Jan Esefeld's research while affiliated with Friedrich Schiller University Jena and other places

Publications (21)

Article
Full-text available
The Antarctic and the surrounding Southern Ocean are currently subject to rapid environmental changes and increasing anthropogenic impacts. Seabird populations often reflect those changes and so act as indicators of environmental variability. Their population trends may provide information on a variety of environmental parameters on the scale of ye...
Article
The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) increased during the last decade worldwide and in the pristine wilderness of the Antarctic continent. They are used by scientists from diverse fields, television and film crews, tourists, and station personnel. To protect Antarctic wildlife from potential disturbance, policy makers and national authorities...
Article
The use of UAVs has greatly increased in recent years, worldwide and in the Antarctic. Their use has recently increased even in very remote and pristine regions of the Antarctic. There is, however, very little information on the sensitivity of Antarctic species to such disturbance. In particular, there is nothing on the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes...
Article
Full-text available
The complete genome sequence of a novel megrivirus of the family Picornaviridae was determined from nucleic acid extracted from a pool of six faecal specimens of Adélie penguins. The samples were collected near Bellingshausen Station, King George Island of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Penguin megrivirus is the first megrivirus with a pre...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) became a fast-developing technology with manifold fields of application. In the field of wildlife biology, it offers the opportunity to quantify populations, to map the spatial distribution of species and to observe the behavior of animals with no or low disturbance. Moreover, UAV based mapping allows...
Article
Full-text available
A recent increase in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)—also known as remotely piloted aircraft (RPA)—in the Antarctic in private, commercial and scientific sectors suggests that operational guidelines are urgently needed. One of the factors inhibiting adoption of such guidelines is the lack of knowledge about the impact of UAVs on wildlife...
Article
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In the present paper, we compare how the kelp gull, Larus dominicanus, utilizes various nest building materials, particularly vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and other components, in the Fildes Peninsula area (King George Island) and on the Argentine Islands area. In both areas, nest material primarily consisted of the Antarctic hairgrass (Des...
Article
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Tardigrada in Antarctic regions are poorly known. The aim of this study was to examine for tardigrades the nests material of the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823) in maritime Antarctic and discuss the possible ways of migration and dispersion of tardigrades by birds. We also discuss the influence of bird’s guano on the communities of...
Article
Full-text available
A novel RNA virus was detected in a fecal sample collected from the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) in King George Island, Antarctica. The almost-complete genome sequence reveals two open reading frames and a dicistrovirus-like gene order.
Book
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In the context of the already observed population changes at specific time intervals and the shift in penguin breeding sites because of global warming and the fluctuations in availability of food, full-scale monitoring of Antarctic penguins seems reasonable. This report should contribute to choosing among the possible methods. Given the large numbe...
Book
Full-text available
The Fildes Region (King George Island, South Shetland Islands), consisting of the Fildes Peninsula, the neighbouring Ardley Island and all larger, nearby islands, is one of the largest ice-free regions in maritime Antarctica and has a relatively high level of biodiversity. This area also represents the logistical centre of the Antarctic Peninsula w...
Poster
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The Fildes Peninsula in the south-west of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic (62°08′ – 62°14′S, 59°02′ – 58°51′W) represents one of the largest ice-free areas in the maritime Antarctic and is characterized by a high biodiversity. At the same time, the Fildes Peninsula hosts six Antarctic stations and an airstrip turning the area...
Article
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems face a variety of threats induced by environmental changes and anthropogenic activities. Seabirds are predators often used as indicator species to monitor the status and health of their communities and the environment. Here, we present the results from a 35-year monitoring time series of Brown Skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnberg...
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become a useful tool in polar research. While their performance is already proven, little is known about their impact on wildlife. To assess the disturbance caused on the penguins, flights with a UAV were conducted over an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony. Vertical and horizontal flights were performed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A detailed study of the interaction between the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) and Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv.) in the Argentine Islands region provided some evidence for the existence of strong relations between these species (Parnikoza et al., 2012; 2014). The main reason for this might be the fact that both hair grass and k...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Through recent, as well as long-term changes in polar ecosystems, potential impacts on breeding species of the Antarctic are inevitable. This study aims to distinguish environmental factors that drive temporal changes in the breeding pair numbers of bird species in the maritime Antarctic. Long term monitoring of breeding pair numbers yielded time s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pelagic seabirds spend most of their life, often except the breeding period, on the open ocean far off the continental coasts. Therefore it has long been difficult to investigate the ecology of their entire life history. For our study we analyse 47 Brown Skua (Stercorarius antarcticus lonnbergi) migration cycles from 28 individuals breeding on King...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Increasing pressure from human activities leads to negative impacts on the Antarctic terrestrial environment. The southwestern part of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, is characterized by high biodiversity and rich fossil deposits. The operation of six permanent stations and an airstrip turns the Fildes Peninsula into a superregional log...

