Jeffery Sobal's research while affiliated with Cornell University and other places

Publications (190)

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Religion and body weight was explored at two time points among overweight and obese African-American adults. Baseline and follow-up data were collected from 26 adults participating in a weight loss intervention and analyzed using multiple regression analyses of religious measures, body weight, and other variables. Frequent church attendance was sig...
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Background: Prior research has reported that plate size may influence an individual's perceptions and recall of food and meal size. Therefore, manipulating plate size could influence projected meal quantities and portion size among community dwelling adults. Methods: The present study interviewed 281 adult parents in their own homes in a medium-...
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Objectives: In this study, we examined the role of plate size in an individual's ability to draw what they had for dinner the previous evening. Methods: A sample of 199 students at one US university were given large pieces of paper with the image of a plate printed on them and asked to make an accurate drawing on the plate of what they had for dinn...
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Context Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) report dissatisfaction with their early medical care. Little is understood about factors that can encourage stronger patient-provider relationships and promote treatment adherence. Objective To compare trust in physicians and beliefs about social support from healthcare providers between women wi...
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Food policy is embedded within the context of a risk society where there are collective anxieties about risk and uncertainty. One type of shared knowledge structure created through social, economic, and political communication related to health risks and benefits is social representations. To examine social representations of fish and seafood, semi...
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Study question: Do health-related knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy differ between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Summary answer: Women with PCOS felt at greater risk for adverse health outcomes, yet believed a healthy lifestyle was less beneficial to prevent weight gain relative to a comparison group. What is known...
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Sport is shifting from being hegemonically masculine but it is unclear how sports are viewed as gender segregated or gender integrated. Previous quantitative studies of gendertyping sports have reported mixed findings. Gendertyping constructs social representations that shape institutional and individual sport activities. This study examined how pa...
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Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive cha...
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Objective: To examine rural New York State consumers' cognitive scripts for fish and seafood provisioning. Design: A cross-sectional design with in-depth, semistructured interviews. Setting: Three rural New York State counties. Participants: Adults (n = 31) with diverse fish-related experiences were purposefully recruited. Phenomenon of int...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine food preparation practices of US older adults by assessing their conceptualization of food preparation methods and their routine use of food preparation methods and kitchen equipment. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 17 community-dwelling older adults used cards with names of food preparatio...
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Cooperative activities among coworkers can provide valuable group-level benefits; however, previous research has often focused on artificial activities that require extraordinary efforts away from the worksite. We investigate organizational benefits that firms might obtain through various supports for coworkers to engage in commensality (i.e., eati...
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Objectives: If being weighed impacts perceptions of eating behavior, it is important that the order of questionnaires and weighing be considered in research and practice. A quasi-experimental study was performed to examine whether being weighed immediately prior to completing a questionnaire affects responses to eating behavior questions. It was h...
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This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and health associations of consumer participation in different stages of the food system using a survey of 663 adults in one U.S. county. Consumer food system participation by stage was 43% in food production, 47% in food processing, 65% in food distribution, 62% in food acquisition, 61% in food prepara...
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Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods – such as meat versus vegetables – differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates...
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Social selection proposes that health influences marriage, whereas social causation proposes that marriage influences health. We used biennial 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to examine body weight 6 years before and 6 years after entering and exiting first marriages. For marital entry, social selection occurred as lighter women ent...
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Objective: The current study examines the impact of a nutrition rating system on consumers' food purchases in supermarkets. Design: Aggregate sales data for 102 categories of food (over 60 000 brands) on a weekly basis for 2005-2007 from a supermarket chain of over 150 stores are analysed. Change in weekly sales of nutritious and less nutritious...
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Contemporary families and food systems are both becoming more dynamic and complex, and current associations between adult family meals and body mass index (BMI) are not well understood. This investigation took a new approach by examining diverse settings and sources of food for family dinners in relationship to BMI in a cross-sectional nationally r...
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Eating is broadly conceptualized as food choice. Food choice is a complex activity with many dimensions. Food choice is multifaceted as it involves whether, where, when, how long, how, why, with whom, for whom, and under what conditions eating occurs. Food choice is contextual as it is situated within specific conditions and settings involving both...
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Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, pe...
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We investigate the organizational benefits that firms might obtain through various supports for co-workers to engage in commensality (i.e., eating together). Motivated by the facts that (1) firms already commit significant resources for eating in the workplace and (2) employees have a daily need to eat, we conducted field research of commensality w...
