Jason L. G. Braasch's research while affiliated with Georgia State University and other places

Publications (33)

Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the extent to which sixth grade students used their pre-existing topic beliefs to guide comprehension of semantic ideas within multiple conflicting texts, and the sources providing them. Adolescents completed an inventory assessing their pre-reading topic beliefs one week prior to the study. During the study, students rea...
Article
Full-text available
One consistent impediment to college students' performance in statistics courses is statistics anxiety. However, people who endorse intelligence growth mindsets report lower statistics anxiety and achieve higher grades. We examined whether adopting a self-compassion growth mindset was an antecedent to an intelligence growth mindset, reduced statist...
Article
Comprehension substantially benefits from attending to, thinking about, and mentally representing the sources of any presented information. Such processes require mental effort and unfortunately people do not always engage in such activities. The current article presents a nascent, evolving model of discourse comprehension that formalizes mechanism...
Article
The current work was conducted to better understand the influences of source presence and individual differences on evaluating and sharing information from multiple conflicting Internet texts about childhood vaccinations. The results indicate that college student readers appeared to be insensitive to a source availability manipulation. However, the...
Article
Background School‐aged children are increasingly engaging with multiple conflicting texts to understand complex societal issues; however, empirical research has not yet examined in what ways contextual factors affect detection of and memory for conflicts. Methods The current experiment manipulated contextual factors that included the vocabulary te...
Chapter
Critical Thinking in Psychology - edited by Robert J. Sternberg January 2020
Article
Articles in this special issue — How adolescents read and learn on the Web: internal and external factors — provide compelling new empirical evidence on a suite of internal and external factors that guide adolescents’ reading and learning from Web resources. This commentary first provides a brief overview of the findings and interpretations from ea...
Article
This study examined relationships between several individual differences measures and belief revision after reading a text refuting common miscon- ceptions about childhood vaccinations. Individual differences included pre- existing accurate and inaccurate beliefs on the topic, prior knowledge about how vaccinations work, need for cognition, and fle...
Article
Full-text available
Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted to assess the influence of words either looking like the target word (orthographic distractors) or semantically related to the target word (semantic distractors) on visual search for words within lists by adolescents of 11, 13, and 15 years of age. In Experiment 1 (literal search task), participants saw t...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews theory and research on the role of conflict in multiple source use and suggests future directions. Conflicts between multiple sources refer to situations where two or more sources present opposing or discrepant views on the same situation or issue. We discuss two relevant frameworks for understanding the role of conflict in mul...
Book
The Handbook of Multiple Source Use draws on theory and research within cognitive and educational psychology, the learning sciences, disciplinary education, information literacy, reading psychology, and social psychology, to present the first comprehensive research volume on this topic. Many learners both in and out of school have almost instantane...
Chapter
In the twenty-first-century information society, student readers can draw on a wealth of resources available through a variety of print and digital technologies when seeking well-grounded answers to crucial socio-scientific issues. However, this requires that students integrate information from source materials expressing diverse and even contradic...
Article
Despite the importance of source attention and evaluation for learning from texts, little is known about the particular conditions that encourage sourcing during reading. In this article, basic assumptions of the discrepancy-induced source comprehension (D-ISC) model are presented, which describes the moment-by-moment cognitive processes that reade...
Article
Refutation texts have been previously shown to be effective at promoting knowledge revision. The current study builds on recent trends to gain deeper insights into how this learning advantage can be enhanced and extended to more learners. In particular, we examined whether distinct epistemic profiles can be discerned on the basis of individuals’ be...
Article
Full-text available
The current experiments systematically examined semantic content integration as a mechanism for explaining source inattention and forgetting when reading-to-remember multiple texts. For all 3 experiments, degree of semantic overlap was manipulated amongst messages provided by various information sources. In Experiment 1, readers’ source recognition...
Article
A refutation text is designed to promote conceptual change by explicitly acknowledging commonly held misconceptions about a topic, directly refuting them, and providing an accurate explanation. In this study, we determined the impact of different types of refutation texts on adolescent readers’ conceptual change learning in science. Specifically, w...
