Jeffrey H. Kahn's research while affiliated with Illinois State University and other places

Publications (72)

Article
Listening to music is a common method of regulating unpleasant emotions such as sadness, but music listening has not been compared to prototypical interpersonal emotion-regulation strategies. We examined music’s response-independent benefits (i.e., benefits that do not require a response from another person) and response-dependent benefits (i.e., b...
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Perfectionistic concerns are associated with various forms of distress, and research has shown that maladaptive emotion regulation mediates this relation. To our knowledge, this mediation process has not been studied in the lab when an individual experiences distress in the moment. This study was designed to determine (a) whether spontaneous emotio...
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There is compelling research to suggest that individuals high in perfectionistic concerns are at risk for psychological distress because they fail to effectively regulate their emotions. From a theoretical perspective, there may be multiple forms of maladaptive emotion regulation operating in the context of perfectionistic concerns, but empirical s...
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Within-person studies of emotional disclosure have found evidence of a disclosure-discordance effect of depression, whereby the positive association between the intensity of one’s emotional experience and verbal disclosure of that experience weakens with increasing depression symptoms. Because these previous studies have exclusively been naturalist...
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Expressive writing is an effective way to facilitate the emotional recovery from a stressor, but little is known about how adopting a first-person versus third-person perspective while writing affects the disclosure and experience of emotion. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine whether using first-person versus third-person pronoun...
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Perfectionistic concerns about the discrepancy between one's standards and performance are associated with several problematic interpersonal and emotional outcomes. The degree to which discrepancy as a form of perfectionism, as well as personal standards as a form of perfectionism, relate to one's willingness to talk about one's distress to others...
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Men's tendency to conceal their distress has been linked with increased depressive symptoms. Although interpersonal connectedness has been associated with distress concealment and depression, it is unclear how connectedness mediates this association. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating effects of feeling understood and lonelin...
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Background While there is some evidence that patients with elevated depression symptoms experience greater benefits from negative-affect expression, this amplifying effect has not been investigated within a psychotherapeutic context. This is particularly notable considering the substantial evidence linking affect expression with desired outcomes ac...
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Being a victim of relational aggression is associated with many negative outcomes among adolescent girls, and diminished self-disclosure to peers may be one of them. Given this possibility, it is important to examine potential mediators of this relation. Middle-school girls ( N = 180) completed paper-and-pencil measures of relational aggression vic...
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Expressive suppression reflects one's tendency to inhibit the behavioral expression of emotion. Despite voluminous research on expressive suppression, we are aware of no study examining its relation to anger as a discrete emotion. Participants (N = 97) completed measures of expressive suppression and trait anger, and they viewed two anger-inducing...
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The literature on emotion reactivity among people with major depressive disorder (MDD) indicates that people with MDD show diminished reactivity to negative events as compared to non-depressed controls. This diminished reactivity may only be at the highest levels of depression symptoms, suggesting a nonlinear association between depression symptoms...
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Across a breadth of psychotherapeutic approaches, feeling affect intensely and then talking about those feelings is a common means for increasing insight and other desired outcomes. While several naturalistic and laboratory studies have found that depression symptoms attenuate (i.e., weaken) the association between negative-affect intensity and neg...
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Students’ developmental trajectories for social and emotional adjustment to college have not been adequately examined. Moreover, the role of students’ attachment to mothers in predicting membership of adjustment trajectories is unknown. Entering college students (N = 325) completed measures of maternal attachment as well as measures of negative emo...
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Testing self-affirmation writing against well-established alternatives is an important step in validating self-affirmation writing as an empirically informed clinical exercise. Therefore, this multi-wave study examined the effects of two theoretically distinct writing exercises: self-affirmation and emotionally expressive writing. It was hypothesiz...
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Distress disclosure has been linked with reduced psychological distress, increased wellbeing, and successful psychotherapeutic outcome. Because of the importance of distress disclosure, researchers have worked to develop and improve theoretical models of disclosure to facilitate counseling practices that reduce impediments to disclosure. Presently,...
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In this study, we examined a structural equation model in which attachment anxiety and avoidance were associated with binge eating and restricted eating behaviors through distinct emotion regulation difficulties of emotional reactivity and emotional cutoff among college women (n = 744) and men (n = 200). As predicted, attachment anxiety was associa...