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Consumers engage in many types of sustainable activities. A mail survey of 663 adults in one community examined the practice of sustainable food activities. Respondents participated in an average of 3 of 13 types of sustainable food activities, with women, older, and more educated consumers participating more frequently. Sustainable food activity p...
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Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding, but little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men...
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People eat meals rather than nutrients or food groups. Plate size may influence meal size, meal composition, and food type. To examine effects of plate size on meals, we developed a method we label plate mapping. A quasi-experimental study asked university students to accurately draw what they would like to eat for dinner on either a 9″ or 11″ pape...
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Could taxes on soft drinks reduce obesity? To examine this, a six-month field experiment was conducted in a small American city where half of the households faced a 10% tax and half did not. The 10% tax resulted in a short-term (1-month) decrease in soft drink purchases, but there was no decrease in purchases over a 3-month or 6-month period. Moreo...
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This project developed a method for constructing eating maps that portray places, times, and people in an individual's eating episodes. Researchers used seven consecutive days of qualitative eating recall interviews from 42 purposively sampled U.S. adults to draw a composite eating map of eating sites, meals, and partners for each person on a templ...
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Marital status and marital history are associated with health. Marital history can be represented by the marital trajectory components of timing, transitions, sequence, and duration. We examined whether marital trajectory components add insights beyond marital status in predicting body weight in a retrospective analysis of 3,011 adults. Marital sta...
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Prior research suggests that frequent family meals are associated with lower body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents. The primary focus of this study was examining associations of reported frequency of family meals with reported BMI for multiple members of family units that included adults and adolescents. A secondary focus was examini...
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This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to ex...
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Barriers to healthy eating in low-income families include the perceived and actual cost of fruits and vegetables, availability of and access to healthy foods, and parental time constraints. This pilot study represents a unique food-based obesity prevention program that targeted parents of preschool children. This program attempted to address 2 barr...
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Family meals are an important ritual in contemporary societies and many studies have reported associations of family meals with several biopsychosocial outcomes among children and adolescents. However, few representative analyses of family meals have been conducted in samples of adults, and adults may differ from young people in predictors and outc...
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Marital roles structure and provide norms for behavior. It is unclear whether and how marital status is associated with amount and type of physical activity. We examined marital status differences in physical activity for 4479 men and 4320 women using cross-sectional data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES)...
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Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twe...
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Abstract Obesity is an important social and health issue in contemporary society. Differences in relative weight, overweight, and extreme overweight were examined in rural, middle-sized, and urban areas in a national sample of 11,578 adults in the NHANES II survey. Rural-urban residence and weight were examined in bivariate relationships and in mul...
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We examined beliefs about appropriateness of situations for eating whole-grain foods by asking where, when, and who does and does not consume whole-grain foods. Dietitians, health club members, and Women, Infants, and Children/state fair participants were surveyed. Whole grains were represented as likely to be consumed at home, at breakfast, and by...
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Dating is an important courtship activity in the U.S., and food consumption is part of dating events. Students use dating scripts to guide decisions and behaviors on dates, and perform scripts on dates to construct positive impression management. This study examined how students conceptualized dating foods. A questionnaire was administered in one l...
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Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making. Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, an...
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Married individuals tend to be heavier than those who are unmarried, particularly men, and individuals in different ethnic categories vary in their involvement in marriage and in their body weights. We examined gender and ethnic differences in relationships between marital status and body weight using cross-sectional data from the 1999-2002 Nationa...
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Food waste comprises a significant portion of the waste stream in industrialized countries, contributing to ecological damages and nutritional losses. Guided by a systems approach, this study quantified food waste in one U.S. County in 1998–1999. Publications and personal interviews were used to quantify waste from food production, processing, dist...
Chapter
Food History: Critical and Primary Sources is an indispensable four-volume reference collection which focuses on the widest possible span of food in human history, to provide a comprehensive survey of problems and methods in the field of food history. Bringing together over 80 high-quality essays drawn from journal articles, book chapters, excerpts...
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Weddings are significant life events when brides and grooms often seek a culturally-defined ideal appearance. A cross-sectional survey of 275 unmarried university students assessed current weight and shape, general ideal weight and shape, desired wedding weight and shape, and expectations to diet and/or exercise when contemplating their future wedd...
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Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage gre...
