Jean Lieber's research while affiliated with French National Centre for Scientific Research and other places

Publications (173)

Chapter
For regression tasks, using neural networks in a supervised way typically requires to repeatedly (over several iterations called epochs) present a set of items described by a number of features and the expected value to the network, so that it can learn to predict those values from those features. Inspired by case-based reasoning, several previous...
Chapter
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have proven to be efficient tools for image segmentation when a large number of segmented images are available. However, when the number of segmented images is not so large, the CNN segmentations are less accurate. It is the case for nephroblastoma (kidney cancer) in particular. When a new patient arrives, the e...
Chapter
Case-based reasoning usually exploits positive source cases, each of them consisting in a problem and a correct solution to this problem. Now, the general issue of exploiting also negative cases—i.e., problem-solution pairs where the solution answers incorrectly the problem—can be raised. Indeed, such cases are “naturally” generated by a CBR system...
Chapter
Case-based reasoning, where cases are described in terms of problem-solution pairs \(\mathtt{case}^{}=(\mathtt{x}, \mathtt{y})\), amounts to propose a solution to a new problem on the basis of past experience made of stored cases. On the one hand, the building of the solution to a new problem may be viewed as a form of belief revision of the soluti...
Chapter
The Henri Poincaré correspondence is a corpus composed of around 2100 letters which is a rich source of information for historians of science. Semantic Web technologies provide a way to structure and publish data related to this kind of corpus. However, Semantic Web data editing is a process which often requires human intervention and may seem tedi...
Chapter
A common idea in the field of case-based reasoning is that the retrieval step can be specified by the use of some similarity measure: the retrieved cases maximize the similarity to the target problem and, then, the adaptation step has to take into account the mismatches between the retrieved cases and the target problem in order to this latter. The...
Article
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The Henri Poincaré correspondence is a corpus of letters sent and received by this mathematician. The edition of this correspondence is a long-term project begun during the 1990s. Since 1999, a website is devoted to publish online this correspondence with digitized letters. In 2017, it has been decided to reforge this website using Omeka S. This co...
Chapter
This chapter presents several types of reasoning based on analogy and similarity. Case-based reasoning, presented in Sect. 2, consists in searching a case (where a case represents a problem-solving episode) similar to the problem to be solved and to adapt it to solve this problem. Section 3 is devoted to analogical reasoning and to recent developme...
Chapter
An analogical proportion is a quaternary relation that is to be read “a is to b as c is to d”, verifying some symmetry and permutation properties. As can be seen, it involves a pair of pairs. Such a relation is at the basis of an approach to case-based reasoning called analogical extrapolation, which consists in retrieving three cases forming an an...
Chapter
This paper describes an approach to case-based reasoning by which the case base is enriched at reasoning time. Enrichment results from the local application of variations to seed cases: new hypothetical cases are created which get closer and closer to the target problem. The creation of these hypothetical cases is based on structures associated to...
Chapter
In the fight against cancer, cancer registries are an important tool. At the heart of these registries is the data collection and coding process. This process is ruled by complex international standards and numerous best practices, which can easily overwhelm (coding) operators. In this paper, a system assisting operators in the interpretation of be...
Chapter
This paper deals with case-based machine translation. It is based on a previous work using a proportional analogy on strings, i.e., a quaternary relation expressing that “String A is to string B as string C is to string D”. The first contribution of this paper is the rewording of this work in terms of case-based reasoning: a case is a problem-solut...
Chapter
Case-based reasoning usually exploits source cases (consisting of a source problem and its solution) individually, on the basis of the similarity between the target problem and a particular source problem. This corresponds to approximation. Then the solution of the source case has to be adapted to the target. We advocate in this paper that it is al...
Article
A farmer's decision to plant new perennial biomass crops is a complex process that involves numerous parameters and can change the food / non-food balance. The paradigm of case-based reasoning is able to deal with the kind of complex and sparse information that is available in this situation, to model and forecast the allocation of these crops.
Conference Paper
Cancer registries are important tools in the fight against cancer. At the heart of these registries is the data collection and coding process. Ruled by complex international standards and numerous best practices, operators are easily overwhelmed. In this paper, a system is presented to assist operators in the interpretation of best medical coding p...