Article
Students read six documents that varied in terms of their perspectives on a scientific issue and the trustworthiness of the source features. After reading, students wrote essays, rank-ordered the documents according to perceived trustworthiness, and provided reasons for their rank-order decisions. Students put the most trust in a textbook and a pub...
Article
This study examined implicit theories of intelligence as predictors of multiple document comprehension in a sample of 59 Norwegian upper-secondary school students. In four multiple regression analyses with multiple document comprehension indicated by students' inclusion of scientific concepts in their essays, discrimination between more and less us...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated note-taking during multiple-text reading across two different task conditions in relation to comprehension performance and self-reports of strategy use. Forty-four undergraduates read multiple texts about climate change to write an argument or a summary. Analysis of students’ spontaneous note-taking during reading showed tha...
Article
Two experiments examined readers' memory for information sources in short news stories. Based on current theories of text comprehension, we assumed that sources involved in the situation described (e.g. a witness or a participant) would be better remembered than remote sources (e.g. someone commenting on the topic from a distance). We additionally...
Article
We investigated whether memory for scientific arguments and their sources were affected by the appropriateness of the claim–evidence relationship. Undergraduates read health articles in one of four conditions derived by crossing claim type (causal with definite qualifier, associative with tentative qualifier) and evidence type (experimental, correl...
Article
Full-text available
The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students’ abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic real-...
Article
Three experiments examined conceptual change from reading refutational texts and how such learning interacted with prior knowledge organization. Prior to reading, 3 groups of learners were identified on the basis of their prior knowledge of the targeted concept: 2 groups held misconceptions; 1 group was generally accurate. Experiment 1 tested learn...
Article
In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue....
Article
Readers increasingly attempt to understand and learn from information sources they find on the Internet. Doing so highlights the crucial role that evaluative processes play in selecting and making sense of the information. In a prior study, Wiley et al. (2009, Experiment 1) asked undergraduates to perform a web-based inquiry task about volcanoes us...
Article
Full-text available
In two experiments, we examined the role of discrepancy on readers' text processing of and memory for the sources of brief news reports. Each story included two assertions that were attributed to different sources. We manipulated whether the second assertion was either discrepant or consistent with the first assertion. On the basis of the discrepan...
Article
Two experiments examined whether inconsistent effects of analogies in promoting new content learning from text are related to prior knowledge of the analogy per se. In Experiment 1, college students who demonstrated little understanding of weather systems and different levels of prior knowledge (more vs. less) of an analogous everyday situation rea...
Article
The present investigation examined middle school students' evaluations of the usefulness for addressing a social studies inquiry question of a variety of sources of information, and the basis of these judgments. This task situation simulates an early phase of information gathering and selection in the context of inquiry. For each of nine sources, s...
Conference Paper
College undergraduates' explanations of pressurized air movement for two everyday situations were examined. Responses were categorized into one of five categories on two isomorphic, everyday events (tire pressure, balloons). The two items elicited similar kinds of explanations in the group as a whole, and in individual students. However, the majori...
Article
Full-text available
The current experiment examined whether successful solution on one type of problem, indicating the relaxation of a constraint, had a negative impact on subsequent problems that did not involve the same constraints. One hundred and forty-five participants solved a series of matchstick arithmetic problems. In one group, participants were given three...

Citations

... According to, attention to these facets of texts allows for processing texts as "artifacts" published by a person, in a venue, and for a purpose; all of these facets may inform on unique perspectives and biases. The recent Discrepancy-Induced Source Comprehension model specifies that, when an individual encounters information that contradicts prior beliefs or previously-read texts, such conditions may produce experiences of cognitive disequilibrium (Braasch & Bråten, 2017;Bråten & Braasch, 2018;Braasch & Kessler, 2021;Braasch & Scharrer, 2020). This experience may, in turn, stimulate engagement in a more effortful, strategic processing of source features to organize understandings of what was read. ...