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Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purp...
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People use cognitive scripts to decide to eat in particular settings, such as selecting where to eat on dates during courtship. We surveyed 562 university students about scripts for eating on dates. Public, formal eating settings were seen as more appropriate for first dates, but a broader variety of settings, including individuals' homes, was cons...
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Given the rising prevalence of overweight and sociocultural portrayal of increasingly thin female body ideals and muscular/lean male body ideals, we examined trends in body weight evaluation using two cross-sectional surveys of US undergraduates in 1990 (n = 794) and 2005 (n = 794). Trends in body weight evaluation variables were examined and compa...
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The evening meal is an important regular event in the lives of many people. Understanding how people cognitively construct evening meals can provide insight into social and behavioral processes that are used in food choice. Schema theory provided a framework to explore cognitive constructions as scripts that guide behavior for the evening meal. A g...
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Commensality is eating with others, and marriages are among the most significant commensal relationships. We collected qualitative data about commensality and entry into marriage from twenty couples using two in-depth interviews, the first at about the time couples entered marriage and the second about one year later. Commensal eating was an import...
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Religion is an important aspect of many people's lives, especially for older adults. However, very little data exists about the relationships between religion, food-related social support, diet, nutrition, and anthropometrics in older U.S. adults. Social support may be a possible mechanism for religion-diet/nutrition relationships. This analysis ex...
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We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey to examine wedding-specific body weight ideals and weight management behaviors among women preparing for their wedding (n=272). The average bride-to-be was overweight according to clinical body mass index standards and idealized a significantly lower wedding weight. Most were attempting to lose weig...
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Although prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, prevailing sociocultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, often resulting in body dissatisfaction (BD) because many cannot achieve the cultural ideal. This study examined the magnitude of BD in university undergraduates (n=310). Body weight dissatis...
Chapter
A Model of the Food and Nutrition System Resource Inputs Producer Subsystem Consumer Subsystem Nutrition Subsystem Outputs Food Webs Contexts Conclusions
Conference Paper
Background: Individuals in a marital role are often heavier than those not in marital roles. It is unclear how marital identities are represented in body weight perceptions, aspirations for weight change, and approaches to weight management. Methods: Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between marital status (never mar...
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Food is a basic need of all people. The degree to which people have access to food influences food choice, quality of life, health, and illness. We examined how physically impaired and disabled food shoppers from low-income households managed food provision for their families and the impact health and physical disabilities had on family food choice...
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Prior research shows that food insecurity is associated with being overweight in women, with few and ambiguous results in men. Little is known about the characteristics and roles of individuals who are most likely to be both food insecure and overweight or obese. This study analyzed associations between food insecurity and body weight, and whether...
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This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of the situational nature of eating and drinking by analyzing 7 consecutive, qualitative 24-h recalls of foods and beverages consumed from 42 US adults who worked in non-managerial, non-professional positions. Participants were purposively recruited to vary in age, gender, occupation, and household...
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Built environments at many scales influence the type and amount of food consumed. Macroscale food systems and food landscapes influence food choices, and microscale rooms, furniture, containers, and objects influence food intake. The authors review literature about how four ubiquitous microscale built environments are persistent but often unrecogni...
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How aware are people of food-related decisions they make and how the environment influences these decisions? Study 1 shows that 139 people underestimated the number of food-related decisions they made-by an average of more than 221 decisions. Study 2 examined 192 people who overserved and overate 31% more food as a result of having been given an ex...
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Whole-grain foods are important components of healthful diets that may help prevent chronic diseases. Consumer beliefs that influence consumption of whole grains are poorly understood. This analysis surveyed three groups regarding their beliefs about whole-grain foods. The groups were food and nutrition professionals (n=103), health club members (n...
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This study investigated relationships of culture and physiology with chocolate cravings. Gender differences in chocolate cravings in Spaniards and Americans were examined using parallel Spanish- and English-version questionnaires administered to 259 undergraduate students at one university in Spain and 306 at one university in the US. Responses wer...
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Individualization of eating occurs when people consume foods and beverages differently from their mealtime companions. Types of individualization include: (1) Collective eating, (2) Individualized eating, (3) Individualistic eating, and (4) Individual eating. Collective eating involves consuming the same foods as eating companions, which occurs whe...
