Jay S Kaufman's research while affiliated with McGill University and other places

Publications (492)

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Background Low back pain (LBP) is the most common musculoskeletal disorder globally. Providing region- and national-specific information on the burden of low back pain is critical for local healthcare policy makers. The present study aimed to report, compare, and contextualize the prevalence, incidence and years lived with disability (YLDs) of low...
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Background Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) cause a substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burden. The present study reported the global, regional and national burden of LRIs and their attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, etiology, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods Using...
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Important differences in evacuation exist across households. This study describes associations between social factors and evacuation from Hurricane Isabel by residents of North Carolina in 2003. Census blocks in three affected counties were stratified by flood zone and 30 census blocks were selected probability proportionate to population size from...
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Abstract Background Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) cause substantial mortality and morbidity. The present study reported and analysed the burden of LRIs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, etiology, and socio-demographic index (SDI). Methods The data used in this study were sourced from the Glo...
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Introduction Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent neurological disorder. As there is a gap in the literature regarding the disease burden attributable to TTH in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the aim of the present study was to report the epidemiological indicators of TTH in MENA, from 1990 to 2019, by sex, age and soc...
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Emissions of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) from human activities have been linked to substantial disease burdens, but evidence regarding how reducing PM 2.5 at its sources would improve public health is sparse. We followed a population-based cohort of 2.7 million adults across Canada from 2007 through 2016. For each participant, we estimated an...
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This cross-sectional study examines the legislative, state, economic, and racial factors in increased severe maternal morbidity risk in pregnant individuals.
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. The present study reported the burden of RA in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region from 1990 to 2019 by age, sex, and socio-demographic index (SDI). Publicly available data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study was used to report the modelled point prevalenc...
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Alcohol consumption is associated with a number of diseases and injuries, including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, mental and neurological disorders, as well as transport-related injuries. This article reports the alcohol-attributable burden of diseases and injuries at the regional and national levels in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) r...
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Background Long‐term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is the leading environmental risk factor for premature mortality worldwide. Characterizing important pathways through which PM 2.5 increases individuals' mortality risk can clarify the PM 2.5 –mortality relationship and identify possible points of interventions. Recent evide...
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Measuring multiple and higher‐order interaction effects between multiple categorical variables proves challenging. To illustrate a multilevel modelling approach to studying complex interactions. We apply a two‐level random‐intercept linear regression to a binary outcome for individuals (level‐1) nested within strata (level‐2) defined by all observe...
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Background Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse health outcomes but communities are not randomly exposed to PM2.5. Previous cross-sectional environmental injustice analyses in Canada found disproportionately higher exposure to PM2.5 in low-income populations, visible minorities and immigrants. Beyond static surveil...
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Mediation analysis can be applied to data from randomized trials of health and social interventions to draw causal inference concerning their mechanisms. We used data from a cluster randomized trial in Nicaragua, fielded between 2000 and 2002, to investigate whether the impact of providing access to a conditional cash transfer program on child nutr...
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is limited evidence on the causal mechanism in the socioeconomic differentials in blood pressure (BP) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We, therefore, examined the associations of socioeconomic indicators (SEIs) and BP, socioeconomic disparities in metal mixture exposures, and the potential mediation effect of me...
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Objective This study reported the burden of gout and its attributable risk factors, in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, and sociodemographic index (SDI). Methods Data on the prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs), due to gout, were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease s...
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Background: Starting in 2006 to 2007, the Government of Bangladesh implemented the Maternal Health Voucher Scheme (MHVS). This program provides pregnant women with vouchers that can be exchanged for health services from eligible public and private sector providers. In this study, we examined whether access to the MHVS was associated with maternal...
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After publication of this article [1], the authors reported that in the Methods section, several citations to references were incorrect. the citation to [8, 12, 13] should have read [12-14], and the citations to [14] should have read [12]. The original article [1] has been corrected.
Article
Mexico has a population of 129 million and is considered one of the most unequal countries in the world, suffering from widespread health disparities. There is a pressing need to strengthen epidemiologic capacity in Mexico, to help solve the complex health problems the country faces and to reduce health inequities. However, the representation of Me...
