Javier Tirapu-Ustárroz's research while affiliated with Fundación Argibide and other places

Publications (59)

Article
Introduction: Lafora disease is autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy with late childhood-to teenage-onset caused by loss-of-function mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes encoding laforin or malin, respectively. Development: The main symptoms of Lafora disease, which worsen progressively, are: myoclonus, occipital seizures, gene...
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Introduction: Executive functions are defined as a set of skills that are involved in various activities which are novel to the individual and which require a creative solution. It is not easy or straight forward to conceptualise or identify the factors that make up a population of young children. Aim: To analyse the components of executive func...
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REVISIÓN REV NEUROL 2005; 41 (8): 475-484 475 INTRODUCCIÓN Durante muchos años, se ha postulado que los lóbulos frontales se hallan implicados en la secuenciación de los actos motores requeridos para ejecutar eficazmente una acción. Sin embargo, en las dos últimas décadas se ha ido profundizando en el papel que desempeñan los lóbulos frontales y có...
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REV NEUROL 2008; 46 (12): 742-750 742 REVISIÓN INTRODUCCIÓN Términos como 'funcionamiento ejecutivo' o 'control ejecuti-vo' hacen referencia a una serie de mecanismos implicados en la optimización de los procesos cognitivos orientados hacia la resolución de situaciones complejas. Estos procesos compren-den diversos componentes, entre los que cabe d...
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75 www.neurologia.com Rev Neurol 2017; 64 (2): 75-84 rEVISIÓN Introducción Las funciones ejecutivas se han definido como pro­ cesos que asocian ideas, movimientos y acciones, y los orientan a la resolución de problemas, pero Mu­ riel Lezak utiliza el término por primera vez en 1982 [1] refiriéndose a capacidades mentales esen­ ciales para llevar a...
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Introduction: Limbic encephalitis generated by anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies is a severe acute neurological condition that is more prevalent in young females and is associated with an underlying tumour. The appearance of severe initial psychiatric signs and symptoms and the fact that it is accompanied by emotional disorders...
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Traditional neuropsychology explains complex behavior as the result of the activation and transmission of information through different brain areas. Disconnection between structures due to the complete or partial section of nerve pathways would cause deficiencies and disorders which may be similar to those caused by focal injuries in the structures...
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Introduction: Empathy is a sub-process of social cognition that is defined as the capacity to understand and share another person's thoughts, wishes and feelings, and is crucial in many forms of adaptive social interaction. It is a contextual, flexible and multidimensional phenomenon that is related with different neuronal networks and processes....
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Introduction: Since Lezak coined the term executive functions to refer to the mental capabilities that are considered essential for performing efficacious, creative and socially acceptable behaviour, they have gradually grown in importance in neuropsychological research. Different models have been proposed to explain their nature, but there is no...
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Introduction: Consciousness is the result of a series of neurobiological processes in the brain and is, in turn, a feature of the level of its complexity. In fact, being conscious and being aware place us before what Chalmers called the 'soft problem' and the 'hard problem' of consciousness. The first refers to aspects such as wakefulness, attenti...
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Introduction: Throughout the history of thought, science and philosophy have addressed the problem of mind-brain from different epistemic perspectives. The first covers specific areas of reality and constructs hypotheses with limited scope and multiple inter-scientific connectivity with the aim of validating theoretical models; the second extends...
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Aims: To analyze the impact of acquired brain injury towards the community integration (professional career, disability, and dependence) in a sample of people affected by vascular, traumatic and tumor etiology acquired brain damage, over a two year time period after the original injury, and also to examine what sociodemographic variables, premorbi...
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Limbic encephalitis generated by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies is an acute and severe neurological entity, which is more prevalent in young females and is associated to an underlying tumour. Since it leads to severe cognitive impairment, thought needs to be given to the contributions of neuropsychology to the diagnosis, devel...
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The human memory is a complex cognitive system whose close relationship with executive functions implies that, in many occasions, a mnemonic deficit comprises difficulties to operate with correctly stored contents. Traditional memory tests, more focused in the information storage than in its processing, may be poorly sensitive both to subjects’ dai...
