Jean-Michel Dalle's research while affiliated with Sorbonne Université and other places

Publications (64)

Article
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The number of published scientific articles is increasing dramatically and makes it difficult to keep track of research topics. This is particularly difficult interdisciplinary research areas where different communities from different disciplines are working together. It would be useful to develop methods to automate the detection of research topic...
Article
This paper focuses on the interplay between firms and open and collaborative innovation communities. We develop a formal model where both volunteers (agents setting their agendas freely) and firm’s employees (agents whose agenda is mostly set by their employer) participate in the creation of a common artifact. In this framework, we discuss how firm...
Conference Paper
Ce travail porte sur les effets d’un scenario de formation hybride organisée par la European Institute of Technology (EIT) Digital Master School. Cette formation, et notamment son regroupement de démarrage (kick-off), a pour objectif d’initier les étudiants aux divers concepts de l’entrepreneuriat par la résolution de problèmes collaboratifs, néces...
Preprint
We suggest the use of indicators to analyze entrepreneurial ecosystems, in a way similar to ecological indicators: simple, measurable, and actionable characteristics, used to convey relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. We define 3 possible such indicators: Fundraising Speed, Acceleration and nth-year speed, all related to the abil...
Preprint
We address the issue of the factors driving startup success in raising funds. Using the popular and public startup database Crunchbase, we explicitly take into account two extrinsic characteristics of startups: the competition that the companies face, using similarity measures derived from the Word2Vec algorithm, as well as the position of investor...
Preprint
Thanks to the recent availability of comprehensive and detailed online databases of startup companies, it has become possible to more directly investigate startup ecosystems i.e. startup populations in specific regions. In this paper, we analyze the emergence of 20+ such ecosystems in Europe and the USA, with a specific focus on their sectoral dive...
Preprint
We analyze the sectoral dynamics of startup venture financing. Based on a dataset of 52000 start-ups and 110000 funding rounds in the United States from 2000 to 2017, and by applying both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Tensor Component Analysis (TCA) in sector space, we visualize and measure the evolution of the investment strategies of dif...
Chapter
We study the evolution of the work rhythms of software developers. We gather datasets and controls from GitHub, a prominent site among developers, and, with the help of signal processing techniques, we observe two temporal phenomena in the daily patterns (waveforms) related to daily work rhythms: regularization and precession. More regular daily wo...
Conference Paper
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Within Reddit, Change My View is a specific debate forum where anyone can expose her or his view on a given topic and ask the crowd to provide counter-arguments with the aim of potentially changing this view. CMV uses a dual reward system according to which a) anyone, often the person who had asked the initial question, can highlight and acknowledg...
Conference Paper
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Part of the mission of EIT Digital (a Knowledge and Innovation Community from the EIT, European Institute of Innovation and Technology) is to train IT graduates at both Master’s and Doctorate levels, with strong innovation and entrepreneurial competences. Around 20 European top universities, renowned researchers and leading businesses are in partne...
Conference Paper
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We report in this paper on a multiyear endeavour within the EIT (European Institute of Innovation and Technology) Digital community, during which EIT Digital built an international community of Innovation and Entrepreneurship (“I&E”) teachers at Master level by implementing a blended learning strategy. We see this challenge as a case in change mana...
Conference Paper
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Among other modalities, online coordination can notably rely on discussions and forums. However, and notwithstanding increasing research efforts, direct approaches that would help communities and moderators distinguish between gossip and serious debates are still largely missing. We present an innovative methodology to detect the different structur...
Conference Paper
This position paper provides an overview of the OCKTOPUS project whose goal is to increase the social and economic benefit of user-generated content, by transforming it into knowledge which can be shared and reused broadly.
Article
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The article presents an economic analysis of Free Software. We insist on the role played by Public Licenses, which implement a very subtle and efficient way of dealing with positive externalities associated with creativity, in providing the software industry with such a new development methodology and business model, now already challenging some of...
Conference Paper
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Acid3 is the third of three benchmark tests that have been devised to challenge browsers to comply with Internet standards [6]. While Firefox developers at Mozilla had fully embraced the predecessor to Acid3, Acid2, they showed themselves much more reticent this time around. As the quote above indicates they had come to feel that Acid3 would divert...
Conference Paper
Wikipedia, the “free encyclopedia that anyone can edit”, has evolved substantially over the years according to the editors' needs for more coordination and better quality management. In particular, metadata in the form of “templates” added to pages have come to play a critical role, working in a sense like stigmergic “stigmata” or “signals” which e...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we present preliminary evidence suggesting that the voting mechanism implemented by the open-source Firefox community is a means to provide a supplementary voice to mainstream users. This evidence is drawn from a sample of bug-reports and from information on voters both found within the bug-tracking system (Bugzilla) for Firefox. Alt...