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Objective To report the global, regional, and national burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its attributable risk factors between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, and sociodemographic index. Design Systematic analysis. Data source Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Main outcome measures Data on the prevalence, deaths, and disa...
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Background To estimate the burden of cancers attributable to high fasting plasma glucose (HFPG) by sex, age, location, cancer type and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) over the period 1990 to 2019 for 204 countries and territories. Methods Using the Comparative Risk Assessment approach of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019, the burden of cance...
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Canadian coronavirus (COVID-19) case statistics reported by governmental bodies and news outlets are central to inform the public and to guide health policy. We searched Canadian governmental and news outlets websites to determine how COVID-19 case statistics were reported to the general public, whether they were reported with appropriate denominat...
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Objective We aimed to report the most current data on the prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) associated with osteoarthritis (OA) for the 21 countries and territories located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region from 1990 to 2019 by age, sex, cause, and sociodemographic index (SDI).Methods Publicly available d...
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Background: The tremendous global health burden related to COVID-19 means that identifying determinants of COVID-19 severity is important for prevention and intervention. We aimed to explore long-term exposure to ambient air pollution as a potential contributor to COVID-19 severity, given its known impact on the respiratory system. Methods: We u...
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Background: Cancers are leading causes of mortality and morbidity, with smoking being recognized as a significant risk factor for many types of cancer. We aimed to report the cancer burden attributable to tobacco smoking by sex, age, socio-demographic index (SDI), and cancer type in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Methods: The b...
Article
The spatial distribution of surveillance-reported dengue cases and severity are usually analyzed separately, assuming independence between the spatial distribution of non-severe and severe cases. Given the availability of data for the individual geo-location of surveillance-notified dengue cases, we conducted a spatial analysis to model non-severe...
Article
Background: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for a number of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including several types of cancer. This article reports the burden of cancers attributable to alcohol consumption by age, sex, location, sociodemographic index (SDI), and cancer type from 1990 to 2019. Methods: The Comparative Risk Assess...
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Aim To report the point prevalence, deaths and disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs) due to type 2 diabetes and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories during the period 1990-2019. Methods We used the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019 to report number and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population of...
Article
Background We used surveillance data from Brazil and Colombia during 2007–2017 to assess the presence of socioeconomic inequalities on dengue, chikungunya and Zika at the neighborhood level in two Latin American cities. Methods To quantify the inequality, we estimated and decomposed the relative concentration index of inequality (RCI) accounting f...
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Objective The aim of this study was to report the level and trends of 13 cancers that are attributable to excess body weight (EBW) for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Methods The burden of cancers attributable to EBW was estimated from 1990 to 2019 based on the comparative risk assessment approach used in the Global Burden of Dise...
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Background In settings in which there are time-varying confounders affected by previous exposure and a time-varying mediator, natural direct and indirect effects cannot generally be estimated unbiasedly. In the present study, we estimate interventional direct effect and interventional indirect effect of cigarette smoking as a time-varying exposure...
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Aims To report the prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019, by age, sex, and socio-demographic index (SDI). Methods and results Ischemic heart disease was defined as acute myocardial infarction (M...
Article
Background: Black sexual minority men (BSMM) and Black transgender women face a disproportionate risk of incarceration and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV, yet research on the longitudinal association between incarceration and STI/HIV risk in these groups is limited. Methods: We used data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 06...
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Background: Although gestational diabetes might be more common in twin versus singleton pregnancies, reasons for this are unclear. We evaluated the extent to which the relationship is explained by higher mid-pregnancy weight gain within normal weight and overweight pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) strata. Methods: We analyzed serial weights a...
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Numerous epidemiologic studies have documented environmental health disparities according to race/ethnicity (R/E) to inform targeted interventions aimed at reducing these disparities. Yet, the use of R/E under the potential outcomes framework implies numerous underlying assumptions for epidemiologic studies that are often not carefully considered i...
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Background Standard equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) employ race multipliers, systematically inflating eGFR for Black patients. Such inflation is clinically significant because eGFR thresholds of 60, 30, and 20 ml/min/1.73m² guide kidney disease management. Racialized adjustment of eGFR in Black Americans may thereby affec...