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La memoria humana es un complejo sistema cognitivo cuya estrecha relación con las funciones ejecutivas hace que, en muchas ocasiones, un déficit mnémico lleve aparejadas dificultades para operar con contenidos correctamente almacenados. Los tests de memoria tradicionales, que se centran más en el almacenamiento de la información que en su procesami...
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Introduction: Type 1 myotonic dystrophy (MD-1) or Steinert disease is a multisystemic progressive disorder. Studies have shown cognitive deficits, depressive symptoms and a high incidence of anxiety personality traits that compromise both the functionality and the quality of life of these patients. Aim: To describe the cognitive and psychopathol...
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Introduction. The study of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) arose largely from research carried out on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This construct is defined by a range of behavioural symptoms such as the appearance of drowsiness, daydreaming, physical hypoactivity, little initiative, lethargy and apathy. Development. The construc...
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The early and etiological diagnosis of dementia syndrome in the clinical practice remains the neuropsychological assessment through the study of the cognitive profile of the patient and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the functions, both impaired and preserved. In this article, we describe a neuropsychological battery of cognitive eval...
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Introduction: The Iowa Rating Scale for Personality Change (IRSPC) presents some features (puts an emphasis on the motivational and emotional functions; evaluates the 'cognitive' executive functions in the daily life; estimates the premorbid personality; values the informant reliability) that make it use really interesting for both clinical and re...
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Introduction: Social cognition refers to mental processes that operate in situations of social interaction and facilitate adjustment and functioning in such scenarios. Aim: To study the empathic response in two groups of older people and their relationship to emotional intelligence and moral judgment. Subjects and methods: We enrolled 60 subje...
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Evaluation of executive functions is a major issue of neuropsychological assessment, due to the role displayed by these on a cognitive, behavioural and emotional level, and the implication of these functions in daily life functioning. In order to perform a reliable assessment, the strategy traditionally followed for the evaluation of executive func...
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Executive functions include a wide range of self regulatory functions that allow control, organization and coordination of other cognitive functions, emotional responses and behaviours. The traditional approach to evaluate these functions, by means of paper and pencil neuropsychological tests, shows a greater than expected performance within the no...
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Aims: The purpose of the current study is to analyze the labor trajectory, grade of disability and degree of dependence ecognized in a group of people with acquired brain injury with difference types and severity of injuries and with memory deficit as the main cognitive sequel, over a period of two years after the injury and to explore which premo...
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INTRODUCTION. Research on the emotional and social disorders associated with drug addiction has been very limited. AIM. To assess different components of social cognition: perception of emotional expressions, emotional-social intelligence, and empathy, in a sample of opiate addicts in a methadone maintenance program (MMP). SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Eig...
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Introduction and aims: The dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX) has been used to study executive deficits in both clinical samples (both psychiatric and neurological) and non-clinical samples, although agreement on its factorial structure is lacking. The aim of this research is to study that structure in the self-administered version in a sample of th...
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Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligenc...
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Social cognition is a complex theoretical concept that includes many great high level mental functions. Within this concept is included the empathy, which is so significant and relevant to be evaluated separately but it has been one of the least studied areas in traumatic brain injury. A large sample of patients with a traumatic brain injury has be...
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Introduction: Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness that has effect on cognitive and social functioning of a person who suffers it. Recent research points out that social cognition sub processes, such as Theory of Mind, social perception or emotional processing, have to do with some problems that patients show in their social adjust...
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New lines of translational, interdisciplinary research are emerging among different fields of the neurosciences, which often point at clinical neuropsychology as the hinge discipline capable of linking the basic findings with their clinical implications and thereby endow them with some meaning for phenomenological experience. To establish the great...
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The white matter is the main connection between different regions of the brain and helps them to work in a unified, coordinated way. Diffusion tensor imaging is an ideal technique with which to study it in order to detect the degree of integrity of these fibres. Nowadays, they are considered to play a significant role in the development and pathoph...