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Research using Western samples shows that talking about unpleasant emotions-distress disclosure-is associated with fewer psychological symptoms and higher well-being. These benefits of distress disclosure may or may not be observed in East Asia where emotional control is valued. Instead, mindfulness may be more relevant to emotion regulation in Eas...
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The benefits of talking with others about unpleasant emotions have been thoroughly investigated, but individual differences in distress disclosure tendencies have not been adequately integrated within theoretical models of emotion. The purpose of this laboratory research was to determine whether distress disclosure tendencies stem from differences...
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The provision of social support is a common function of many online communities, but a full understanding of the causal effect of emotion language on the provision of support requires experimental study. The frequency of positive- and negative-emotion words in simulated posts requesting emotional support was manipulated and presented to a sample of...
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Talking about unpleasant events has important implications for coping with distress, but the literature has not thoroughly addressed the role of social support on the decision to disclose these events. The authors hypothesized that perceptions of the availability of social support and satisfaction with support received regarding an event would be p...
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The intensity of distressing events predicts people’s disclosure of those events at between-person and within-person levels. Depression symptoms seem to attenuate the within-person relation, but past research has not taken a multidimensional view of depression as a moderator. The authors tested whether two constructs related to depression-general p...
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Huron (2011) theorized that listening to music that induces sadness could lead to higher levels of prolactin, which would lead to increased liking of music that induces sadness, but this relationship would depend on individual factors of age, gender, depression, and personality. This study explored the link between these individual factors on likin...
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This article presents reliability and validity evidence, from two separate studies, for a measure designed to assess topics of conflict within emerging adults’ romantic relationships (Topics of Conflict Scale [TCS]). In Study 1, college students in a current romantic relationship (N = 293) completed an initial 79-item form of the TCS. Exploratory f...
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The authors evaluated emotional avoidance as a mediator of the relation between attachment avoidance (i.e., fear of dependency) and emotional disclosure and rumination as a mediator of the relation between attachment anxiety (i.e., fear of rejection) and emotional disclosure. Two operational definitions were used for each of three variables – emoti...
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Shame may be a deterrent to disclosing secrets to a counselor, and shame-proneness may be associated with generalized tendencies to avoid disclosure of distress. If so, the mechanism explaining these relations might be the expected outcomes about disclosure. College students in the United States (N = 312) thought of a shameful secret of theirs, and...
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This study examined a multiple mediator model explaining how sibling perpetration and one's attachment style mediate the relation between parent-to-child victimization and dating violence perpetration. A sample of undergraduate students (n = 392 women, n = 89 men) completed measures of the aforementioned variables on an Internet survey. For men, pa...
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Background: The pairing of analysis of variance (ANOVA)-based analyses with designs lacking multiple measurement of client change may lead to conclusions that are inconsistent with theoretical expectations about how change will occur. Multilevel modeling (MLM), when used with multiple assessments of client outcomes, provides a flexible set of tool...
Article
The literature suggests that teacher responses to bullying are a function of the type of aggression (overt vs. relational), the gender of the children involved, and characteristics of the teacher. We extended the literature by examining teachers' dispositional coping styles as a predictor of their responses to bullying. Preservice teachers (N = 97)...
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The Distress Disclosure Index (DDI; J. H. Kahn & R. M. Hessling, 2001) is a brief self-report measure of one's tendency to disclose personally distressing information. The purpose of this article was to summarize what is known about the DDI, present new validity evidence, and make recommendations for use of the DDI. This article reviews research on...
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Individuals with high levels of depression symptoms and individuals with insecure attachment orientations have been shown to limit their use of emotional disclosure as a means of emotion regulation. However, little is known about how depression symptoms and insecure attachment orientations might jointly predict whether individuals engage in emotion...
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Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers of...
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Very little program-level research on psychology graduate research training environments (RTEs) exists despite the RTE being a program-level (vs. student-level) construct. In the current study, the authors investigated correlates of programs' RTEs, including characteristics of the students, the faculty, and the programs themselves. Proportional str...
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Individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms tend to engage in lower levels of emotional disclosure than individuals who are lower in depressive symptoms. However, little is known about how depressive symptoms relate to the intraindividual relation between daily disclosure and the intensity of the daily events. The authors addressed these re...
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Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom–disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students (...
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Several constructs reflecting individual differences in emotion expression have been described in the literature, yet their structural organization is unknown. The present study provided a taxonomy of these individual differences and determined their relations to depression and anxiety symptoms. Exploratory factor analyses suggested seven emotion-e...