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Background Parental nativity, as well as duration of residence of foreign-born parents in the host country, has been shown to be associated with size at birth. However, most studies have focused on maternal nativity status only and have not accounted for important characteristics of both parents. Objective To explore whether maternal and paternal...
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Background Anemia is a common disease which affects around 40% of children and 30% of reproductive age women and can have major health consequences. The present study reports the global, regional and national burden of anemia and its underlying causes between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex and socio-demographic index (SDI). Methods Publicly available...
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Background On October 18th, 2019, protestors gathered across Chile to call for social equity, resulting in widespread civil unrest and violent confrontation with the police. In this study, we quantify the effects of the 2019 Chilean protests on emergency health services utilization and inpatient admission in Santiago. Methods We used weekly emerge...
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Objective: To investigate the association between changes in long term residential exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and premature mortality in Canada. Design: Population based quasi-experimental study. Setting: Canada. Participants: 663 100 respondents to the 1996, 2001, and 2006 Canadian censuses aged 25-89 years who had...
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Background Understanding global trends in the point prevalence, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for asthma will facilitate evidence-based decision making. Research Question What is the global, regional and national burden of asthma in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex and socio-demographic index (SD...
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Background: Use of race and ethnicity is common in medical tests and procedures, even though these categories are defined by sociological, historical, and political processes, and vary considerably in their definitions over time and place. Because all societies organize themselves around these constructs in some way, they are undeniable facets of...
Preprint
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The spatial distribution of surveillance-reported dengue cases and severity are usually analyzed separately, assuming independence between the spatial distribution of non-severe and severe cases. Given the availability of data for the individual geo-location of surveillance-notified dengue cases, we conducted a spatial analysis to model non-severe...
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Background Regulated public childcare must follow nutrition and physical activity guidelines, but the impact of public childcare on childhood adiposity is unclear. Objectives To estimate the effects of universal preschool childcare on children's BMI in elementary school in Quebec, Canada, and whether the effects differed in children from more or l...
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Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are often considered the highest quality of evidence due to the absence of baseline confounding, the simplicity of analyses, and direct estimation of causal effects. However, observational studies can be designed to mimic an RCT and estimate causal treatment effects. In the present review, we describe the target...
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Objectives Poor housing conditions and household crowding have been identified as important health concerns for Indigenous populations in many countries but have not been explored in relation to adverse birth outcomes in these populations. We investigated housing conditions and adverse birth outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Indigen...
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Purpose: Researchers are interested in studying longitudinal patterns of gestational weight gain, yet this requires daily/weekly weights, and maternal weight is measured only during prenatal visits. We evaluated the relative accuracy and precision of methods for estimating maternal weight between prenatal visits among twin and singleton pregnancie...
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In the article by Nobles et al (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX–XXXX), characteristics of those epidemiologists selected for various chair and presentation roles at the annual meetings of the Society for Epidemiologic Research (SER) from 2015 through 2017 were examined. Characteristics were compared, including inferred gender, institutional affil...
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Introduction: Lockdowns are designed to slow COVID-19 transmission, but they may have unanticipated relationships with other aspects of public health. Assessing the overall pattern in population health as a country implements and relaxes a lockdown is relevant, as these patterns may not necessarily be symmetric. We aimed to estimate the changing tr...
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Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 were used to report the burden of migraine in 204 countries and territories during the period 1990 to 2019, through a systematic analysis of point prevalence, annual incidence, and years lived with disability (YLD). In 2019, the global age-standardised point prevalence and annual incidence rate of m...
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Background: The clinical presentation of dengue ranges from self-limited mild illness to severe forms, including death. African ancestry is often described as protective against dengue severity. However, in the Latin American context, African ancestry has been associated with increased mortality. This "severity paradox" has been hypothesized as re...
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Although lockdown measures to stop COVID-19 have direct effects on disease transmission, their impact on violent and accidental deaths remains unknown. Our study aims to assess the early impact of COVID-19 lockdown on violent and accidental deaths in Peru. Based on data from the Peruvian National Death Information System, an interrupted time series...
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The mental health impact of exposure to police harassment is understudied, particularly among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM), a group at elevated risk of exposure to such discrimination. This study aimed to identify the associations among BMSM between recent police harassment and psychosocial vulnerability, psychological distress, and depre...