Conference Paper
Though largely spontaneous and loosely regulated, the process of peer production within online communities is also supplemented by additional coordination mechanisms. In this respect, we study an emergent organizational practice of the Wikipedia community, the use of template messages, which seems to act as effective and parsimonious coordination d...
Conference Paper
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A feature of online communities and notably Wikipedia is the increasing use of managerial techniques to coordinate the efforts of volunteers. In this short paper, we explore the in- fluence of the organization of Wikipedia in so-called projects. We examine the project-based coordination activity and find bursts of activity, which appear to be relat...
Article
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In order to analyze the heterogeneity of individual and collective online behaviors, we develop a methodology based on online signals. Modeling as a power law the distribution of time intervals between successive revisions of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia, either by an individual user or on an article, we show that part of the heterogeneity of...
Article
In this paper, we present preliminary evidence suggesting that the voting mechanism implemented by the open-source Firefox community is a means to provide a supplementary voice to mainstream users. This evidence is drawn from a sample of bug-reports and from information on voters both found within the bug-tracking system (Bugzilla) for Firefox. Alt...
Conference Paper
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According to the now widely accepted onion-model of the organization of open source software development, an open source project typically relies on a core of developers that is assisted by a larger periphery of users. But what does the role of the periphery consist of? Raymond's Linus's Law which states that given enough eyeballs all bugs are shal...
Article
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According to the now widely accepted onion-model of the organization of open source software development, an open source project typically relies on a core of developers that is assisted by a larger periphery of users. But what does the role of the periphery consist of? Raymond's Linus's Law which states that given enough eyeballs all bugs are shal...
Article
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In this paper we investigate how in commons based peer production a large community of contributors coordinates its efforts towards the production of high quality open content. We carry out our empirical analysis at the level of articles and focus on the dynamics surrounding their production. That is, we focus on the continuous process of revision...
Conference Paper
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In the paper we investigate an organizational practice meant to increase the quality of commons-based peer production: the use of template messages in wiki-collections to highlight editorial bugs and call for intervention. In the context of SimpleWiki, an online encyclopedia of the Wikipedia family, we focus on {complex}, a template which is used t...
Article
Full-text available
In the paper we investigate an organizational practice meant to increase the quality of commons-based peer production: the use of template messages in wiki collections to highlight editorial bugs and call for intervention. In the context of SimpleWiki, an online encyclopedia of the Wikipedia family, we focus on {complex}, a template which is used t...
Article
Wikipedia, the free online encyclopaedia put together by volunteers, is a prime example of a distributed problem-solving network with a global array of contributors creating a resource that has been compared to leading encyclopedia. The study focused on efforts to maintain the quality of Wikipedia entries and in particular of the use of tagging to...
Conference Paper
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The challenges of commons based peer production are usually associated with the development of complex software projects such as Linux and Apache. But the case of open content production should not be treated as a trivial one. For instance, while the task of maintaining a collection of encyclopedic articles might seem negligible compared to the one...
Conference Paper
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Firefox, a browser targeted at mainstream users, has been one of the big successes of open source development in recent years. That Firefox succeeded where earlier attempts failed is undoubtedly due to the particular choices that were made in the process of development. In this paper, we look at this process in more detail. Mining bug reports and f...
Article
In this paper, we inquire about some of the ways in which the community around Simple Wikipedia—an offspring of Wikipedia, the notorious free online encyclopedia—manages the online collaborative production of reliable knowledge. We focus on how it keeps its collection of articles “simple” and easy to read. We find that the labeling of pages as “uns...
Article
The case study of the Mozilla project is focused on the organization of quality control and quality assurance in a distributed innovation environment, and focuses on the coordination of the detection and correction of operating defects ('bugs') in Mozilla's Firefox web-browser. Analyzing two samples of bugs drawn from the 40,000 or so that have res...
Article
The article investigates the allocation of collaborative efforts among core developers (maintainers) of open-source software by analyzing on-line development traces (logs) for a set of 10 large projects. Specifically, we investigate whether the division of labor within open-source projects is influenced by characteristics of software code. We sugge...
Article
This issue of Information Economics and Policy focuses on a fundamental shift in the software industry: the organisation of software production with the aim of disclosure rather than appropriation. Open source software, as it is now most frequently referred to in the academic literature, is simultaneously a means of production, social organisation,...