Citations

... (Malzof and Quintana, 2008). In addition, cape petrel (Daption capense), black-bellied storm petrel (Fregetta tropica) and Wilson's storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus) also reproduce on King George Island and have been previously reported to be preyed upon by these skua species (Braun et al., 2021;de Almeida Reis et al., 2021). The high frequency of bird occurrence in the diet of skuas highlights the importance of this trophic interaction between skuas and other avian species (Reinhardt et al., 2000). ...
... Experiments conducted by [157] show that the response of penguins and seals were significantly more intense with traditional ground surveys than with UAV overflights, which also suggest the best practices for UAV surveys. The generic analysis of the responses of Emperor penguins to UAV surveys and the comparisons of the effects of human approach are presented by Rümmler et al. (2021a) [158], which are detailed according to the type of UAV, overflight height and season of the year on the behaviour of Emperor penguin adults and chicks in Rümmler et al. (2021b) [159]. ...
... As it was apparent that aversive reactions of animals would have a negative impact on census quality, scientists began to investigate this phenomenon directly. While this led to a vast literature covering many taxa, the methods employed in these studies are very diverse, which hinders systematic comparisons, as has been pointed out in previous reviews on this subject (Christie The noise produced by drones and the increase in sound pressure level that is associated with shorter distances between drones and surveyed animals has also been identified as a relevant factor for disturbance (Bennitt et al., 2019;Rümmler et al., 2021;Schroeder et al., 2020;Vas et al., 2015;Weimerskirch et al., 2018). Duporge et al. (2021) reviewed this subject specifically and suggested a method to calculate the minimum drone altitude based on the audiogram of the target species and the noise profile of the drone at different heights. ...
... For example, many of the earlier studies on penguins attempted the detection of viruses that infect chickens and turkeys, such as Infectious bursal disease virus and Gallid herpesvirus 2 (previously known as Marek's disease virus) (Gardner et al., 1997;Gauthier-Clerc et al., 2002;Miller et al., 2001;Travis et al., 2006). In contrast, more recent studies using modern molecular methods have found that penguins are hosts to a multitude of viruses that were previously unknown to science, and for which the health effects have yet to be uncovered (Hayer et al., 2021;Levy et al., 2020a,b;Morandini et al., 2019;Neira et al., 2017;Varsani et al., 2014Varsani et al., , 2015Wille et al., 2019Wille et al., , 2020Yinda et al., 2019). This too poses a challenge because it complicates prioritizing which agents are of most importance to seabird health. ...
... Indeed, UAVs and USVs cater a wide range of maritime applications, such as maritime Search and Rescue (SaR) [66,88], maritime patrol [75,94], monitoring of oil and sewage spills from ships [44,46], trash detection [34,84], illegal fishing prevention [14,77], animal population surveying [49,71], wind farm and oil rig inspection [25,95], and coral reef monitoring [12,36] to name a few. All of these applications require robust vision systems for UAVs and USVs for practical use. ...
... We found that cranes were only affected by the UAV when flown at less than 20 m altitude, but when flown at 30 m and above, the cranes did not react. The behavior of two different penguin species varied slightly between Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) (Brisson-Curadeau et al., 2017;Rümmler et al., 2018), with the former behaving similarly to the cranes in this study and the latter being negatively affected by the UAV at the highest altitude tested (50 m). The difference in behavior among species may also be explained by the location and the frequency at which the animals are exposed to disturbances. ...
... The apparent genetic connectivity of Antarctic flora (here including plants and lichens based on Singh et al. 2018) among some regions indicates long-distance dispersal has occurred, although determining the direction and timing of dispersal events would require higher resolution data. Flora in Antarctica might readily disperse with wind and oceanic rafting (Biersma et al. 2020b), or zoochory with birds (Parnikoza et al. 2018). Some species are able to survive extreme environmental conditions for long periods, even centuries (Parnikoza et al. 2011, Cannone et al. 2017, although the overall more northern distributions of flora reflect their physiological limitations to better conditions of temperature, soil nutrients, liquid water availability and sunlight (Peat et al. 2007, Singh et al. 2018. ...
... While the primary literature on Bryodelphax species has mostly been in a consensus on the nature and appearances of intracuticular pillars and pores (e.g. Pilato, 1972;Bertolani et al., 1996;Fontoura et al., 2008;Kristensen et al., 2010;Gąsiorek et al., 2017;Lisi et al., 2017;Kaczmarek et al., 2018), the third type of sculpture element that we treated in our analyses, epicuticular elements, is less well characterized. Previous authors have described their observations of these structures in various ways. ...
... All in all, only a few descriptions of viruses infecting A. gazella are available in literature. A novel virus named fur seal picorna-like virus 16 and two new lineages of anelloviruses 17 have been the unique descriptions of virus infecting A. gazella obtained from a fecal sample and bucal swabs respectively. Antibodies against phocine herpesvirus 1 were detected in 58% of A. gazella individuals examined by Tryland et al. 18 but no other evidence of this infection has been reported since then. ...
... Monitoring these ecosystems is challenging due to logistical difficulties related to the inaccessibility of these remote regions, the economic cost of deploying teams on the ground, or the weather conditions on the Antarctic continent that are characterized by almost constant cloudiness and extreme temperatures (Ancel et al. 2017;Brown 2018;Mustafa et al. 2017). Satellite remote sensing is a tool that can help overcome some of these difficulties. ...