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The authors examined the relation between a client's disclosure of emotional material in an analogue psychotherapy session and the depth and smoothness of that session. Transcripts of 33 prepracticum psychotherapy sessions (3 sessions each from 11 volunteer clients) were coded for client disclosures, and the text of these disclosures was subjected...
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The literature on research training in professional psychology has yet to address the role of student learning styles on training outcomes. A mail survey of graduate students (N = 132) in professional areas of psychology from 11 universities assessed four dimensions of learning styles, research interest, and research self-efficacy. Students with mo...
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The present study examined fathers' daily parenting hassles and coping strategies to (a) determine their association with fathers' emotional expressiveness and (b) predict their sons' development of socioemotional competence. Fathers of 148 preschool-aged boys reported on their parenting hassles, coping strategies, and emotional expressiveness; mot...
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The authors present the results from a study investigating advisor-advisee relationships in counseling psychology doctoral training. Participants were 47 advisor-advisee dyads who were currently working together in an advising relationship. The results indicated that advisors and advisees exhibited significant agreement in their assessments of thei...
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The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) text analysis program often is used as a measure of emotion expression, yet the construct validity of its use for this purpose has not been examined. Three experimental studies assessed whether the LIWC counts of emotion processes words are sensitive to verbal expression of sadness and amusement. Experim...
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Relationships between young adults’ identity status, the consistency and differentiation of their career interests, and their career decision self-efficacy were assessed. Among 111 college students, identity status was related to career decision self-efficacy and differentiation of interests, but it was not associated with consistency of interests....
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The authors investigated whether the relationship between the contents of emotional social support and job burnout among high-school teachers is spurious because of the role of dispositional positive and negative affectivity. A national sample of 339 teachers was surveyed via a web-based procedure. Hierarchical regression analyses did not support s...
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Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have contributed to test development and validation in counseling psychology, but additional applications have not been fully realized. The author presents an overview of the goals, terminology, and procedures of factor analysis; reviews best practices for extracting, retainin...
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Personality was hypothesized to predict college adjustment because of the role of perceived social support. A sample of III freshmen completed measures of personality, perceived social support, and college adjustment twice in their 1st semester. Perceived social support mediated the relationships between 3 personality factors (Emotional Stability,...
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The present study examined whether predictors of romantic-partner conflict may vary as a function of family structure. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested a mediation model of conflict resolution behaviours among late adolescents from intact (n=185) and divorced (n=87) families. Adolescents rated conflict resolution behaviours in five dyadic...
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This longitudinal study examined the relationships among the working alliance, treatment satisfaction, and posttreatment use among adolescents in treatment for substance abuse. Adolescents (N = 600) from the Cannabis Youth Treatment study (M. L. Dennis et al., 2002) completed measures of working alliance and treatment satisfaction as well as substa...
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The author reacts to the three core articles in the Scientific Forum of the May 2005 issue of The Counseling Psychologist about institutional research productivity, the use of theory-driven research, and the application of structural equation modeling to research in counseling psychology. To have a research base that maximizes divergent perspective...
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Because alcohol or other drug use following adolescent substance abuse treatment is common, understanding mediators of posttreatment outcome could help improve treatment interventions. The authors conducted path analyses based on data from 552 adolescents (aged 12-18; 82% male) with cannabis abuse or dependence who participated in outpatient treatm...
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College students differ in their tendencies to self-disclose personal information. The goal of this study was to determine how differing disclosure tendencies among university counseling center clients affect psychotherapy outcomes. Among 22 clients in brief psychotherapy, client tendencies to self-disclose personal information predicted how releva...
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Measures of research self-efficacy have the potential to facilitate graduate training and mentoring, but the hypothesized factor structures of these measures have not been confirmed empirically. Moreover, the underlying dimensions of research self-efficacy across multiple measures are unknown. Graduate students in psychology programs (N = 1,004) co...
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Path analyses revealed that one's tendency to conceal distressing information, social support, psychological distress, and attitudes toward seeking help predicted intended use of counseling services for college students who had and had not previously been in counseling. Prospective analyses revealed that attitudes toward seeking help predicted actu...
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We examined whether dispositional negative affectivity (NA) spuriously explains the relationships between perceived social support and self-reports of well-being (depression, loneliness, and life satisfaction) and physical health among the elderly. A sample of 100 elderly adults attending a senior community center completed measures of the aforemen...
