Janusz Milanowski's research while affiliated with Medical University of Lublin and other places

Publications (287)

Article
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Over two billion people worldwide are exposed to organic dust, which can cause respiratory disorders. The discovery of the cathelicidin peptide provides novel insights into the lung’s response to organic dust; however, its role in the lung’s response to organic dust exposure and chronic lung diseases remains limited. We conducted a scoping review t...
Article
Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, overtaking colon, breast, and prostate cancer-related deaths. Due to the limited diagnostic possibilities, it is often diagnosed after it has reached an advanced stage. The delayed diagnosis significantly worsens the patient’s prognosis. In recent years, we have observed an inc...
Article
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a poorly prognosed form of progressive interstitial pneumonia. Patients with IPF have a significantly increased risk of developing lung cancer, which further worsens the course of the disease. The most common histological types of LC among patients with IPF are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Furthermore...
Article
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The significance of Akkermansia bacteria presence in gut micobiome, mainly Akkermansia mucinifila, is currently being investigated in the context of supporting therapy and marker for response to immunotherapy in cancer patients. It is indicated that patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) re...
Article
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The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of various interactions between immune cells and non-cellular components such as the extracellular matrix, exosomes and interleukins. Moreover, tumor heterogeneity and its constant modification may alter the immunophenotype and become responsible for its resistance regarding the therapies applied Howe...
Article
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Lung adenocarcinoma predominates among diagnosed nonsmall cell lung cancer subtypes in nonsmokers. The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors into clinical practice offered patients prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival times. However, the results demonstrate that the benefits do not apply to all patients. Nivolumab is a mo...
Article
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It is responsible for 80–85% of lung cancer cases. NSCLC can be divided into several groups, led by adenocarcinoma (ADC)–40–50% and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)–20–30%. The development of new molecular therapies ta...
Conference Paper
Rationale: Nintedanib is an antifibrotic agent approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The drug has been available for Polish patients with IPF since 2018. However, data on nationwide experience with nintedanib therapy in IPF are lacking. This study aimed to describe the safety and efficacy of nintedanib in a large real-w...
Article
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Exposure to radon is the second most common factor causing lung cancer in smokers and the first among non-smokers. We aimed to measure the impact of the radon exposure on patients with different histological types of advanced lung cancer. The measurement of radon exposure was performed in 102 patients with lung cancer in stage 3B or higher (Poland)...
Article
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Currently, one of the leading treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer is immunotherapy involving immune checkpoint inhibitors. These monoclonal antibodies restore the anti-tumour immune response altered by negative immune checkpoint interactions. The most commonly used immunotherapeutics in monotherapy are anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies. The...
Article
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprises about 85% of all lung cancers. Currently, NSCLC therapy is based on the analysis of specific predictors, whose presence qualifies patients for appropriate treatment. Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5), also known as “survivin”, is a protein whose expression is characteristic f...
Article
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Despite the enormous progress and development of modern therapies, lung cancer remains one of the most common causes of death among men and women. The key element in the development of new anti-cancer drugs is proper planning of the preclinical research phase. The most adequate basic research exemplary for cancer study are 3D tumor microenvironment...
Preprint
Brain metastases (BM) severely impact the prognosis and quality of life of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To identify targetable drivers of NSCLC-BM, we profiled somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) in 51 matched pairs of primary NSCLC and BM samples from 33 patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and 18 patients with lung sq...
Article
Introduction Lung cancer has been the main oncological problem in the world for years. It is extremely important to use appropriate diagnostic methods that enable its detection and implementation of appropriate treatment. Aim The presented case shows the advantage of computed tomography over chest X-ray (X-ray) in visualizing neoplastic changes in...
Article
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Several molecular abnormalities in the MET gene have been identified, including overexpression, amplification, point mutations, and “skipping mutation” in exon 14. Even though deregulated MET signaling occurs rarely in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it possesses tumorigenic activity. Since the discovery of the significant role played by MET dy...
Article
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Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Early diagnosis may improve the prognosis. Methods: Using quantitative methylation-specific real-time PCR (qMSP-PCR), we assessed the methylation status of two genes (in two subsequent regions according to locations in their promoter sequences) related to carcinogenesis, DICER a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lung adenocarcinoma predominates among diagnosed nonsmall cell lung cancer subtypes in nonsmokers. The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors into clinical practice offered patients prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival times. However, the results demonstrate that the benefits do not apply to all patients. Nivolumab is a mo...