Conference Paper
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The paper investigates the processes by which bugs are .xed in open-source software projects. Focusing on Mozilla and combining data from both its bug tracker (Bugzilla) and from its CVS, we suggest that: a) Some bugs resist beyond the .rst patch applied to the main branch of the source code in relation to them, which we denote as superbugs; b) The...
Article
In this paper we present an original model of sequential problem choice within scientific communities. Disciplinary knowledge is accumulated in the form of a growing tree-like web of research areas. Knowledge production is sequential since the problems addressed generate new problems that may in turn be handled. This model allows us to study how th...
Article
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This paper presents a stochastic simulation model to study implications of the mechanisms by which individual software developers’ efforts are allocated within large and complex open source software projects. It illuminates the role of different forms of “motivations-at-the-margin” in the micro-level resource allocation process of distributed and d...
Chapter
Introduction The initial contributions to the social science literature addressing the phenomenon of Libre (open-source, free) software have been directed primarily to identifying the motivations underlying the sustained and often intensive engagement of many highly skilled individuals in this non-contractual and unremunerated mode of production. T...
Conference Paper
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We suggest that signal processing techniques can be used to mine on-line repositories associated with open-source software, and specially CVS archives. By analyzing the frequencies of CVS signals, we present preliminary evidence of daily-commit effects, and also, for some developers at least, of week-end effects.
Conference Paper
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The paper investigates collaborative work among maintainers of open source software by analyzing the logs of a set of 10 large projects. We inquire whether teamwork can be influenced by several characteristics of code. Preliminary results suggest that collaboration among maintainers in most large open-source projects seems to be positively influenc...
Article
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We present an original modeling tool, which can be used to study the mechanisms by which free/libre and open source software developers’ code-writing efforts are allocated within open source projects. It is first described analytically in a discrete choice framework, and then simulated using agent-based experiments. Contributions are added sequenti...
Article
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Early contributions to the academic literature on free/libre and open source software (F/LOSS) movements have been directed primarily at identifying the motivations that account for the sustained and often intensive involvement of many people in this non-contractual and unremunerated productive activity. This issue has been particularly prominent i...
Article
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all had a helpful hand in shaping this work. But, the views expressed and the defects that remain are ours. SUMMARY We present an original modeling tool that can be used to study the social mechanisms by which individual software developers' efforts are allocated within large and complex open source projects. The dynamical agent-based model is firs...
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Contribution to the Third EPIP Workshop: “What Motivates Inventors to Invent?” Convened at Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy, 2-3 April 2004
Article
The article presents an economic analysis of Libre software and of its sustainability as a new economic model for software. We underline the role of Libre software development communities and analyze incentives for both kernel and obscure developers. We emphasize the role of the so-called ‘public’ licenses to provide an appropriate institutional fr...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present an original model of sequential problem choice within scientific communities. Disciplinary knowledge is accumulated by solving problems emerging in a growing tree-like web of research areas. Knowledge production is sequential since the problems solved generate new problems that may be handled. The model allows us to study h...
Article
In the mirror of the past history of other economic institutions dealing with creativity, such as patents and the institutions of Open Science, the paper suggests a twofold institutional implementation of Open-Source Software (here, OSS). It is first argued that the very characteristics of software goods – ubiquity and network externalities, but al...
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The article studies technological competition between open-source and proprietary software using a model from interaction theory. We argue that the organizational structure of open-source software, allowed by openness of source codes and by the subsequent development of dedicated communities, is a key feature which, together with compatibility, can...
Article
The article presents a stochastic interaction model based on Gibbs random fields to analyze technological competition in a population of heterogeneous adopters with local or global externalities. The relationships between both heterogeneity and externalities and imperfect and asymmetric information are first emphasized. When local externalities and...
Chapter
Non-price interactions have recently been proved to be relevant, and sometimes crucial, for economic analysis: these problematics have given birth to a new approach to economic modeling, namely the one which makes use of stochastic aggregation models. The core idea is the one of Schelling, according to which order in collective phenomena has to be...
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Technological dualism often is found to be associated with the geographical clustering of firms that use the same techniques. To shed further light on these localization phenomena, we analyze the long-run dynamic behavior of a system in which firms' choices among alternative production methods (each of which requires a technique-specific input) are...
Article
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We argue that templates in Wikipedia represent a variety of meta-data which are used as a means to coordinate collaborative work. We suggest that such "management through meta-data" might be an important coordination mechanism for online communities.
Article
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According to the largely accepted "onion-model" of the organization of open source software development, an open source project relies on a core of developers assisted by a larger periphery of users. Following this characterization of the division of labor between a core and a periphery, and with the help of text-mining methods, we study the treatm...
