Jared Saletin's research while affiliated with Alpert Medical School - Brown University and other places

Publications (37)

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Sleep problems are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). How sleep problems reflect specific ASD phenotypes is unclear. We studied whether sleep problems indexed functional impairment in a heterogeneous community sample of individuals with ASD. We analyzed 977 probands (233 females; age = 11.27 ± 4.13 years) from the Rhode Isla...
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Introduction Alcohol use before bedtime has been shown to alter sleep including decreasing sleep latency, decreasing sleep efficiency, and fragmenting sleep stage distribution. Few studies manipulate pre-sleep alcohol concentration, instead focusing on a target dose or peak alcohol concentration during the night. Thus, we investigated how presleep...
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Background Sleep problems, altered sleep patterns and mental health difficulties often co-occur in the pediatric population. Different assessment methods for sleep exist, however, many studies only use one measure of sleep or focus on one specific mental health problem. In this population-based study, we assessed different aspects of sleep and moth...
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In fall 2019, California passed and signed into law SB328, the first US statewide legislation explicitly designed to protect adolescent sleep health by requiring most California public school districts to start no earlier than 8:00 AM for middle schools and 8:30 AM for high schools. Recognizing the unique opportunity presented by the bill's 3-year...
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Study Objectives To examine associations among instructional approaches, school start times, and sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic in a large, nationwide sample of U.S. adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional, anonymous self-report survey study of a community-dwelling sample of adolescents (grades 6–12), recruited through social media outlets in Oct...
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Study Objectives Considerable evidence shows that individuals from marginalized racial/ethnic groups in the US experience greater rates of sleep disturbance and cardiovascular complications. Because sleep is a modifiable factor that is critically involved in cardiovascular health, improved understanding of the association between sleep and cardiova...
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Introduction COVID-19 fundamentally altered education in the United States. A variety of in-person, hybrid, and online instruction formats took hold in Fall 2020 as schools reopened. The Nationwide Education and School in TEens During COVID (NESTED) study assessed how these changes impacted sleep. Here we examined how instruction format was associa...
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Introduction Using data from the Nationwide Education and Sleep in TEens During COVID (NESTED) study (N=6,578), we investigated if race/ethnicity (64.6% were White and 35.4% identified as a racial/ethnic minority, mixed, or “other”) and community social vulnerability affected the association between COVID stress and sleep disturbance. Methods Data...
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Introduction Numerous studies interrogated the relationship between alcohol and a single night of sleep. Yet, many adults engage in cumulative days of drinking. Previous studies show alcohol on a single night increases slow wave sleep in the first third of night. Similarly, sleep has been associated with the success of daytime learning. Our goal wa...
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Introduction The effects of a moderate dose of alcohol one hour before bedtime on sleep have not often been studied nor is the effect across nights well known. We therefore sought to test whether such effects as sleep disruption, increased early-night slow wave sleep (SWS), and reduced early-night REM sleep would be sustained across nights. Method...
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Introduction Wrist actigraphy is a gold-standard method for estimating sleep patterns in the field. Actigraphy adherence is limited when participants remove the device for daily activities (e.g., showers, exercise). Here we evaluate the validity of a novel water-resistant wearable, the “Actigpatch,” compared to polysomnography and traditional actig...
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Introduction Adolescents are vulnerable to short, insufficient sleep stemming from a combined preference for late bedtimes and early school start times, and also circadian disruptions from frequent shifts in sleep schedules (i.e., social jetlag). These sleep disruptions are associated with poor mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted educ...
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Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic significantly disrupted how and when adolescents attended school. This analysis used data from the Nationwide Education and Sleep in TEens During COVID (NESTED) study to examine the association of instructional format (in-person, virtual, hybrid), school start times, and sleep in a large diverse sample of adolesce...
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During your lifetime, you will spend almost 250,000 h asleep. Why do we need so much sleep? Sleep is not just rest from the day, but also necessary for your body and brain to be healthy, particularly as you grow up. For example, a good night’s sleep enables you to pay attention and learn the next day. When and how long you sleep will change as you...
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Introduction Short sleep contributes to attention failure in conditions such as ADHD. Whether sleep loss affects attentional processes as a task varies in cognitive interference is unclear. We used a multi-source interference task (MSIT) in a sleep restriction paradigm in children with a range of ADHD symptoms to examine how short sleep disrupts at...