Article
Full-text available
In patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), comprehensive genetic diagnostics is currently carried out in order to qualify for molecularly targeted therapies and immunotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) method in the diagnosis of gene rearrangements, the effectiveness o...
Article
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Although coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) most often affects the respiratory system, in the course of this disease, dysfunction of many other organs may also develop. The case is presented of a female patient, treated for a long time due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, complicated by chronic complete respiratory failure, and who was unde...
Article
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The efficiency of immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies that inhibit immune checkpoints has been proven in many clinical studies and well documented by numerous registration approaches. To date, PD-L1 expression on tumor and immune cells, tumor mutation burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) are the only validated predictive factors...
Article
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Introduction Bronchoscopy is the main method in the diagnosis of various lung diseases. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the most modern bronchoscopic technique useful in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer (LC). Objective The aim of the study was to assess the yield of bronchoscopy in patients with...
Article
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The immune system plays a key role in cancer suppression. Immunotherapy is widely used as a treatment method in patients with various types of cancer. Immune checkpoint blockade using antibodies, such as anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4, is currently gaining popularity. A systematic literature search was executed, and all available data was s...
Article
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Cathelicidin (CRAMP) is a defence peptide with a wide range of biological responses including antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and wound healing. Due to its original properties the usefulness of CRAMP in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis was assessed in a murine model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). The studies were conducted on mouse strain...
Article
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Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the prognosis for stage IV remains poor. The presence of genetic alterations in tumor cells, such as EGFR and BRAF gene mutations, as well as ALK and ROS1 gene rearrangements, are indications for targeted therapies. Many such treatments are already registered and used on a...
Article
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Anti-programmed death-1 or anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade may be ineffective in some patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with high percentage of tumor cells with PD-L1 expression. In addition, immunotherapy may provide great benefits in patients without PD-L1 expression. The present study assessed PD-L1 protein express...
Article
Introduction Detection of abnormalities in the KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes is extremely important for proper qualification of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients for therapy with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However, data about prevalence of mutations in these genes, in different localizations of CRC tumors, is limited. Material and methods We exam...
Article
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignancies around the world. Due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis, most patients require systemic treatment. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoints inhibitors is becoming the main treatment method for many cancers, including NSCLC. Numerous studies have shown...
Article
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Caspase 8 is a protein involved in the process of cell apoptosis, which may affect the efficacy of anti-cancer treatment. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of polymorphisms in the CASP-8 gene encoding caspase 8 on the prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study involved 99 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced...
Article
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Introduction Expression of PD-L1 protein on tumor cells, which is so far the only validated predictive factor for immunotherapy, is regulated by epigenetic and genetic factors. Among the most important ones that regulate gene expression are microRNAs. Materials and Methods The study included 60 patients with NSCLC who underwent first or second lin...
Article
Introduction The importance of modern treatments for the extension of overall survival in advanced lung cancer (LC) patients is rarely reported in clinical trials (crossover effect). Recent clinical trials have compared experimental treatment methods and shown that chemotherapy is no longer a comparator. We studied the relevance of innovative treat...
Preprint
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Introduction The expression of PD-L1 (programed cell death ligand 1) protein on neoplastic cells is a factor qualifying cancer patients for immunotherapy. However, the status of PD-L1 mRNA expression in plasma or serum has not been well studied in cancer patients. TP-53 (Tumor Protein p53) as tumor suppressor affects the expression of many genes, i...
Article
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Although there are undeniable advantages of treatment of the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis, with biological agents, the increased susceptibility to tuberculosis should not be ignored. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis...
Preprint
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Introduction The expression of PD-L1 (programed cell death ligand 1) protein on neoplastic cells is a factor qualifying cancer patients for immunotherapy. However, the status of PD-L1 mRNA expression in plasma or serum has not been well studied in cancer patients. TP-53 (Tumor Protein p53) as tumor suppressor affects the expression of many genes, i...
