Jean Proulx's research while affiliated with Université de Montréal and other places

Publications (147)

Poster
Full-text available
Several researchers have demonstrated that deviant sexual fantasies play an important role in the development of deviant sexual interests as well as in the commission of coercive sexual behaviors. However, very few researchers have empirically examined the developmental correlates of deviant sexual fantasies (DSFs) in sexual aggressors and whether...
Poster
Full-text available
The aim of the current study is twofold: 1) identify the factors that distinguish sadistic from nonsadistic sexual aggressors; and 2) ascertain whether sexually sadistic offending is a heterogeneous phenomenon. The study sample was composed of 206 sexual aggressors against women. The Severe Sexual Sadism Scale (SESAS) was used to categorize the agg...
Article
Purpose. This study investigates criminal nomadism—an individual's propensity to engage in continuous or intermittent interurban travel as a way to cope with the consequences of their criminal lifestyle and/or as a strategy to adapt to the reality of being a “career criminal.” Methods. The criminal-career itinerary across Canada of 448 men convict...
Poster
Full-text available
Several researchers have found that sexual aggressors have inadequate coping strategies (e.g., sexual fantasies, substance use). However, very few researchers have empirically examined the theoretical factors considered to be at the origin and involved in the development of these. In 2011, Roberto Maniglio hypothesized that the inadequate coping st...
Poster
Full-text available
Hostility toward women is frequently examined as a risk factor for sexual or physical aggression against women, but it is also associated with other violent offenses. However, despite its relevance, research on the etiology of this misogynistic attitude is lacking. Thus, the aim of our study is to explore the effect of developmental and psychologic...
Poster
Full-text available
How do child molesters develop deviant sexual fantasies? Based on Maniglio (2011) hypothese, we conducted structural equation analysis to test if the presence of childhood victimization, and more specifically, sexual victimization, is associated to the development of deviant sexual fantasies and if deviant sexual fantasies are the only inadequate c...
Article
Full-text available
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment in reducing recidivism by adolescents who have sexually offended (ASO). A secondary objective was to determine whether typologies based on victim age (child, adult/peer, mixed) and relationship (intrafamilial, extra familial, intra/extra famili...
Article
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Most actuarial tools in criminology have been developed based on male offenders. However, there have been few studies on the nature and extent of crime in the female population. It has been suggested that this gendered difference in the development of robust actuarial tools for the assessment of criminal behaviours is mainly attributable to the fac...
Article
Résumé Notre perception des auteurs d’homicide sexuel a depuis longtemps été influencée par la médiatisation de leur crime les plus extrêmes, ceux qui se distinguent par leurs degrés de violence et de cruauté. En conséquence, l’opinion du public a été façonnée en partie par les questionnements que peuvent provoquer de telles descriptions : Comment...
Article
This chapter reviews the literature on the treatment of sexually abusive behavior with respect to both the general and cognitively disabled populations, and provides recommendations for a model of treatment and support for those with a disability. Developments in the psychological treatment of sexual offending in the general population has followed...
Article
This chapter focuses on the assessment of forensically relevant sexual sadism. Assessing sadism is a complex and challenging task in the course of legal proceedings and in forensic‐clinical settings, given the specific contextual demands at the different stages of the criminal justice process. The same principles that apply generally to effective s...
Article
This chapter examines research findings concerning several of the most noteworthy examples of: sex offender registration and community notification (a.k.a. “Megan's Laws”); residence restrictions; involuntary and indeterminate civil commitment (a.k.a. “sexually violent predator” laws); and use of electronic monitoring (EM). In a nutshell, sex offen...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes single‐factor and multifactorial theories that seek to explain the sexual abuse of children, and outlines empirical evidence that tests these theories. It examines the theories that may explain contact sexual offending against children. The theory that holding a sexual interest in children is causally linked to sexual abuse...
Article
Craig and Rettenberger proposed an etiological approach to sexual offender assessment integrating the key developmental, offending behavior, and risk‐assessment theory into one model, referred as the CAse Formulation Incorporating Risk Assessment (CAFIRA) model. This chapter seeks to update the model by incorporating neurobiological and neuropsycho...
Article
This chapter reviews the evidence regarding the construct validity of penile plethysmography (PPG) and of indirect measures designed to assess sexual interest in children. For PPG, it focuses on comparisons of men who have committed sexual offenses against children with those who have not, and comparisons of sexual offenders against children (SOCs)...