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Prevalence of overweight is high in the US, and is of great health, economic, and social concern. Research efforts are seeking predictors of overweight, and some prior work suggests married individuals are heavier than their unmarried counterparts. However, it is unclear how ethnic groups vary in marriage-weight relationships. We examined marriage,...
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Foodwork is the labor involved in making meals. We examined foodwork negotiations of twenty newly married couples using qualitative in-depth interviews at the time couples married and again one year later. The findings revealed that dinner decision-making, food shopping, and cooking were linked: partners who cooked dinner were also involved in dinn...
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In this paper, we redefine the term luxus consumption to mean food waste and overconsumption leading to storage of body fat, health problems, and excess resource utilization. We develop estimates of the prevalence of luxus consumption and its environmental consequences using US food supply, agricultural, and environmental data and using procedures...
Chapter
Considerable epidemiological and clinical data suggest whole grain (WG) intake reduces risk for certain chronic diseases. Public policy guidelines encourage greater WG intake. However, WG consumption remains below recommended levels and consumer understanding is minimal. There is a need to understand how consumers think about WG in order to effecti...
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The aims of the study were to provide information that will contribute to conceptualising what is called "dietary Westernisation", and to provide an example of measuring it on an individual level. Food consumption frequency and demographic data on adults in Mauritius were examined in 1988, 1992 and 1998. In 1992, a 24-hour recall was also included....
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In women, parity has been studied in relation to body weights. This study examined whether and how relationships between parity and body weight differ by race and size of place of residence, adjusting for sociodemographic factors (age, income, education, working status, and marital status) and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, birth control pi...
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Gender permeates all aspects of life, including foodlife, and can be examined using singular and multiple models of genderedness. Singular models of masculinity gender-type foods as masculine and feminine, suggesting that men and women “do gender" by consuming gender appropriate foods. Meat, especially red meat, is an archetypical masculine food. M...
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Most research on diet and exercise has focused on these health behaviours as proximate causes of disease, rather than examine the context of how diet and exercise are developed and maintained. This study examined religion and social support in relationship to fat intake and physical activity. Data from surveys of 546 adults aged 17-91 years, residi...
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The use of qualitative methods is increasing in the health education literature, and there is need for more information on these methods and their use. This investigation looks at qualitative sampling practices as reported in the 93 qualitative or mixed-method studies published in Health Education & Behavior from 1980 to 2000. It focuses particular...
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Socio-economic development influences many factors that affect health, especially diet and nutrition. This investigation proposes that a system of transitions occur as societies develop, with socio-economic, physical activity, dietary, nutrition and body weight transitions operating in relationship with each other. This model of transitions was exa...
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Commensality is eating with other people, and commensal eating patterns reflect the social relationships of individuals. This study examined usual meal partners in commensal units and frequency of eating with others in commensal circles among 663 adults responding to a mailed questionnaire in one community. Meal partner data revealed that most resp...
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Marital terminations are life transitions that may lead to changes in diet, activity, and body weight. This investigation examined how marital status was associated with relative body weight, underweight, overweight, and obesity among men and women in the United States using cross-sectional nationally representative data from the 1992 HRS cohort ag...
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This study examined whether a unidimensional model or a bidimensional model better explained acculturation of Korean Americans on two levels: (a) separate domains of acculturation and (b) “overall” acculturation. Also, the study examined whether there were meaningfully different forms of acculturation in Korean Americans. Additionally, associations...
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The role of spouse is associated with better health. The dynamics of spousal roles can be represented by marital trajectories that may remain stable or may change by entry into marriage, dissolution of marriage, or death of a spouse. Body weight is an important health-related characteristic that has been found to have mixed relationships with marit...
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Individuals entering marriage merge their personal food systems to create a joint spousal food system. This investigation examined newly married couples' food choices. Qualitative interviews conducted with 20 couples as they entered marriage and again 1 year later revealed that some reported initial food homogamy, while others had varying degrees o...
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Lower status jobs, high workloads and lack of control at work have been associated with less healthful diets, but the ways through which work is connected to food choices are not well understood. This analysis was an examination of workers' experience of the relationship of their jobs to their food choices. Fifty-one multi-ethnic, urban, low- and m...
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The study sought to develop a theoretical understanding of identities related to eating. A grounded theory approach and open-ended, in-depth interviews were used to examine identity and eating from the perspectives of adults. Seventeen middle-class, white adults (nine women, eight men) were purposely recruited to vary in gender, age, household comp...