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The cerebellum has traditionally been considered a neuronal system which is an essential part of coordination and motor control. However, in recent decades the idea of the cerebellum as an organ related to high level cognitive processes has gained strength, a claim supported by studies carried out on animals and humans with cerebellar lesions such...
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After being largely neglected as a contributor to the organisation of the cognitive operations for many years, the white matter of the brain is now again the object of much research. These advances are complemented with the latest neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, which make it possible to obtain a more detailed view of the...
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738 www.neurologia.com Rev Neurol 2010; 50 (12): 738-746 rEVISIÓN Introducción En 1924, Thurstone [1] refiere en su obra The nature of intelligence que una persona inteligente es aqué-lla que posee la capacidad de controlar sus impulsos con el fin de examinar y poder decidir analíticamen-te entre las diferentes alternativas que se le presen-tan. La...
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rEVISIÓN Introducción Tradicionalmente, se ha considerado al cerebelo como un sistema neuronal que participaba esencialmente en la coordinación y el control motor. Sin embargo , en las últimas décadas ha cobrado fuerza el con-cepto del cerebelo como un órgano relacionado con procesos cognitivos de alto nivel [1-5]. Esta nueva concepción del cerebel...
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The consequences of acquired brain injury include impairments in cognition, emotion and behaviour. Neuro-psychology provides techniques for treating these disorders, but it is still important to establish which of all the available tools are most effective for this purpose. This article reviews existing studies on the effectiveness of neuropsycholo...
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The consequences of acquired brain injury include impairments in cognition, emotion, and behaviour. Neuro-psychology provides techniques for treating these disorders, but it is still important to establish which of all the available tools are most effective for this purpose. This article reviews existing studies on the effectiveness of neuropsychol...
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In recent decades there has been a significant increase in the number of articles that have drawn attention to the possible importance of the role of the cerebellum in non-motor functions. Schmahmann and Sherman, for example, have described the cognitive, behavioural and emotional pattern of what has been called cerebellar cognitive affective syndr...
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Chronic use of cocaine has been associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits affecting attention, memory, learning and executive functions. However, it has not been found a unique profile of impairment associated with cocaine addiction. To review the studies about neurocognitive performance in cocaine addicted patients, with special...
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Introduction. Chronic use of cocaine has been associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits affecting attention, memory, learning and executive functions. However, it has not been found a unique profile of impairment associated with cocaine addiction. Aim. To review the studies about neurocognitive performance in cocaine addicted pati...
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With the growth of cognitive science, the study of the cognitive components involved in solving tests to assess intelligence become especially significant. From this perspective, the g factor is conceived as the representative of the operation of high-level cognitive processes that control the computational programmes of the brain. Different names...
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Learning processes and memory are frequently compromised in acquired brain injury (ABI), while at the same time such involvement is often heterogeneous and a source of deficits in other cognitive capacities and significant functional limitations. A good neuropsychological evaluation of memory is designed to study not only the type, intensity and na...
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Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare neurological disorder, but is an important condition because of its disabling impact on the daily life. The common feature of AHS is the involuntary, autonomous motor activity of the affected limb and the denial of limb ownership, characterized by involuntary, uncontrollable, and purposeless movements. AHS as a n...
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The first five years of life are critical in the development of the executive functions. The changes that are seen to take place in executive competence and capacity are closely related to the maturational processes of the prefrontal cortex. Evidence gathered over the past three decades indicates that executive functioning begins to develop earlier...
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Current models of the executive functions enable us to state that this construct embraces a large number of processes and sub processes that are in turn linked to different regions of the brain, and more specifically to the prefrontal cortex. Recent data suggest that different areas of the prefrontal cortex may be involved in a number of aspects re...
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As human beings we are capable of coping with novel situations and adapting to changes in a flexible manner. The cognitive skills that allow individuals to control and regulate their behaviour are called executive functions. Anatomically, the executive functions depend on a distributed neural system, in which the prefrontal cortex plays an essentia...