Conference Paper
This paper presents SQTRL, a language for transformation rules for SPARQL queries, a tool associated with it, and how it can be applied to retrieval and adaptation in case-based reasoning (CBR). Three applications of SQTRL are presented in the domains of cooking and digital humanities. For a CBR system using RDFS for representing cases and domain k...
Conference Paper
This paper shows how nuclear image interpretation is improved by Tetra, a case-based decision support system. Tetra exploits two kinds of knowledge sources: ontologies and knowledge embedded in past nuclear imaging reports, each imaging report being associated with a case, described by some features and its associated diagnoses. Ontologies are used...
Article
Introduction L’objectif de ce travail est de creer un systeme d’aide a la decision qui assisterait les medecins nucleaires lors de l’interpretation des images, en se referant a une base de cas similaires. Nous presentons Tetra, un systeme fonde sur le raisonnement a partir de cas, et une base de connaissances alimentee par des donnees cliniques, bi...
Conference Paper
This paper deals with analogical transfer in the framework of the representation language RDFS. The application of analogical transfer to case-based reasoning consists in reusing the problem-solution dependency to the context of the target problem; thus it is a general approach to adaptation. RDFS is a representation language that is a standard of...
Conference Paper
This paper shows how typicality can be used to improve the case retrieval of a case-based reasoning (CBR) system, improving at the same time the global results of the CBR system. Typicality discriminates subclasses of a class in the domain ontology depending of how a subclass is a good example for its class. Our approach proposes to partition the s...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a CBR method to retrieve and adapt processes represented as instruction texts, as well as the evaluation methodology that we developed to evaluate it. The evaluation process is user-based, blind and comparative. It is less labour intensive than most existing approaches and is more open to a variety of possible solutions to the s...
Conference Paper
SemanticHPST is a project in which interacts ICT (especially Semantic Web) with history and philosophy of science and technology (HPST). Main difficulties in HPST are the large diversity of sources and points of view and a large volume of data. So, HPST scholars need to use new tools devoted to digital humanities based on semantic web. To ensure a...
Article
Ce document est la version longue de l'article publié dans les actes des JIAF (journées d'intelligence artificielle fondamentale) en 2015. La différence est principalement au niveau des preuves : certaines preuves n'existent pas dans l'article et d'autres sont davantage détaillées ici. Réviser des croyances par d'autres croyances consiste à modifi...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents Tuuurbine, a case-based reasoning (CBR) system for the Semantic Web. Tuuurbine is built as a generic CBR system able to reason on knowledge stored in RDF format; it uses Semantic Web technologies like RDF/RDFS, RDF stores, SPARQL, and optionally Semantic Wikis. Tuuurbine implements a generic case-based inference mechanism in whi...
Conference Paper
Adaptation is a step of case-based reasoning that aims at modifying a source case (representing a problem-solving episode) in order to solve a new problem, called the target case. An approach to adaptation consists in applying a belief revision operator that modifies minimally the source case so that it becomes consistent with the target case. Anot...
Conference Paper
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This paper shows that performing case-based reasoning (CBR) on knowledge coming from an e-community is improved by taking into account knowledge reliability. MKM (meta-knowledge model) is a model for managing reliability of the knowledge units that are used in the reasoning process. For this, MKM uses meta-knowledge such as belief, trust and reputa...
Article
Case-based reasoning relies on four main steps: retrieval, adaptation, revision and retention. This article focuses on the adaptation step; we propose differential adaptation as an operational formalization of adaptation for numerical problems. The solution to a target problem is designed on the basis of relations existing between a source case (pr...
Article
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Belief revision is an operation that aims at modifying old beliefs so that they become consistent with new ones. The issue of belief revision has been studied in various formalisms, in particular, in qualitative algebras (QAs) in which the result is a disjunction of belief bases that is not necessarily representable in a QA. This motivates the stud...
Book
Ce chapitre présente plusieurs modes de raisonnement s’appuyant sur l’analogie et la similarité. Le raisonnement à partir de cas consiste à chercher des cas (épisodes de résolution de problèmes) similaires au problème à résoudre et à les adapter pour résoudre ce problème. Les développements récents ont porté sur l’analogie et la proportion analogiq...
Article
Adaptation is a task of case-based reasoning (CBR) that aims at modifying a case to solve a new problem. Now, belief revision deals also about modifications. This chapter studies how some results about revision can be applied to formalize adaptation and, more widely, CBR. Revision operators based on distances are defined in formalisms frequently us...