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Introduction Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience sleep problems. A reliance on case-control studies rather than dimensional samples limit our ability to understand how sleep problems distinguish diagnosis and severity of ASD. To address this need, we present preliminary findings from a large community sample of individu...
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Background DNA methylation (DNAm) has been implicated in the biology of sleep. Yet, how DNAm patterns across the genome relate to different sleep outcomes, and whether these associations overlap with mental health is currently unknown. Here, we investigated associations of DNAm with sleep and mental health in a pediatric population. Methods This c...
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Patients with hippocampus lesions suffer profound failures in episodic memory. Sleep plays a key role in processing hippocampus-dependent memories. Lesioning this structure may fundamentally alter the architecture of human sleep, posing fundamental questions about the link between sleep and memory processing.
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Purpose: This project investigated internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the frequently used Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and compared parent and child reports with clinician-rated Tanner staging. Methods : Using a repository of data collected from 1995 to 2016, 252 participants (aged 7.8–17.7 years) provided self- and parent-repo...
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Although poor sleep has been found to adversely impact eating and weight regulation in youth, past research is limited by retrospective reporting and/or non-naturalistic designs. We investigated the feasibility of combining three momentary, ecologically valid approaches to assessing sleep and eating behavior, and associations between these construc...
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Introduction In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with poor sleep, yet few studies have objectively measured sleep patterns in this population. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that reduced sleep regularity indexes ADHD symptoms in children. Methods The sleep-wake patterns of thirteen middle-school st...
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Introduction Sleep supports processes necessary for hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. While experimental paradigms for sleep-dependent memory consolidation commonly involve comparing sleep/wake delays at opposing diurnal phases, whether the memory benefit of sleep is influenced by circadian phase is unclear. Using forced desynchrony (FD),...
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Introduction Sleep disruption is a proposed mechanism underlying disinhibition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD); however, whether ADHD symptoms bestow increased vulnerability to sleep loss is unknown. Thus, we combined a behavioral go/no-go paradigm with functional neuroimaging in a dimensional sample of child ADHD to test whether...
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Study Objectives Sleep disruption is common in attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Likewise, deficits in attention are a hallmark of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals. Whether ADHD and sleep deprivation modulate common, or disparate, neural systems is unknown. No study has yet utilized fMRI to investigate sleep loss in ADHD. We...
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Full-text available
Background: A precision medicine approach to bipolar disorder (BD) requires greater knowledge of neural mechanisms, especially within the BD phenotype. The present study evaluated differences in resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between young adults followed longitudinally since childhood with full-threshold type I BD (BD-I)—characterize...
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Study Objectives Napping is a useful countermeasure to the negative effects of acute sleep loss on alertness. The efficacy of naps to recover from chronic sleep loss is less well understood. Methods Following 2 baseline nights (10 hours TIB), participants were restricted to 7 nights of 5-hour sleep opportunity. Ten adults participated in the No Na...
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Background Sleep disturbances are prominent correlates of acute mood episodes and inadequate recovery in bipolar disorder (BD), yet the mechanistic relationship between sleep physiology and mood remains poorly understood. Using a series of pre-sleep mood inductions and overnight sleep recording, this study examined the relationship between overnigh...
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Introduction Napping is a useful countermeasure to sleepiness resulting from acute sleep loss; however, the efficacy of naps to reduce sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep restriction is less well understood. This study assessed the impact of an afternoon nap on subjective and objective sleepiness during chronic sleep restriction. Methods Follo...
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Introduction Learning is affected by sleep; less understood is the role of circadian timing. In adolescence, where learning is at a premium, marked shifts occur in both sleep and circadian biology. Understanding the roles these two systems play in learning across adolescence is important for both scientific and policy reasons. To this end, we used...
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Introduction Sleep disruption is common in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Likewise, deficits in executive function are a hallmark of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals. Despite this apparent convergence, whether ADHD and sleep deprivation modulate common, or disparate, neural systems is unknown. While no study has utilized f...

Citations

... The association between sleep disorders and mental health conditions in children has long been studied and recognized. Another recent study similarly reported that sleep disorders relate to all domains of mental health conditions in children [40]. A review article identified a possible causal relationship between early childhood sleep disorders and mental health conditions, such as anxiety, depression, and ADHD in adolescents [41]. ...