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We examined whether one's self-reported tendency to disclose versus conceal distressing information predicts actual disclosure and concealment behavior. Sixty-nine undergraduates who were pretested on a measure of disclosure versus concealment tendencies saw either a distressing or non-distressing film and we assessed their reactions to the film vi...
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Social--cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) postulates that changes in self-efficacy precede changes in interests, but the cross-sectional nature of most research has precluded the examination of temporal precedence in the relation between these variables. The authors assessed college students' career interests and...
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We examined the ability of four career and personality assessment inventories to predict students’ first-year college performance and persistence. Among our sample of 677 college freshmen who enrolled in a freshman orientation course, subscales from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Strong Interest Inventory, and Social Skills Inventory uniquely pre...
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Early withdrawal from college can present problems for students and educators. In an effort to broaden our understanding of factors associated with students' persistence in higher education, we examined the ability of variables from Social Cognitive Career Theory assessed before college and during students' second semester to predict first-year col...
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J. H. Kahn and N. A. Scott's (1997) model of scholarly activity was refined by integrating the mentoring relationship as an element of the research training environment and research outcome expectations as an additional mediator, as guided by social-cognitive career theory (SCCT). A national survey of 149 counseling psychology students was used to...
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Client tendencies to disclose versus conceal personally distressing information (termed distress disclosure) were hypothesized to relate to measures of social support, personality, perceived stress, and symptomatology at intake, as well as improvement over the course of counseling. Seventy-nine college counseling center clients completed questionna...
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Individual differences in one's tendency to conceal versus disclose psychological distress were hypothesized to reflect a unidimensional construct related to changes in psychological adjustment. These hypotheses were tested using a newly validated self-report instrument called the Distress Disclosure Index. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor...
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A brief measure of the research training environment in counseling graduate programs was developed and cross-validated. This new instrument is recommended when efficient measurement is required.
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In this study 445 incoming freshman completed a questionnaire prior to arrival on campus about their outcome expectations with respect to successful college achievement and academic performance goals. During their second semester, 274 of these students responded to a questionnaire where Social-Cognitive Career Theory Constructs were again tested. I...
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This study investigated a model of predictors of higher level career aspirations among 2 groups of women: students in mathematics, physical science, and engineering majors and students in biological science majors. On the basis of social-cognitive theory, it was hypothesized that ability, self-efficacy, positivity of role model influence, and role...
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Full-text available
This article illustrates the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures with latent variables to analyze data from experimental studies. These procedures allow the researcher to remove the biasing effects of random and correlated measurement error on the outcomes of the experiment and to examine processes that may account for changes in t...
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Prior research by the authors tested a model of factors influencing parent inclination to participate in parenting interventions. Family context, belief, attitude, and inclination to participate variables from this model were used to predict the actual participation of 1,121 families in assessment and intervention activities of a family-focused pre...
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The factor structure of the Research Training Environment Scale-Revised was examined in a sample of 270 graduate students in counseling psychology. This confirmatory factor analysis assessed the fit of a nine-factor model corresponding to the respective subscales on the measure, as well as the fit of a second-order factor structure suggested by an...
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This cross-sectional study investigated predictors of research productivity and science-related career goals in a sample of 267 doctoral students (representing a response rate of 5S%) from 15 randomly selected APA-accredited counseling psychology doctoral programs. A structural equation modeling procedure revealed that career goals and research pro...
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Self-presentations to a counselor were explored with both nonclinical and clinical samples. In Experiment 1, university students (N = 108) completed intake forms that would be anonymous or would be reviewed by a counselor or a peer. Participants in the counselor condition reported less symptomatology and higher self-esteem than did those in the ano...
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Self-presentations to a counselor were explored with both nonclinical and clinical samples. In Experiment 1, university students ( N = 108) completed intake forms that would be anonymous or would be reviewed by a counselor or a peer. Participants in the counselor condition reported less symptomatology and higher self-esteem than did those in the an...
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This paper describes the specification and testing of a model of protective parent and peer factors in peer refusal skills. Two modifiable protective factors suggested by relevant research on adolescent substance use-child attachment with parents and association with peers having prosocial norms-were incorporated as independent variables in the mod...