Article
In this paper a decision support system for the diagnosis of a very serious respiratory disease caused by tobacco named the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is presented. The system is based on case-based reasoning principles and gathers the experience of experts of the pneumology department of Dorban Hospital (Annaba, Algeria). A critical iss...
Book
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Taaable is a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) system that uses a recipe book as a case base to answer cooking queries. Taaable participates in the Computer Cooking Contest since 2008. Its success is due, in particular, to a smart combination of various methods and techniques from knowledge-based systems: CBR, knowledge representation, knowledge acquisiti...
Article
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This article presents the Kasimir system dedicated to decision knowledge management in oncology and which is built on top of Semantic Web technologies, taking benefit from standard knowledge representation formalisms and open reasoning tools. The representation of medical decision protocols, in particular for breast cancer treatment, is based on co...
Article
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This paper proposes an approach for the adaptation of spatial or temporal cases in a case-based reasoning system. Qualitative algebras are used as spatial and temporal knowledge representation languages. The intuition behind this adaptation approach is to apply a substitution and then repair potential inconsistencies, thanks to belief revision on q...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents MKM, a meta-knowledge model to manage knowledge reliability, in order to extend a CBR system so that it can reason on partially reliable, non expert, knowledge from the Web. Knowledge reliability is considered from the point of view of the decision maker using the CBR system. It is captured by the MKM model including notions suc...
Article
This paper introduces a method for the automatic acquisition of a rich case representation from free text for process-oriented case-based reasoning. Case engineering is among the most complicated and costly tasks in implementing a case-based reasoning system. This is especially so for process-oriented case-based reasoning, where more expressive cas...
Article
Taaable is a case-based reasoning system that adapts cooking recipes to user constraints. Within it, the preparation part of recipes is formalised as a graph. This graph is a semantic representation of the sequence of instructions composing the cooking process and is used to compute the procedure adaptation, conjointly with the textual adaptation....
Article
Workflows constitute an important language to represent knowledge about processes, but also increasingly to reason on such knowledge. On the other hand, there is a limit to which time constraints between activities can be expressed. Qualitative interval algebras can model processes using finer temporal relations, but they cannot reproduce all workf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Qualitative algebras form a family of languages mainly used to represent knowledge depending on space or time. This paper proposes an approach to adapt cases represented in such an algebra. A spatial example in agronomy and a temporal example in cooking are given. The idea behind this adaptation approach is to apply a substitution and then repair p...
Article
The Internet has totally changed the way information is published and shared in medicine. With web 2.0 and semantic web technologies, web applications allow now collaborative information editing in a way that can be reused by machines. These new tools could be used to in local health networks to promote the editing and sharing of medical knowledge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Taaable is a case-based reasoning system that adapts cooking recipes to user constraints. Within it, the preparation part of recipes is formalised as a graph. This graph is a semantic representation of the sequence of instructions composing the cooking process and is used to compute the procedure adaptation, conjointly with the textual adaptation....
Article
Full-text available
Les algèbres qualitatives forment une famille de langages utilisés principalement pour représenter des connaissances de nature temporelle ou spatiale. Cet article propose une approche pour adapter des cas re-présentés dans une telle algèbre. Un exemple spatial portant sur l'agronomie ainsi qu'un exemple temporel portant sur la cuisine sont donnés....
Conference Paper
Oncolor is an association whose mission is to publish and share medical guidelines in oncology. As many scientific information websites built in the early times of the Internet, its website deals with unstructured data that cannot be automatically querried and is getting more and more difficult to maintain over time. The online contents access and...
Article
Case-based reasoning aims at solving a problem by the adaptation of the solution of an al-ready solved problem that has been retrieved in a case base. This paper defines an approach to adaptation called conservative adaptation; it consists in keeping as much as possible from the solution to be adapted, while being consistent with the domain knowled...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Workflows constitute an important language to represent knowledge about processes, but also increasingly to reason on such knowledge. On the other hand, there is a limit to which time constraints between activities can be expressed. Qualitative interval algebras can model processes using finer temporal relations, but they cannot reproduce all workf...
Article
Full-text available
The Taaable projet goal is to create a case-based reasoning system for retrieval and adaptation of cooking recipes. Within this framework, we are discussing the temporal aspects of recipes and the means of representing those in order to adapt their text.