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Objective To assess the presence, pattern and magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities on dengue, chikungunya and Zika in Latin America, accounting for their spatiotemporal distribution. Methods Using longitudinal surveillance data (reported arboviruses) from Fortaleza, Brazil and Medellin, Colombia (2007–2017), we fit Bayesian hierarchical models...
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Background: Individuals with genetic syndromes can manifest both congenital heart disease (CHD) and cancer due to possible common underlying pathways. However, reliable risk estimates of hematopoietic cancer (HC) among children with CHD based on large population-based data are scant. Method: We conducted a population-based analysis to estimate the...
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Objectives: To report level and trends of prevalence, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) due to musculoskeletal disorders categorized as low back pain, neck pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout and other musculoskeletal disorders, across 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 by age, sex and Socio-Demographic In...
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Background: Active case finding (ACF) in household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients is now recommended for National TB Programs (NTP) in low- and middle-income countries. However, evidence supporting these recommendations remains limited. This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ACF for household contacts of TB cases...
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Increasing caregiving needs for family members has created pressure on prime-age workers. Combined with the ageing population, the demand for care related to illness and disability by relatives mean more of the workforce may have to consider caring needs (Bauer and Sousa-Poza, 2015). ‘Informal caregivers’ provide care generally without payment (Yoo...
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Objectives: To describe the level and trends of point prevalence, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for other musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, i.e. those not covered by specific estimates generated for RA, OA, low back pain, neck pain and gout, from 1990 to 2017 by age, sex and sociodemographic index. Methods: Publicly available...
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In 2017, the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kourí, University of Montreal Public Health Research Institute, and McGill University joined efforts to provide scenarios for scientific exchange and knowledge dissemination about the social science contribution on arboviral research. This commentary describes the scientific collaboration between Cu...
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Background Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, infant mortality rates (IMR) are persistently highestamong Black infants in the United States, yet there is considerable regional variation. We examined state and county-level contextual factors that may explain regional differences in Black IMR and identified potential strategies for improvement....
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Objectives To describe the level and trends of point prevalence, annual incidence and years lived with disability (YLDs) for gout and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 by age, sex and socio‐demographic index (SDI; a composite of socio‐demographic factors). Methods Data were extracted from the Global B...
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Background Propensity score (PS) methods are frequently used in cardiovascular clinical research. Previous evaluations revealed poor reporting of PS methods, however a comprehensive and current evaluation of PS use and reporting is lacking. The objectives of the present survey were to (1) evaluate the quality of PS methods in cardiovascular publica...
Article
Background: Six months into the COVID-19 pandemic, children appear largely spared from the direct effects of disease, suggesting age as an important predictor of infection and severity. They remain, however, impacted by far-reaching public health interventions. One crucial question often posed is whether children generally transmit SARS-CoV-2 effe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Although lockdown measures to stop COVID-19 have direct effects on disease transmission, their impact on violent and accidental deaths remains unknown. Our study aims to assess the early impact of COVID-19 lockdown on violent and accidental deaths in Peru. Methods: Based on data from the Peruvian National Death Information System, an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Schools worldwide were closed in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and a key policy question involves how and when these can be re-opened. Observationally, SARS-CoV-2 seems infrequently transmitted by children, which if true argues for the feasibility of swiftly re-establishing schooling. But uncertainty and debate remains over this question. On...
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Objectives To report the level and trends of prevalence, incidence and years lived with disability (YLDs) for osteoarthritis (OA) in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 by age, sex and Socio-demographic index (SDI; a composite of sociodemographic factors). Methods Publicly available modelled data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Inj...
Presentation
Objective: Laprise et al. (2019) observed a positive association between oral sex practices and oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) among HPV-negative individuals. Because oral HPV infections are likely to be transmitted through oral sex, these results are counterintuitive. We revisit Laprise et. al's analysis with the objective of estimating the impact o...
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Background: To examine perinatal health differences between foreign-born and native-born mothers in Canada across multiple outcomes and two cohorts 10 years apart. Methods: Using 94 896 and 131 271 births in the 1996 and 2006 Canadian Census-Birth Cohort, respectively, we estimated risk ratios and risk differences of preterm birth (PTB), small-f...