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Whether the rebound effect of thought suppression would occur with self-generated intrusive thoughts and whether the rebound would be followed by negative metacognitions concerning one's ability to control one's thoughts were explored. In Exp 1, Ss ( N = 104) were asked to (1) suppress and then express or (2) express and then suppress their own int...
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Thesis (M.S.)--Illinois State University, 2006. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 69-72) and abstract. Thesis Committee: Jeffrey H. Kahn (chair), W. Joel Schneider.
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Abstract The abstract should be a single paragraph in block format (without paragraph indentation), and the appropriate length depends on the journal to which you are submitting, but they are typically between 150 and 200 words. (Students should consulttheir instructor for the recommended length of the abstract.) Section 2.04 of the APA manual (Ame...

Citations

... Each item is rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree), with higher scores indicating higher levels of perfectionistic concerns. Cronbach's alpha was .94 in Kahn et al.'s (2021) study and .94 in this study. ...
... Rather than perpetuating stereotypes that men do not understand their own emotions, the current model suggests that coaching men by providing opportunities and language for healthy and nuanced emotional expression might reduce psychological distress, and associated maladaptive expression via anger and aggression (Kanbara & Fukunaga, 2016). The relational aspect of encouraging emotional expression may be particularly salient given research indicating feelings of being understood and socially connected as factors in the relationship between men's distress concealment and depressive symptoms (Cox et al., 2020). ...
... Given the fact that depressive symptoms were associated with general positive affect and negative affect (Cox et al., 2020;Lambert, Fincham, & Stillman, 2012), we controlled for general positive affect and negative affect which were assessed via the Chinese version of the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (Diener et al., 2010). The scale has 6 items for positive affect (e.g., "positive") and 6 items for negative affect (e.g., "negative"). ...
... Anger is a powerful emotion, releasing the pressure inside a person, which is often essential to let that person deal with the problems [97,98]. It is most prevalent in people with comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders [99][100][101]. Both incidental and integral anger may reduce perspective-taking [102]. People with long-term anger problems tend to be poor at making decisions and more likely to have a substance misuse problem [103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110]. ...
... Finally, whereas several studies have examined the association between emotional intensity and emotional disclosure, the operational definition of intensity has varied across studies. Garrison and Kahn (2010) used a single item assessing how intense the emotional reaction to the negative event was, Cox et al. (2019) used a single item assessing how much the participant "felt negative feelings this week" (p. 354), and Garrison et al. (2012) and Ryan and Kahn (2015) used a composite score of how intense participants' emotional reaction was and how negative their feelings were. ...
... First, although a sizable number of participants had elevated depression symptoms, we did not specifically target clinically depressed participants in our study. Kahn et al. (2019) found that deficits in emotional reactivity can be found even when examining depression symptoms as a continuum. Nevertheless, it's possible that a stronger moderating effect of depression symptoms might have been found had we included more participants with severe symptoms. ...
... The emotional adjustment refers to the absence of internalizing symptoms and emotional dysregulation (Eisenberg et al., 2001). According to previous research, emotional adjustment can be assessed by wellbeing, self-efficacy, depression, loneliness, and anxiety (Chen et al., 2000;Kasky Hernández & Kahn, 2020;Sianko et al., 2019;Van Zalk et al., 2020). To measure this dimension from positive and negative aspects, we choose well-being and depression as indicators of emotional adjustment in the current study. ...
... More structured writing prompts would also be useful to explore so as to guide utilization in specific settings. Instructions could be easily tailored, such as by manipulating the perspective (first-person vs. a more selfdistancing third person perspective) [66,70,71], as research suggests that self-and emotional-distancing indicators are associated with positive effects of expressive writing [72]. ...
... With regard to gender, some studies report no differences (Chung & Chen, 2020;Hamaideh, 2017;Moriguchi et al., 2007), while others report men displaying higher levels of these traits (e.g. O'Loughlin et al., 2018). The prominence of alexithymic traits in men may be a consequence of the traditional gender role socialization process, which discourages men from expressing their emotions and associates masculinity with restricted emotionality (Levant et al., 2009). ...
... Restrained eating behavior refers to individuals restricting their food intake for weight loss (Herman and Polivy, 1975;Westenhoefer et al., 2013), and is prevalent among college students (Han and Kahn, 2017). A Chinese app called Mint, which focuses on recording diets, reports that 7.65 million people are involved in restrained eating (Yang et al., 2021). ...