Conference Paper
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One way of processing case retrieval in a case-based reasoning (CBR) system is using an ontology in order to generalise the target problem in a progressive way, then adapting the source cases corresponding to the generalised target problem. This paper shows how enriching this ontology improves the retrieval and final results of the CBR system. An e...
Conference Paper
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Taaable 4 is a case-based cooking system which is a con-testant in the fourth Computer Cooking Contest, inheriting most of the features of its previous versions as well as adding new ones. Two new fea-tures both concerning knowledge acquisition are proposed this year. The first feature uses formal concept analysis in order to enrich the domain onto...
Article
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This paper presents an algorithm of adaptation for a case-based reasoning system with cases and domain knowledge represented in the description logic ALC. The principle is to first pretend that the source case to be adapted solves the current target case. This may raise some contradictions with the specification of the target case and with the doma...
Article
Cet article est un état de l'art sur les moteurs de wiki sémantique, en particulier sur leur utilisation des technologies du Web sémantique. Les principales notions liées aux wikis sémantiques sont d'abord présentées. Ensuite, plusieurs projets actifs de moteurs de wiki sont comparés selon différents points de vue. Finalement, des recommandations s...
Article
This paper is about the adaptation knowledge (AK) discovery for the TAAABLE system, a case-based reasoning system that adapts cooking recipes to user constraints. The AK comes from the interpretation of closed itemsets (CIS) whose items correspond to the ingredients that have to be removed, kept, or added. An original approach is proposed for build...
Conference Paper
This paper addresses the issue of adapting cases represented by plain text with the help of formal concept analysis and natural language processing technologies. The actual cases represent recipes in which we classify ingredients according to culinary techniques applied to them. The complex nature of linguistic anaphoras in recipe texts make usual...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an algorithm of adaptation for a case-based reasoning system with cases and domain knowledge represented in the expressive description logic ALC. The principle is to first pretend that the source case to be adapted solves the current target case. This may raise some contradictions with the specification of the target case and wi...
Article
Full-text available
TAAABLE 3 is a textual case-based cooking system which is a contestant in the third computer cooking contest, inheriting most features of its previous versions (TAAABLE AND WIKITAAABLE) and adding new features. The reused features are information retrieval and text mining for building a domain ontology and for annotating the ingredient part of the...
Article
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Cet article décrit un algorithme d'adaptation pour un système de raisonnement à partir de cas où les cas et les connaissances du domaine sont exprimés dans la logique de descriptions expressive ALC. Le principe consiste à supposer que le cas source à adapter résout le cas cible, ce qui entraîne des contradictions avec le contexte du cas cible et av...
Article
Une façon de traiter la remémoration dans les systèmes de raisonnement à partir de cas (RAPC) est d'exploiter une ontologie pour généraliser progressivement le problème cible, puis d'adapter les cas sources répondant au problème cible généralisé. Cet article montre comment l'enrichissement d'une ontologie améliore la remémoration et, plus globaleme...
Article
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L'étape d'adaptation d'un système de raisonnement à partir de cas consiste à modifier un cas source en vue de la résolution d'un problème cible. Une des approches de l'adaptation s'appuie sur un opérateur de révision : la connaissance associée au cas source est révisée par les contraintes du problème cible, en tenant compte des connaissances du dom...
Article
Une façon de traiter la recherche d'information approximative consiste à exploiter une ontologie pour généraliser la requête initiale. Cet article montre comment enrichir une ontologie pour rendre la généralisation plus fine. L'ontologie existante est enrichie en ajoutant automatiquement de nouveaux concepts qui vont affiner l'organisation initiale...
Article
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Le projet Taaable a pour objet de construire un système de raisonnement à partir de cas pour la recherche et l'adaptation de recettes de cuisine. Dans ce cadre nous nous intéressons aux aspects temporels des recettes et à la manière de les représenter afin d'en envisager l'adaptation. Notre ambition est plus généralement d'étudier l'apport des modè...
Conference Paper
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Adaptation has long been considered as the Achilles' heel of case-based reasoning since it requires some domain-specific knowledge that is difficult to acquire. In this paper, two strategies are combined in order to reduce the knowledge engineering cost induced by the adaptation knowledge (CA) acquisition task: CA is learned from the case base by t...