Article
The issue of sexual abuse is a global socio‐political one, which means that, despite international differences in sexual harm policy and practice surrounding sexual abuse, the creation and implementation of these policies and practices are politically sensitive. This chapter critically considers the risk‐management strategies that are “common” inte...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes an effective contemporary program with the aim of tertiary prevention of sexual offending. It draws heavily upon the authors' experience in the design and oversight of programs running in Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS). The chapter briefly reviews the development of current approaches within the wider cont...
Article
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common, severe, and preventable problem that contributes to the national and global burden of disease. Effective CSA prevention efforts are needed to avert harm to victim and their families, and reduce monetary and nonmonetary costs borne by victims, their families, and society. This chapter reviews criminal‐justice in...
Article
Sexual sadism has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since the mid‐20th century. The DSM‐5 committee distinguished between sadistic behaviors on consenting partners and nonconsenting persons. The lack of consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sexual sadism is in part responsible for the poor inter‐rat...
Article
To shed light on men who sexually offend online, this chapter synthesizes the research on this subgroup of sexual offenders against children, with a focus on typologies, assessment, treatment issues, and prevention strategies for online offenders. It reviews the typologies proposed for three large groups of offenders against children—consumers of c...
Article
This chapter provides an overview of the current state of the literature on what works to prevent sexual violence and sexual aggression in global contexts. It includes a discussion of the unique considerations for prevention in global contexts, the current quality of research, and the availability of data. The chapter presents a review of what is c...
Article
This chapter introduces the scientific literature on the life‐course development of antisocial and criminal behavior. It provides a review of key concepts and findings related to criminal‐career research, developmental criminology, and life‐course criminology. chapter examines some of the implications of such research for the description, explanati...
Article
This chapter focuses on the community dynamic risk management of individuals convicted of sexual offenses. It surveys public perceptions of sexual violence, because how citizens feel about their safety often drives political and legislative agendas. The chapter critically reviews the most common outcomes of those legislative agendas—measures instit...
Article
Understanding and working with women who have sexually offended require an understanding of the nature of sexual offending by women, and gender‐specific assessment, treatment, and management strategies. This chapter provides an overview of these issues. Female sexual offenders, like their male counterparts, engage in a variety of sexually offending...
Article
Pharmacological agents have an important role in treating and reducing risk in some sexual offenders, but also attract controversy, misunderstanding, misrepresentation, and opposition. Sexual offenders can have paraphilic disorders or paraphilia‐related disorders. This chapter covers medications used in current clinical practice to reduce sexual ur...
Chapter
Full-text available
Prevention of sexual violence is a worldwide priority. This chapter provides a framework for understanding some of the risk factors and correlates for sexual violence, with an emphasis on gender inequality. It reviews programs targeting young adult men, particularly those with a bystander focus. The chapter provides recommendations for moving the f...
Article
There are many aspects of the sexual‐offender therapy that can indicate its value to society. Reductions in the number of, and harm to, victims, and the productivity of successfully reintegrated sexual offenders are a few examples of ways sexual‐offender treatment programs can provide benefits to society other than just reduced reoffending. This ch...
Article
The Crime Classification Manual (1992) utilized exhibitionism and voyeurism as examples of nuisance offenses, and as time progressed with the development of social media and internet pornography sites, child and teen pornography were adopted into this category of noncontact sexual offenses as well. This chapter focuses on voyeuristic and exhibition...
Article
Psychometric assessments are used in forensic settings to measure latent variables or dynamic risk factors, which are changeable factors and therefore potentially amenable to treatment. This chapter focuses on the use of psychometric measures to measure dynamic risk factors. The most commonly used psychometric measure targeting the risk factors wit...
Article
This chapter reviews clinical, empirical, and theoretical models of sexual homicide. It takes a chronological approach to the way the key features of sexual murderers have been reported. The chapter presents the key findings in each of the phases of development of knowledge about sexual murderers. According to the FBI motivational model, both the s...
Article
This chapter encourages thoughtful and critical evaluation of policies that affect the lives of children under age 18 who have engaged in illegal sexual behavior, as well as the practice of professionals who work with these children. It focuses on the policies enacted in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America that affect ch...
Article
Much controversy has surrounded the question about whether or not mental disorder, and more specifically major mental illness (MMI), is associated with sexual violence. This chapter reviews the literature describing the relationship between MMI and problematic sexual behavior. It examines the implications of MMI for risk assessment and formulation,...