Article
Full-text available
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent one of the most promising therapeutic approaches in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (M-NSCLC). Unfortunately, approximately 50–75% of patients do not respond to this treatment modality. Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) at the genetic and phenotypic level is considered as a major cause of anticancer...
Article
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Background Amplification of HER2 gene (ERBB2) and overexpression of HER2 protein on cancer cells are found in 10–26% of gastric cancer (GC) and esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC). Gene copy number variation (CNV) could be detected in these patients in liquid biopsy and in cancer cells. Methods We analysed HER2 gene CNV used qPCR method in 87 s...
Article
Objective: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a slowly growing cancer, which is the most common malignant tumor of the salivary glands. It is claimed that it is a non-inherited cancer. People with family history of ACC are reported extremely rarely. We present patients with suspected hereditary ACC. Materials and methods: Next generation sequenci...
Article
Electronic cigarettes are often presented as a safer alternative to classic cigarettes. We present an overview of the latest data on the safety of using e-cigarettes and their impact on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The statement that e-cigarettes are much less harmful seems too hasty due to the relatively short presence of e-cigarett...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Amplification of HER2 gene (ERBB2) and overexpression of HER2 protein on cancer cells are found in 10-26% of gastric cancer (GC) and esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC). Gene copy number variation (CNV) could be detected in these patients in liquid biopsy and in cancer cells. Methods We analysed HER2 gene CNV used qPCR method in 87 se...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Amplification of HER2 gene (ERBB2) and overexpression of HER2 protein on cancer cells are found in 10-26% of gastric cancer (GC) and esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC). Gene copy number variation (CNV) could be detected in these patients in liquid biopsy and in cancer cells. Methods We analysed HER2 gene CNV used qPCR method in 87 se...
Article
Introduction: Osimertinib is a third-generation, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in prospective clinical trials. Material and methods: This retrospective analysis evaluated the outcomes of 32 pretreated...
Article
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Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) is a new option of treatment in a growing range of neoplasms. In addition to an antitumor effect, ICI are associated with autoimmune reactions resulting in a wide spectrum of toxicities that have not been seen in patients receiving chemotherapy. In this article, we present a case of a patient wi...
Article
Pantoea agglomerans is gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in nature. It predominates in inhalable dust from grain, herbs, and flax, and was identified as the most important cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in eastern Poland. To better understand the molecular mechanism of HP development studies focused on the interactions between P...
Article
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Background: CheckMate 171 (NCT02409368) is an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial of nivolumab in previously treated advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), conducted as part of a post-approval commitment to the European Medicines Agency (EMA). We report outcomes from this trial. Methods: Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncolo...
Article
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Introduction The main treatment regimen for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) involves platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin or carboplatin) and etoposide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TOP2A and ERCC1 genes were tested as prognostic and predictive factors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There are limited data about the clinical rel...
Article
Case description Five workers (2 males and 3 females) employed in a furniture factory located in eastern Poland developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) after the pine wood used for furniture production was replaced by birch wood. All of them reported onset of respiratory and general symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, general malaise) after i...
Article
Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a condition that affects over 2 million adults in Poland. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on improving the quality of life of patients with COPD, which includes alleviating their physical discomfort and relates to their mental health. It is therefore critically im...
Article
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Background: Topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A) is an enzyme that controls topologic changes in DNA during transcription and replication. ERCC1 is an enzyme that takes part in DNA repair processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive role of particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of TOP2A and ERCC1 g...
Article
Most drugs targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 are more effective when cancer cells of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients express PD-L1 protein. The polymorphisms of PD-L1 gene and PD-L1 gene copy number could be responsible for PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression. We analyzed PD-L1 protein expression using two IHC assays, mRNA (PD-L1) expression by qRT...
Article
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Atmospheric pollution suspended in humid air is popularly known as ‘smog’. It is composed of dust particles of different sizes, as well as non-metal oxides, organic compounds, and heavy metals. Exposure to harmful substances suspended in the air – apart from, for example – smoking cigarettes, one of the modifiable factors leading to the development...
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Introduction . Before cigarettes became popular, lung cancer was an extremely rare disease, but currently it is the most common cause worldwide of cancer death in both genders. Therefore, it constitutes a huge epidemiological, diagnostic and socio-economic challenge around the world. In Poland, lung cancer is the second most common carcinoma in bot...