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Obesity is a biopsychosocial phenomenon. Cultural contexts shape values and norms about body weight and change weight through modernization, migration and acculturation, and historical contexts change weights and attitudes about weight over time. Social characteristics of individuals are also associated with body weight as seen in the social epidem...
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This study sought to enhance understanding of how people conceptualize and manage healthy eating. An interpretivist approach employed the constant comparative method to analyze 79 open-ended interviews with individuals about food choices and eating behaviors for health-related themes. Participant reports depicted cognitive systems for defining heal...
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Extensiveness represents the amount of information gathered in qualitative research. This study examined sample extensiveness in qualitative nutrition education research. Retrospective analysis was performed on articles published in the Journal of Nutrition Education (JNE) from 1969 to 1999 (Volumes 1 to 31). Content analysis was used to code artic...
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People classify foods into multiple categories to construct order in complex food environments. This investigation in the U.S. used depth interviews and secondary analysis of existing qualitative data sets to examine how the public constructs and uses food classifications. Within sets of culturally recognized food classifications, smaller sets of s...
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Vegetarians exclude various forms of animal‐derived foods from consumption, and consequently must use special strategies to make food choices and present their food decisions to others. This study investigated the ways people following vegetarian diets managed their food choices and negotiated their interactions with others. Qualitative methods wer...
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The objective of this investigation was to understand the diet change processes of participants within a program setting. A theory-oriented approach and semistructured qualitative interviews were performed over a 4-month data collection period. Nineteen men and four women at one site of an intensive heart program were purposely sampled. Participant...
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This study examined how university students conceptualize “seasonal” and “local” in relation to food. Because starting college often represents the first time many people assume primary responsibility for their meals, food beliefs of students are particularly relevant. A one-page written questionnaire was developed, pretested, and used to survey 16...
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This investigation examined influences on the dietary experiences among coronary heart disease patients in an intensive lifestyle heart program. This exploratory study relied on semistructured qualitative interviews performed over a 4-month data collection period. Purposeful sampling recruited 19 men and 4 women. A cross-sectional design selected p...
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Despite increasing research on the relationships between acculturation and health, it is unclear whether (1) ethnic group variation occurs in acculturation-health relationships, (2) acculturation components vary differently in relationship to health, (3) biculturalism has beneficial effects on health and (4) multidimensional health relationships oc...
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The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is a federally funded nutrition program designed to educate low-income families about key areas of nutrition and food safety. This study examined the benefits gained and maintained by participants in EFNEP in food practices, nutrition knowledge, nutrient intake, and other areas. A prospectiv...
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This study examined how Korean Americans with different levels of acculturation varied in food consumption, and which diet-related factors were important to acculturation and food consumption. Pretested questionnaires were mailed to a national sample, and 55% of the deliverable sample responded, producing 356 usable questionnaires. Sociocultural ac...
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Objective: Examine the influence of an 18-minute educational videotape about the usefulness of a health care proxy as an advance directive to enhance patient control over treatment decisions. Methods: Interviews of 204 hospitalized patients who viewed a videotape and 215 control patients who received only written information. Results: Patients repo...
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Ethnicity is one of the many factors that play a role in food choices.This project examined how ethnicity was enacted in food choices among 86 adults in one U.S. city, purposively recruited to vary in ethnic identity (Black, Latino, White). Qualitative research methods were used to conduct semistructured depth interviews about participants’ ethnic...
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The food system is a widely used concept, but few systematic frameworks model the full scope and structure of the food and nutrition system. Bibliographic searches, a modified Delphi technique, focus groups and interviews with experts on the topic were conducted to identify existing models of agriculture, food, nutrition, health and environmental s...

Citations

... Sex is another important personal factor that has been frequently reported to exert influences on judgments of ED or PS. While overestimation during pre-meal planning is prevalent in both males and females, recent studies have suggested substantial sex-related differences in food choice, in the balance of food components, and in the size of overestimation errors (Almiron-Roig et al., 2013;Arganini, Saba, Comitato, Virgili, & Turrini, 2012;Sharp, Sobal, & Wethington, 2019;Wardle et al., 2004). These differences were true after being corrected for differential energy requirements between males and females (Robinson, te Raa, & Hardman, 2015;Sharp et al., 2019). ...