Article
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We attempt to illuminate the interplay of decentralized, micro-level decisions that shape the allocation of individual voluntary software development efforts on the part of collectivities (communities) of agents, distributing their work among the distinct 'modules' (or 'packages' of code) that form large and complex "open source" system products. T...

Citations

... Hence the four levels are not stringently sequenced but might be flexibly going backward, forward, and in cyclical manner seeing the learning situation of the students. Experience shared here might not be suitable for the implementation of a large scale active blended learning program (Dion, Dalle, Renouard, Guseva, León, Marchese, Mutanen, Pina-Stranger, Pisoni, Stoycheva, et al., 2018) as well. It is always not possible to come out with suggestions that one size fits all. ...
... Entrepreneurship learning models in European countries are applied in 5 BL models: 1) flipped classroom techniques, starting with delivering material before face-to-face; 2) blended online courses, teaching materials, and assessments online but supervised in the classroom; 3) online starter kits, apply kits or online modules to limited classes; 4) independent leveling-up, self-contained classes complete with materials and quizzes; and 5) online repository, providing teaching materials as material add-ons [15]. ...
... Despite the significance of their roles in facilitating cooperation and engagement in online communities, very little is known about the motivations that drive moderators to fulfill their voluntary roles in the first place. Previous work on online community moderators have considered how formal leadership and community characteristics affect individuals' leadership efforts [1], how they engage with and develop their communities [21], how they foster public discussion [13], and their engagement in collective action across communities [14]. ...
... Afin d'étudier les différents processus de débat, nous avons appliqué plusieurs algorithmes de classement, basés sur certaines caractéristiques des discussions, modélisées par des réseaux particuliers : les motifs (Milo et al., 2002). Nous observons (Mano, Dalle, and Tomasik, 2017) que les individus qui ouvrent la discussion adaptent leur stratégie en fonction de facteurs externes, tel que le nombre de challengers auxquels il fait face. ...
... Even after the expansion of social networks, in the U.S., still 15% of Internet users exchange actively on forums (Duggan et al., 2015). Online discussions are active on any kind of subject, from politics to videogames, to finding a technical answer to a problem through a Q&A site, or even to seek the help of fellow students in Massive Open Online Courses properties has started to be gathered (Besten, Dalle, and Galia, 2008), which has pleaded for the existence of stigmergic phenomena driving the allocation of online efforts and thus orienting coordination within Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects (Bolici, Howison, and Crowston, 2009;Dalle and David, 2003), for instance. These coordination models assume that the code and/or other existing online artifacts actually mediate coordination, making it mostly indirect and/or implicit, in such a way that reduces transaction costs (Dalle and David, 2003). ...
... Indeed, the point made by our paper is exactly that Science and free and open source do differ in some fundamental aspects, and those aspects matter in the ability of free and open source to attract researchers vis-à-vis Technology. The first difference we stress refers to elements characterizing the modern functioning of academia are absent, or at least less relevant, in free and open source: the crucial role played by the State and the professionalization of the scientific career (Dalle and David, 2007). Even in a period of reduced bugdets, the public sector intervention in paying researcher wages and allocating funds is prominent. ...
... To enter the economic debate developed around FLOSS two of the best sources are http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/index.htm and http://www.stanford.edu/group/floss-us/. 2 Peer-regard (Dalle and David, 2003; Dalle et al., 2004) is complex phenomenon, involving also psychological and social aspects. In order to avoid the overlapping of the different incentives realms, I will consider mainly reputation and signaling. ...
... " Feature requests " are handled through a tracking system that provides the project with an infrastructure to manage reporting features, assigning the job of feature implementation, and finally implementing the feature. Compared with CSS, in OSS user features are more rapidly developed because creativity is more prevalent in OSS (Dalle & Jullien 2000;O'Reilly 1999). O'Reilly (1999)believes that open source software are usually more extensible than closed source ones because there is a tighter coupling in the latter. ...
... However they did not provide a model to predict the evolution but some tools which could be useful to obtain such a model. More recently, Dalle et al. [9] have applied signal processing techniques to gather information from the time series obtained from versioning systems of libre software projects. They were inspired by a previous work [16], which applied time series analysis concepts to visualize historical information from software projects. ...
... The second set of questions is more intriguing to firms trying to understand the viability as well as sustainability of open source software as a new innovation model (Curto-Millet & Shaikh, 2017;Dalle & Jullien, 2003;Osterloh & Rota, 2007). The tremendous potential of the open source innovation model could be invigorating for some industry players and threatening for others. ...