... Hence, the given order might have played a more important role in the sequential condition than in the simultaneous condition. As previous work showed, the order of partly conflicting documents can affect readers' mental representation of multiple documents and their relations (Braasch et al., 2021;Maier & Richter, 2013). Thus, reading documents that take an opposite stance in direct succession may have enhanced readers' conflict awareness, hence supporting their intertextual integration. ...
... In this research context, navigating the complicated information environment surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic demands high information gathering capacity (Sørensen et al., 2012). Specifically, people need to exert cognitive resources and mental effort to distinguish useful information from misinformation or disinformation (Braasch & Graesser, 2020). When the RISP model was proposed, Griffin et al. (1999) articulated that perceived information gathering capacity is also likely to moderate the relationship between information insufficiency and information seeking/processing. ...
... For example, researchers have characterized the difficulties that science learners have in engaging in conceptual change processes, especially when misconceptions are strongly and coherently endorsed; many will instead assimilate new information directly into pre-existing knowledge structures (Sinatra & Broughton, 2011). Regarding reading research, similar regularities are well-documented in studies of single text comprehension (Kessler et al., 2019;Kardash & Scholes, 1996;Lord, et al., 1979). For example, in seminal work by Lord et al. (1979), college students read and evaluated research evidence with respect to the effectiveness of capital punishment as a criminal deterrent. ...
... Second, source-source links represent relationships between the sources (e.g., "Source A agrees/disagrees with Source B "), assisting readers in comparing and contrasting text content in light of their sources. With the help of the intertext model, readers can evaluate the sources and text content, organize conflicting views, and resolve the potential conflicts in their integrated mental model (see also [8,69 ]). ...
... Importantly, much of the prior work in this area has focused on how readers process, comprehend, and remember single texts, despite the fact that readers often engage with multiple texts when they are attempting to learn new information (Magliano et al., 2018b;Snow, 2002). The ability to comprehend information from multiple texts has become a critical skill in the increasingly digital era (Goldman et al., 2012;Braasch et al., 2018;List & Alexander, 2019;Magliano et al., 2018b;Rouet, 2006). Readers today have relatively quick and easy access to information from a variety of sources. ...
... Specifically, texts can at times convey contradictory claims, with different types and amounts of evidence in support of them. In addition, many researchers have argued that comprehension can be supported if readers attend to, think about, and integrate the sources of texts into their understandings (Braasch et al., 2018a;Kiili et al., 2018). Braten et al., (2018) described that sourcing strategies are reflective of a set of competencies including attention to, evaluation, representation, and use of accessible information about the sources of texts. ...
... Further, our findings are in line with previous research showing that the presence of heterogeneous learners (also Riikonen et al. 2020;Stahl and Hakkarainen 2020), and the multiple digital and non-digital mediators, often new to the students in a makerspace, can be challenging for the students and may create tensions (also Bråten and Braasch 2017;Ludvigsen 2009). In the FUSE Studio, the students' maker work was not without tensions, as they struggled with the technology and handling the various materials. ...
... According to, attention to these facets of texts allows for processing texts as "artifacts" published by a person, in a venue, and for a purpose; all of these facets may inform on unique perspectives and biases. The recent Discrepancy-Induced Source Comprehension model specifies that, when an individual encounters information that contradicts prior beliefs or previously-read texts, such conditions may produce experiences of cognitive disequilibrium (Braasch & Bråten, 2017;Bråten & Braasch, 2018;Braasch & Kessler, 2021;Braasch & Scharrer, 2020). This experience may, in turn, stimulate engagement in a more effortful, strategic processing of source features to organize understandings of what was read. ...
... Recently, various studies on epistemic beliefs in the domain of science have been conducted from the person-centered perspective (J. A. Chen, 2012;Dai & Cromley, 2014;Ferguson & Bråten, 2013;Kampa et al., 2016;Trevors et al., 2017). An overview of profiles that have been found in these studies is provided in Fig. 1. ...