... Of late, a few reports of mistrust among women with PCOS seeking care from a primary care physician has been reported. [9] We may buck this trend if the primary care physician understands the barriers to good compliance to the treatment regimen and Barriers to treatment regimen adherence in Indian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome initiates steps to correct the same. Studies also point out that physicians lack knowledge in managing PCOS. ...
... There are several theories for these healthy lifestyle patterns. Religious groups regularly adhere to general religious principles like "moderation in all things" and the sanctity the physical body as the "temple of the Holy Spirit" (Ayers et al., 2010;Boyatzis, Kline, & Backof, 2007;Ferraro, 1998;Hill, Burdette, & Idler, 2011;Horton, 2015;Kent et al., 2016;Mahoney et al., 2005;Merrill & Hillam, 2006;Ruiz & Acevedo, 2015;Yeary et al., 2020). Religious involvement also contributes to greater self-control by conditioning "moral muscles" through years of ritual adherence (e.g., regular religious attendance), moral socialization (e.g., ideas about the sinfulness of gluttony and sloth), self-examination (e.g., through confession and prayer), and social control (e.g., social sanctions within the religious community) ( Chronic stress is another potential mechanism linking religion and leaner body mass. ...
... To evaluate the Brazilian consumer's understanding of edible insects, we employed the social representation theory. This theory has already been widely used in consumer studies on different kinds of food products such as craft beer (Gómez-Corona et al., 2016), edible flowers (Rodrigues et al., 2017), seafood (Bostic et al., 2018), pulses (Melendrez-Ruiz et al., 2020), wines (Udarpilleta et al., 2021), and hamburgers (Patinho et al., 2021). According to Lo Monaco and Bonetto (2019), social representation is "a structured set of ideas, opinions, knowledge, and beliefs shared by a social group [such as Brazilians] about specific social objects [such as edible insects]". ...
... N=Z2P(1-P)/d2 Z= Z-score for 95% CI = 1.96 P (response distribution) = 50% = 0. Study tools A pre-tested, self-guided, close-ended and structured questionnaire that adapted from two former studies was used for data collection (13,26). The questionnaire consisted of four parts. ...
... Amongst them, gender-typing is the most relevant in the current context as many sports have a 'gender connotation' that reflects traditional gender stereotypes (Hartmann-Tews et al., 2012, 165). Since the pioneering work of Metheny (1965) on the stereotypically (in)appropriate participation in sport by men and women, a large body of research has empirically supported the persistent gendered character of different sporting activities (Koivula, 1995(Koivula, , 2001Riemer & Visio, 2003;Sobal & Milgrim, 2019). As determining features of the gender-typing of sport, Koivula (2001, 377) identified 'aesthetics and femininity, danger and risk, speed, and masculinity'. ...
... There are several potential explanations for why religion might be associated with greater body mass. To begin with, gluttony is not a sin that churches tend to focus on, and many religious organizations use food as a means for socializing (Cline & Ferraro, 2006;Hill et al., 2014;Kortt & Dollery, 2014;Merrill & Hillam, 2006;Yeary et al., 2017). Both of these tendencies would make excessive eating or other poor eating habits an "acceptable vice" or "acceptable substitute" for behaviors defined as deviant among churchgoers. ...
... The goal is certainly admirable, but studies have shown conflicting results. For example, there are studies (e.g., Sobal, 2017;Hsu et al., 2018) that suggest that an individual's food choice is rarely influenced by altruistic motives for the environment and/or livestock, while other studies have shown the exact opposite (e.g., Sellitto et al., 2018). This suggests that sustainable food consumption behavior is still an understudied issue. ...
... Likewise, Hicks et al. (2008) reported that respondents were not eating seafood that's why the main reason was the odor and taste of fish. In previous studies, having a dislike for the taste and/or smell of fish is a widely reported barrier to seafood consumption, in general, the world (Best and Appleton, 2013;Bostic et al., 2017;Govzman et al., 2021). Furthermore, the attitude of consumers with low fish consumption towards not liking fish is related to the unpleasant taste and smell, its smell while cooking along with its bones (Carlucci et al., 2011;Grieger et al., 2012). ...
... 25 On the other hand, physically disabled people may be more likely to face particular food access barriers associated with the physical and built environment. [26][27][28] Based on this literature, we focus on two hypotheses. Firstly, we hypothesize that having multiple disabilities puts people at higher risk of food insecurity due to more and/or a higher intensity of barriers to access and participation that increase social disadvantage, 29 e.g. ...