitive impairment. Having high-frequency information on changes in health status, activity, and functioning in real-life settings could improve our ability to assess and provide care to these individuals. The insidious onset, slow progression, and day-to-day variability...
Article
Background and Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic has limited older adults’ access to in-person medical care, including screenings for cognitive and functional decline. Remote, technology-based tools have shown recent promise in assessing changes in older adults’ daily activities and mood, which may serve as indicators of underlying health-related ch...
Article
Studies have reported that the age‐adjusted incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia have decreased over the past two decades. Aging is the predominant risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and for neurocognitive decline. However, aging alone cannot explain changes in the overall age‐adjusted incidence of dementia. The obj...
Article
1569 Background: Knowledge of changes in health that precede a cancer diagnosis is challenging because of a lack of longitudinal, objective measurement techniques. Current approaches rely on periodic assessment via self-report which may miss when and how health changes, particularly when changes may appear subtly over time. Remote-monitoring techno...
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Introduction Sleep disturbances are common in elderly patients and may contribute to disease progression in certain populations (e.g., Alzheimer’s Disease). Light therapy is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve sleep. Primary barriers to light therapy are 1) poor acceptability to use of devices and 2) inflexibility of current devices...
Article
In-home assessment of everyday activities over many months to years may be useful in predicting cognitive decline in older adulthood. This study examined whether a comparatively brief data collection period (3 months) may yield similar diagnostic information. A total of 91 community-dwelling older adults without dementia underwent baseline neuropsy...
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There is an urgent need to learn how to appropriately integrate technologies into dementia care. The aims of this Delphi study were to project which technologies will be most prevalent in dementia care in five years, articulate potential benefits and risks, and identify specific options to mitigate risks. Participants were also asked to identify te...
Article
The WHO action plan on aging expects to change current clinical practices by promoting a more personalized model of medicine. To widely promote this initiative and achieve this goal, healthcare professionals need innovative monitoring tools. Use of conventional biomarkers (clinical, biological or imaging) provides a health status assessment at a gi...
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the health security of older adults. Few have examined how older US veterans have reacted and coped with the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to identify changes in physical health and their differential impact by rurality of older veterans. Method: Participants were veterans (aged ≥ 62 years) and their coha...
Conference Paper
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Unmet dementia-related care needs are highly prevalent, and are detrimental to the care dyad’s health and well-being, safety, and ability to age in place. The goal of this study was to develop an ecologically-valid needs assessment and integrate it with aspects of the SHARE intervention to inform values-based care planning. Using digital behavioral...
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I-CONECT is a randomized controlled clinical trial to examine the impact of social interaction delivered via video-chat on cognitive function (clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02871921, project website: www.I-CONECT.org ). We aimed to enroll 320 community-dwelling socially isolated older adults (age >=75 years). The recruitment of participants has sta...
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Financial capacity describes the ability to make and carry out sound financial decisions sufficient to meet an individual’s needs for health and well-being. Impairments in financial capacity have been shown to be one of the earliest functional changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the precursor to Alzheimer’s disease and related...
Article
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Many older adults have sleep apnea. It often goes undiagnosed. Sleep apnea is associated with decreased oxygen to the brain, fragmented sleep, shorter sleep duration, impaired cognition, increased risk for dementia, and less clearance of amyloid and tau. Little longitudinal data are available identifying objective measures of sleep apnea over time...
Article
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Key activities and life events that impact quality of life and health may be gleaned from cross-sectional annual surveys or for medical data, derived intermittently from electronic health records. These methods cannot reflect the day-to-day and week-to-week changes that typically occur in domestic life. To assess the frequency and types of major li...
Conference Paper
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Many older adults remain inactive despite the known positive health implications of physical activity (e.g. improved mood, reduced mortality risk). Physical inactivity is a known interdependent phenomenon in couples, but the majority of research identifies determinants of physical inactivity at the individual level. We estimated the average amount...
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Older Veterans are at especially high risk of depression and social isolation due to COVID-19 stay-at-home orders and necessary safety precautions. We aimed to objectively measure differences in mood reports before and after COVID-19 stay-at-home orders in rural older Veterans. Participants age > 62 were enrolled in the Collaborative Aging Research...
Article
Conventional methods assessing activities related to caregiving rely on self‐report with caregivers providing estimations of time and resources directed to these activities, which vary over time and can be difficult to reliably estimate retrospectively. Home‐based assessment platforms using sensors to collect objective information on daily activiti...
Article
We call on geriatric brain health care providers, executives and entrepreneurs to embrace our Brain Health Living Lab model-a user-centered, iterative ecosystem, integrating concurrent clinical care, research and innovation processes.