Article
In modern forensic psychology, there are basically three different methodological approaches to risk assessment: unstructured clinical judgment, actuarial risk assessment instruments (ARAIs), and structured professional judgment (SPJ). The Static‐99 is the ARAI most commonly used and best validated for individuals convicted of sexual offenses. The...
Article
Despite the large number of children who are regularly involved, there has been relatively little attention to addressing child sexual abuse in youth‐serving organizations. This chapter is organized around the four‐step public‐health framework. Given the nascent nature of research on child sexual abuse in youth‐serving organizations, the chapter fo...
Article
This chapter focuses on responsive treatment options for male adults who have sexually offended. It begins with commentary regarding the processes of getting men into treatment and having them stay there, which includes consideration of what types of therapists are most likely to succeed, under what circumstances. The chapter reviews the processes...
Article
The societal impact of sexually abusive behaviors (SABs) makes their reduction an important public health priority. SABs in youth are best understood within their developmental context. Available research has focused on boys, who engage in SAB much more frequently than girls. This chapter provides an up‐to‐date, comprehensive summary of the empiric...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter presents the noteworthy explanatory theories and models, and empirical results, related to sexual aggression against women. Sexual offending against women is polymorphic, and comprises sexual violence, sexual misconduct, and sexual exploitation. The chapter focuses on rape and contact sexual aggression. The scientific community's inter...
Article
The primary objective of this study was to describe and compare the modus operandi, and associated contextual and situational factors, of French serial sexual murderers (SSMs) and nonserial sexual murderers (NSMs). A further objective was to verify the generalizability of the conclusions of James and Proulx's 2016 systematic review of the modus ope...
Article
Sexual homicide typically implies a crime involving two people: perpetrator and victim.Thus, multiple-perpetrator and multiple concurrent victim sexual murderers are unusual, empirically invisible due to their exclusion from (or burying within) research samples. The present study examines 21 such cases of male sexual murderers having perpetrated at...
Article
Highlights • Sexual murderers are not different from the criminals described by classic criminology. • Sexual murderers are marginalized individuals who are dissatisfied with their lives. • Nonserial murderers were described as dysfunctional and having alcohol problems. • Serial murderers avoid arousing the suspicion of neighbors and police. • Homi...
Book
Full-text available
This book provides the first systematic overview of the theoretical, empirical, clinical, and police issues related to sexual murderers and murder. Bringing together leading researchers, theoreticians, and practitioners from across eight different countries, this is a truly international collaboration and an essential reference text for students, r...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual offender risk assessment practice is considered by many to be atheoretical. The identification of the most predictive risk factors and tools has typically overshadowed questions about etiology. In order to gain insight into the origins of criminal behavior among sexual offenders, we developed and validated an etiological model of risk based...
Article
The empirical evidence indicating that sexual offenders against children manipulate their victims to participate in sexual activities dominates the literature on sex offenders and their modus operandi. However, recent evidence suggests that a high proportion of these offenders do not try to persuade their victims for sexual contact in the first pla...
Article
Full-text available
The most commonly used risk assessment tools for predicting sexual violence focus almost exclusively on static, historical factors. Consequently, they are assumed to be unable to directly inform the selection of treatment targets, or evaluate change. However, researchers using latent variable models have identified three dimensions in static actuar...
Article
This study investigated the day-to-day deviant and nondeviant sexuality of a sample of Canadian sexual aggressors against women (N = 160). Using latent class analysis, three latent classes were identified: internalized deviant (ID), low sexual problem (LSP), and hypersexual deviant (HD). Following the latent class analysis, the developmental, physi...
Poster
Full-text available
There is a growing body of evidence on the latent psychological constructs underlying actuarial scales for sexual offenders. While initial models of sexual recidivism risk were comprised of two factors – sexual deviance and antisocial traits (Doren, 2004) – more recent empirical models consistently found a third factor centered on young age (Brouil...
Chapter
The term ‘modus operandi’ – which designates the pattern of actions and behaviours prior to, during, and following the commission of an illicit act – has been adopted by researchers in the field of sexual aggression. Although no integrated theory of modus operandi exists, typologies of sexual aggressors have been developed that take into account th...