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Introduction. Current models of the executive functions enable us to state that this construct embraces a large number of processes and sub processes that are in turn linked to different regions of the brain, and more specifically to the prefrontal cortex. Recent data suggest that different areas of the prefrontal cortex may be involved in a number...
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Ecological validity has become an increasingly important focus in neuropsychological assessment with particular relevance for the executive functions. Appropriate assessment of executive functions is critical to predict successful everyday functioning and psychosocial integration. This article reviews the research in ecological validity of neuropsy...
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The brain is, basically speaking, a predictive machine, designed to reduce environmental incertitude. The theory of mind originated from a concept found in the pioneer works of Premack and Woodruf and refers to the ability to understand and predict the behaviour of other people, their knowledge, intentions, emotions and beliefs. This term was initi...
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This study evaluates the presence of neuropsychological disorders in 50 alcoholic patients compared with a control group of 50 subjects from the normal population, matched on age, sex, and socioeconomic level. The neuropsychological assessment battery comprised the Wechsler Memory Scale (subtest: mental control, digits, space localisation and logic...
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The terms 'executive functioning' or 'executive control' refer to a set of mechanisms involved in the improvement of cognitive processes to guide them towards the resolution of complex problems. Both the frontal lobes, acting as structure, and the executive processes, acting as function, work with memory contents, operating with information placed...
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Executive functions include a variety of components such as the capacity implicated in goal formulation, the faculties employed in processes planning, and the strategies used to achieve the pretended objectives. In a previous work, taking as starting basis those models which have attempted to clarify those processes implicated in executive function...
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There are many definitions in order to describe the consciousness. In the literature appear concepts such alertness, attention, knowledge, conscious experience, awareness of deficits, self awareness, theory of mind in relation with consciousness definition. This multiplicity conceptual lead to formulate a question: Do exist different levels of comp...
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The new cognitive neuropsychology approaches have aroused an increasing interest in understanding the higher cognitive processes as well as the neural substrates linked to them. Particularly, the executive functions, reckoned to be essential to control the information processing and to co ordinate behaviour, have received preferential treatment fro...
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Introduction: Posconcussional syndrome is characterized by a heterogeneous group of somatic, cognitive and psychosocial symptoms, which occur in patients with head trauma, generally of mild severity. It is the neuropsychiatric postraumatic disorder more prevalent in the field of forensic medicine. Development: Classical authors (Lishamn and Barr...
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Introduction. Posconcussional syndrome is characterized by a heterogeneous group of somatic, cognitive and psychosocial symptoms which occur inpatients with head trauma, generally of mild severity. It is the neuropsychiatric postraumatic disorder more prevalent in the field of forensic medicine. Development. Classical authors (Lishamn and Barraquer...
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Personality change due to head injury is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric posttraumatic disorders and causes significant impairment in familial, social or occupational functioning. To study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of personality changes secondary to severe closed head injuries, according to DSM-IV criteria. Fifty-five...
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The relationship between brief loss of consciousness, subsequent cognitive and emotional complaints, and impact on daily functioning continues to be hotly debated. In this paper the strong variability about prevalence of the postconcussional syndrome found in several studies is outstanding and the main issues of this disagreement are suggested. Rec...

Citations

... The disease course is characterized by disabling myoclonus, intractable seizures and dementia, as well as ataxia and visual manifestations, resulting in complete loss of autonomy at later stages of the disease. Death is traditionally thought to occur within ten years of onset, mainly related to status epilepticus, aspiration pneumonia or other complications common in chronic neurodegenerative diseases [1,[8][9][10][11]. ...
... At present, there is no uniform agreement on the cognitive processes involved in EF, and various neurobiological, clinical, cognitive and behavioral theoretical models have been developed [15,16]. EF can be defined as interrelated cognitive skills aimed at providing adapted responses to novel situations in different contexts through behavioral control and regulation to achieve a goal [17][18][19][20]. Good executive functioning skills are associated with good learning and academic performance [18,20,21]. ...