... Schools with delayed start times have had varying amounts of success in terms of improvements on academic performance, but overall the consensus is in favor of delayed start times (Biller et al., 2022). California became the first state in 2019 to pass a law protecting adolescent sleep, requiring that middle schools start no earlier than 8:00 am and high schools no earlier than 8:30 am (Ziporyn et al., 2022). This law has a 3-year implementation period and provides more opportunity for researchers to determine how beneficial these changes are for students. ...
Reference: Media & Sleep
... Since in-person teaching still took place in Austria (at least during the time data from this survey was collected; Fig. 8) and the majority of participants went to school 1-5 times per week (homeschooling usually on Fridays or in the regions affected by the "East Lockdown"), this might be an explanation for the smaller delays in wake times during weekdays 17 . Furthermore, a mixture of hybrid, online and in-person teaching may have led to a greater night-to-night variability www.nature.com/scientificreports/ in sleep-wake patterns like it has recently been shown in a sample of U.S. students (13-18 years) 56 . However, since we did not assess the actual bedtimes, wake times and sleep durations before and during the pandemic, the assumption that the pandemic situation might have intensified this effect cannot be further verified. ...
... Underscoring the importance of employing a life-course perspective, Letzen et al.'s study findings are consistent with prior studies that identify racial/ethnic disparities in sleep throughout the lifespan. 2,3,5 For instance, racial/ethnic disparities in both sleep and risk factors for sleep-related cardiovascular health outcomes (e.g., rapid weight gain) have been shown to emerge as early as infancy 6,7 and persist over the life course. 3,8 In the recent Rise and SHINE Study of 306 Asian, non-Hispanic (NH) Black, Hispanic/Latino, and NH-White infants, nightly and 24-hour sleep duration that was confirmed to increase between 1 and 6 months of age increased less among NH-Black and Hispanic/Latino compared to NH-White infants with differences largely explained by markers of socioeconomic status (SES) (i.e., maternal education and annual household income). ...
... Indeed, several surveys conducted during the pandemic have already associated virtual classes starting at 8:30 AM or later with more sleep, improved mental health, and greater academic engagement, and Start School Later has documented dozens of districts that plan to maintain, or that are considering maintaining, these later schedules as in-person classes resume. [165][166][167][168][169][170][171][172][173] One pressing research need involves comparing top-down to iterative, district-level change processes. On the surface, statewide policies appear to be more equitable, ensuring that students' ability to get healthy sleep will not vary by zip code. ...
... The brain undergoes developmental changes characterized by increasing synaptic density during childhood, followed by synaptic pruning and myelination in adolescence, which streamline neural circuits and mature cortical regions [1e4]. Researchers have hypothesized that neuropsychiatric disorders result from altered neurodevelopment [5,6]. Sleep electroencephalography (EEG) activity has emerged as a potential biomarker of brain maturation that, if altered, may have implications in the development of psychopathology, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), learning (LD) and internalizing (ID) disorders [4,7]. ...
... Thus, our resulting data pointing to sleep problems in ASD understandably lack specificity as to which sleep problems are present in the current sample. However, both case-control studies of ASD [19,28,29,31], as well as conditions such as ADHD [35], anxiety [38], and depression [42] point to the potential of sleep disruption at behavioral (e.g., insomnia [41]), neurophysiological (e.g., brain oscillations [43,44]), circadian (e.g., melatonin expression [45]), and genetic (e.g., the role of clock genes [46][47][48]) levels. In the context of ASD, small case-control studies lack both the diversity of presentation of the current data and demonstrate inconsistent replicability. ...
... Research suggests that deep sleep also consolidates a person's memory, primarily the declarative memory that allows them to recall a specific event, or remember an exact phrase (Tononi & Cirelli, 2014). Put simply, memories of the day's experiences are stored in the hippocampus before being sorted into a particular brain compartment during the deep sleep of the night, ready to recall them the following day as memories (Saletin, 2020). ...
... There are self-reporting proformas available. 8 The Tanner staging is often done perioperatively, by which time the decision on surgical techniques to be used would have already been made. ...
... Furthermore, previous studies have identified mixed findings on the association between sleep quality and LOC eating. For example, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), Goldschmidt et al. (2020) found no significant association between sleep quality and LOC eating in a sample of 40 youth (aged 8-14 years old) with overweight and obesity. In contrast, using an EMA research design, Parker et al. (2021) found that 48 youth (aged 8-17 years old) with poorer sleep quality reported greater LOC eating. ...