Article
Une approche de l'adaptation en raisonnement à partir de cas (RÀPC) qui repose sur la théorie du changement minimal est présentée ici dans un formalisme plus général que la logique propositionnelle finie. Ce formalisme permet d'exprimer des valeurs numériques ce qui est utile dans le cadre du RÀPC. Cette approche est réduite à un problème d'optimis...
Conference Paper
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Integrity constraint belief merging aims at producing from several knowledge bases, that may be mutually inconsistent, a synthetic knowledge base satisfying a given integrity constraint. It is applied here to case combination for case-based reasoning. This approach is shown to extend Eyke Hüllermeier's credible case-based inference and to be reduci...
Article
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The textual case-based cooking systemWIKITAAABLE participates to the second Computer cooking contest (CCC). It is an extension of the TAAABLE system that has participated to the first CCC. WIKITAAABLE's architecture is composed of a semantic wiki used for the collaborative acquisition of knowledge (recipe, ontology, adaptation knowledge) and of a c...
Article
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Les wikis sémantiques permettent à des communautés d'utilisateurs de produire des connaissances formalisées compréhensibles et utilisables par les machines. Afin d'aller plus loin, on pourrait imaginer d'utiliser les wikis sémantiques comme des tableaux noirs permettant aux humains et aux machines d'interagir afin de construire des connaissances qu...
Article
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L'étape d'adaptation est souvent considérée comme le talon d'Achille du raisonnement à partir de cas car elle nécessite des connaissances spécifiques au domaine d'application qui sont difficiles à acquérir. Dans ce papier, deux stratégies sont combinées pour faciliter la tâche d'acquisition de connaissances d'adaptation : les connaissances d'adapta...
Article
Comment l'approche de la remémoration-adaptation s'appuyant sur des reformulations peut s'appliquer sur une base de cas relativement volumineuse et peu organisée Résumé Le système WIKITAAABLE est un système de raisonnement à partir de cas dont les cas sont des recettes de cuisine et les problèmes des requêtes données par des ingredients et types de...
Conference Paper
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Semantic wikis enable a community of users to produce for- malized knowledge readable and usable by machines. To take one step further, one can use a semantic wiki as a blackboard allowing humans and machines to interact in order to build knowledge that is useful for both humans and machines. In this paper, we present a case study of the use of a s...
Article
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Nous traitons ici de la représentation du temps et du raisonnement temporel qualitatif dans la cadre du raisonnement à partir de cas. Nous nous appuyons pour cela sur l'exemple jeu d'une application culinaire, ayant pour but de générer des recettes opérationnelles. Les suites d'opérations sont représentées par des graphes où les arêtes sont des rel...
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The Semantic Web is becoming more and more a reality, as the required technologies have reached an appropriate level of maturity. However, at this stage, it is important to provide tools facilitating the use and deployment of these technologies by end-users. In this paper, we describe EdHibou, an automatically generated, ontology-based graphical us...
Book
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Conservative adaptation consists in a minimal change on a source case to be consistent with the target case, given the domain knowledge. It has been formalised in a previous work thanks to the AGM theory of belief revision applied to propositional logic. However, this formalism is rarely used in case-based reasoning systems. In this paper, conserva...
Conference Paper
Conservative adaptation consists in a minimal change on a source case to be consistent with the target case, given the domain knowledge. It has been formalised in a previous work thanks to the AGMtheory of belief revision applied to propositional logic. However, this formalism is rarely used in case-based reasoning systems. In this paper, conservat...
Article
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TAAABLE: Text Mining, Ontology Engineering, and Hierarchical Classification for Textual Case-Based Cooking
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– CASE-BASED REASONING AND LANDSCAPE AGRONOMY This paper brings together the work of agronomists, dealing with the organization of farming territories, with a modelling method developed in artificial intelligence, namely the case-based reasoning. We try to show, through the example of the ROSA project, that the meeting of these two research fields...
Conference Paper
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A case-based reasoning system relies on different knowledge containers, including cases and adaptation knowledge. The knowledge acquisition that aims at enriching these containers for the purpose of improving the accuracy of the CBR inference may take place during design, maintenance, and also on-line, during the use of the system. This paper descr...
Article
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Adaptation is a task of case-based reasoning systems that is largely domain-dependant. This motivates the study of adaptation knowledge acquisition (AKA) that can be carried out thanks to learning processes on the variations between cases of the case base. This paper studies the representation of these variations and the impact of this representati...