Article
The goal of this current systematic review was to describe the characteristics of the modus operandi of serial and nonserial sexual murderers, and the contextual and situational factors associated with them. It analyzes detailed data on 1836 sexual murderers (serial sexual murderers = 176; nonserial sexual murderers = 1660) taken from 45 empirical...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual sadism can be described as the sexual pleasure produced by acts of cruelty and bodily punishment. The most common method for evaluating sexual sadism is clinical evaluation, that is, evaluation based on the diagnostic criteria of nosological instruments such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the Internatio...
Conference Paper
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The third talk will cover a re-validation of the SSPC in a sample of 406 federally sentenced child molesters, evaluated between 1995 and 2000 at the Regional Reception Center of Canada. Crime scene data was linked to sexual interests in children, either defined by expert diagnoses of pedophilia or phallometric deviance indices. Preliminary results...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive distortions are generally considered a key factor in the evaluation and treatment of sexual aggressors against children. The aim of this study was to examine the discriminant properties of the Abel and Becker Cognition Scale. The results of analyses of covariance, in a sample of 265 aggressors against children, do not support ABCS’s discr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sexual offenders are often perceived as obsessed by sex. But are they really? The aim of this research was to investigate the deviant and nondeviant sexual lives of extrafamilial sexual aggressors against women and the relationship between these aggressors' cognitive distortions and sexual lives. To do so, we used a latent class analysis. Our resul...
Poster
Full-text available
Typically, developmental history factors, such as childhood victimisation and family problems, have not been found to be related to sexual recidivism (Hanson & Bussière, 1998). Accordingly, these factors have mostly been omitted from actuarial risk scales and have not been the focus of many studies in our field. While some etiological models of sex...
Article
The goal of this current systematic review is to identify the main characteristics of sexual murderers and the areas in which further research is warranted. It analyzes detailed data on 1836 sexual murderers (serial sexual murderers = 176; nonserial sexual murderers = 1660) taken from 45 empirical descriptive studies carried out between 1985 and 20...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of the current paper were to identify dimensions of the Static-99R, the most commonly used sex-offender actuarial scale, and to test their predictive validity. Exploratory factor analysis extracted three dimensions from the scale: sexual criminality, general criminality and detachment. Cox regression analyses revealed that different actuar...
Book
L’image de la violence qu’offrent la littérature et son genre policier consacré à l’homicide, ainsi que les médias, constamment à l’affût de l’extraordinaire et du monstrueux, n’a pas grand-chose à voir avec celle de la science. Ainsi les violences criminelles sont-elles sans relâche imaginées, racontées, décrites, dénoncées. Mais qu’en est-il vra...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current paper is to identify dimensions of the Static-99R, the most commonly used sex-offender actuarial scale. Exploratory factor analysis extracted three dimensions from the scale : sexual criminality, general criminality and young age. An interpretation of the psychological meaning of these dimensions was suggested: sexual crimina...
Poster
Full-text available
Phallometric assessment has been heavily criticised in the last decade. Besides ethical considerations, the method has several reliability and validity issues (Marshall & Fernandez, 2003). The assessment is hard to reproduce, easy to falsify, and results in an invalid profile more than a third of the time (Michaud & Proulx, 2009). That being said,...
Article
IntroductionThe Rational Choice Perspective in CriminologyThe Rational Choice Perspective Applied to Sexual OffendingAim of the StudyMethods ResultsDiscussion of Findings from the StudyConclusions
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to identify the factors associated with age of onset of sexual aggression, and variety and desistance of criminal activity, among adolescent sexual aggressors. The sample consisted of 351 adolescents (M age = 15.8 years, SD = 1.8) who were assessed in an outpatient psychiatric clinic between 1992 and 2002. Recidivism data w...
Article
Child molesters (n=13) and sexually non-deviant subjects (n=29) were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features while their sexual arousal and gaze behaviour were assessed to characterise their sexual preferences and intentional dynamics. Sexual arousal was measured using circumferential penile plethysmography (PPG). Gaze b...
Article
Purpose. Although it has often been suggested that there is a direct relationship between an individual's sexual interests and behaviours exhibited during the crime they commit, few studies have investigated this question empirically. The purpose of the present study was thus to examine the role of sexual interests and situational factors as to the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents two studies pertaining to the use of virtual characters applied in clinical forensic rehabilitation of sex offenders. The first study is about the validation of the perceived age of virtual characters designed to simulate primary and secondary sexual character of typical adult and child individuals. The second study puts to use...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly differ...
Chapter
The origin of the term sadism is found in the literary works of French writer Marquis de Sade (1740–1814), but it was introduced into the