... La CPF recibe información de los sistemas sensoriales y motores, y los compara con eventos semejantes almacenados en la memoria de largo plazo (análisis) para generar la respuesta adaptativa en ese momento. Posee un sistema de neurotransmisión múltiple: dopaminérgico, serotoninérgico, colinérgico y endocanabinérgico (Amancio-Belmont et al., 2017;Tirapu-Ustárroz et al., 2008;Wȩdzony & Chocyk, 2009). ...
... En los seres humanos, el lóbulo frontal esta dividido en: a) corteza frontal dorsolateral, que incluye la corteza motora, corteza premotora, corteza motora suplementaria, corteza prefrontal dorsolateral y corteza prefrontal anterolateral (Fig. 1); b) corteza orbitofrontal; c) corteza frontomedial (Maureira, 2018 Lezak (1982) fue la primera investigadora en utilizar el concepto de funciones ejecutivas para describir las capacidades de planificación, formular estrategias y solucionar problemas. Desde hace años las funciones ejecutivas se consideran como el conjunto de funciones que permite asociar ideas simples y combinarlas para resolver problemas, optimizando los procesos cognitivos que permiten la planificación, el logro de objetivos y las aptitudes para realizar estas actividades en forma eficaz (Tirapu & Muñoz, 2005). En la actualidad se sabe que todas estas funciones radican en la corteza prefrontal y cuyo daño produce un síndrome conocido como disejecutivo, donde el paciente presenta un deterioro de la atención, bajo control, problemas de memoria de trabajo, baja capacidad de planificación y problemas de comportamiento (Delgado y Etchepareborda, 2013). ...
... According to this integration perspective, efficiently interconnected top-down executive processes, such as cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, and working memory, constitute a multimodal system of execution that optimizes cognitive resource employment to achieve flexible and adaptive behavior. As a transdiagnostic observation, altered executive performance is a phenomenon converging chronic disorders with different central nervous system etiologies (30). ...
... Según distintos autores (Ardila y Ostrosky, 1991;Ortiz, 1997) Al cerebelo, órgano encargado de regular el movimiento, se le reconoce también una influencia significativa en la función de los demás sistemas motores que inciden en la producción del habla. Su papel modulador en la función lingüística y su implicación en la producción del lenguaje -y no sólo en la articulación motora del habla-, ha sido revelada en distintos casos de lesiones cerebelosas (Tirapu et al., 2011). La comunicación entre la médula espinal, el cerebelo y el cerebro se visualiza en el tronco encefálico. ...
... respectively, in both healthy and clinical samples [56][57][58][59][60]. Accordingly, they have already been highlighted as promising intermediate phenotypes for BD [38,61]. However, as Tirapu et al. (2017) reported, there is no consensus in the classification of attentional components [62]. Previous studies have supported the inclusion of a dimension that encompasses both selective/divided/ sustained attention and working memory, [63] while others have considered that these aspects work online at a higher level of attention processing [64,65]. ...
... To assess recognition of emotional expression through the gaze, participants carried out the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET) of Baron-Cohen et al. [10]. This assessment instrument is widely used in research studies with various disorders [29]. A translation and adaptation to Spanish, retrieved from the Autism Research Center of the University of Cambridge, was used [30]. ...
... First, from the perspective of psycho-physiologic emergentism, a more fruitful approach is to examine and elucidate the existing affinity between the material brain and abstract data, as it makes less sense to try to investigate a possible relation between the entire mind (brain + abstract data) and a subcomponent of the mind (brain). Second, the part of the brain supporting mental processes is a complex structure (distinct and interrelated neuronal subunits), performing through emergentism a new mental/ psychophysiological function that is able to process abstract data and that is distinctive from classical neuro-physiological mechanisms (13). ...
... However, the difficulties of this formulation are notable. Among them and like most materialistic proposals, they merely expose the magical appearance of consciousness as an emergent property of the interaction between the different parts of a system, without really explaining how it arises or why [64]. ...