Article
The relationship between amyloid (Aβ) production and clearance is disturbed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Evidence suggests that a decrease in clearance efficiency from cortical gray matter (GM) is relevant in late‐onset cases, a framework supported by findings of concomitant decreases in cerebrospinal fluid Aβ. A peri/paravascular bulk flow pathway...
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The n‐3 PUFA may modulate risk for age‐related cognitive impairment through vascular mechanisms. MRI derived cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) presumptively reflect small vessel disease and their accumulation increases risk for age‐related cognitive decline and dementia. Blood n‐3 PUFA are consistently associated with reduced WMH and str...
Article
The use of digital biomarker data provides the opportunity for frequent functional and cognitive assessments that were not previously available. Digital biomarker data are often collected in the form of time stamped data, which requires processing for interpretable applications in health care research. In general, time stamped data can be averaged,...
Article
High‐frequency biomarkers (HFB) are measurements collected weekly, on a daily basis or even more frequently. They are designed to detect early progression from one cognitive state to a later stage. Examples include home‐based measurements, e.g., computer usage and sleep patterns. In randomized controlled trials (RCT), we aim to detect the differenc...
Article
Cognitive changes in nondemented older adults are best measured longitudinally and relative to individual baselines. Effect sizes of early changes in cognition are small with most traditional measures, and so there is a need for alternative measurement approaches that can improve statistical power to detect change. Remotely administered mobile asse...
Article
Early identification and accurate assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is critical for clinical‐trial enrichment as well as the early intervention of the neurodegenerative disease. Continuous home‐based measurements of functions using simple embedded sensors and devices could provide an opportunity to improve the sensitivity and specificit...
Article
Surveys assessing rates of technology adaptation among older adults are cross‐sectional in nature, but few studies assess usage among a single older adult cohort. This study analyzes rates of computer device utilization among community‐dwelling older adults age 62 and older who are enrolled in longitudinal technology studies at the Oregon Center fo...
Article
Fragmentation of sleep patterns is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) and is debilitating to both patients and caregivers. Interdaily stability and intradaily variability can be used to characterize the strength of an individual’s circadian rhythms. The utility of these parameters could be increased by...
Article
An active lifestyle is associated with better cognitive health in older individuals. This relationship is understudied in U.S. Veterans, a population at risk of cognitive impairment due to the high prevalence of associated risk factors and comorbidities. Passive monitoring of daily activities provides objective measures of activity that may serve a...
Article
Weight loss has been associated with earlier onset of dementia and accelerated cognitive decline. Current methods of assessing nutritional health, including body mass and dietary habits, occur in clinic settings semiannually to annually. A home‐based non‐invasive system allows for continuous data collection that could generate clinically meaningful...
Article
Changes in mood, loneliness, pain, and need for assistance may be potential early markers of cognitive decline in older adults. These changes can be subtle, and fluctuating, and thus easily missed during intermittent clinic visits. Continuous long‐term monitoring of these self‐reported internal states and needs, and their relationship to developing...
Article
Increasing social interaction could be a promising intervention for improving the cognitive well‐being of socially isolated older adults. However, we expect that the efficacy of a social intervention can differ across subjects due to personality traits, preference for specific activities, and different pathological stages, even within the same clin...
Article
Previous studies investigating potential beneficial effects of Omega‐3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) on vascular health have shown inconsistent results. Oxylipins, produced from the oxidation of PUFAs, have potent vascular effects shown to be relevant to human disease. We have previously reported the cytochrome P450‐derived Omega‐3 PUFA Docosa...
Article
Sleep duration is associated with cognitive health in older individuals and is increasingly recognized as an important modifiable factor related to dementia risk. Sleep and its relationship with cognitive function is understudied in rural U.S. Veterans, who are under‐represented in clinical research aging studies. Participants (age > 57) were enrol...
Article
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Introduction: Future digital health research hinges on methodologies to conduct remote clinical assessments and in-home monitoring. The Collaborative Aging Research Using Technology (CART) initiative was introduced to establish a digital technology research platform that could widely assess activity in the homes of diverse cohorts of older adults a...
Preprint
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The primary outcome of Randomized clinical Trials (RCTs) are typically dichotomous, continuous, multivariate continuous, or time-to-event. However, what if this outcome is unstructured, e.g., a list of variables of mixed types, longitudinal sequences, images, audio recordings, etc. When the outcome is unstructured it is unclear how to assess RCT su...
Article
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Background Current conventional cognitive assessments are limited in their efficiency and sensitivity, often relying on a single score such as the total correct items. Typically, multiple features of response go uncaptured. Objectives We aim to explore a new set of automatically derived features from the Digit Span (DS) task that address some of t...
Article
Importance Compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, African American individuals from the same community are approximately twice as likely to develop Alzheimer disease. Despite this disparity, the largest Alzheimer disease genome-wide association studies to date have been conducted in non-Hispanic White individuals. In the largest association...