Jan C. van Ours's research while affiliated with University of Melbourne and other places

Publications (460)

Article
Many expert reviews of products such as cars, books, movies and restaurants are non-blind. Whether such reviews can be taken at face value is questionable, but hard evidence on the presence of reviewer bias is rare. This holds particularly true for conflicts of interest that are thought to be common in non-blind product reviews but are not readily...
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This paper studies the relationship between early mental health episodes and early homelessness, focusing on depression and anxiety amongst disadvantaged Australians. Using data from the Australian Journeys Home survey, we investigate whether the early onset of mental health conditions make a first transition into homelessness more likely. Similarl...
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Retiring is an individual labor market transition that affects the personal life of the workers involved and sometimes the life of their partners. This paper presents an overview of recent studies on the effects of retirement on mental health, cognitive ability and mortality. The results are all over the place but on average it seems like at retire...
Chapter
This chapter uses microdata to evaluate the impact on the steady-state unemployment rate of an increase in maximum benefit duration. We draw on policy changes in Austria that extended maximum benefit duration from 30 to 52 weeks for individuals above age 50 and from 30 to 39 weeks for individuals between ages 40 and 49. We use these changes to esti...
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Same‐sex marriage legalization (SSML) is a typical anti‐discrimination policy to remove institutional discrimination against sexual minorities by providing them with marriage equality. We examine how this legalization in the Netherlands affected mental health. Conducting a difference‐in‐differences analysis with heterosexual individuals as a refere...
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We study whether there is a racial bias in ratings of professional football players in Italian newspapers. We find that there is such a bias. Conditional on objective performance indicators black players receive a lower rating than non-black players. This is not a difference across the board but predominantly present at the lower end of the newspap...
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We analyse the attendance of professional football matches in England finding that it is related to unemployment over a very long period of time. More unemployment leads to lower attendances. Distinguishing between leagues, we find that the relationship is larger for lower leagues, i.e. attendances of lower quality football events are more sensitiv...
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In his last season as professional football player, Johan Cruyff played at Feyenoord. This paper shows that Cruyff improved the performance of his team and attracted more attendants to the home stadium. From this it is concluded that Cruyff made a superstar contribution to his club Feyenoord.
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This paper examines long-term developments in stadium attendance in professional football in the Netherlands. As in many other European countries attendance had a U-shaped development with the lowest numbers in the mid-1980s. The developments in the Netherlands do not seem to have been affected by hooliganism but by socioeconomic factors. Furthermo...
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This paper studies the relationship between the change in the unemployment rate and output growth using an approach based on labor market flows. The framework shows why the Okun coefficient may be constant/time varying and/or symmetric/asymmetric and that the outcome depends upon the behavior of the labor flows in response to growth. The encompassi...
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This paper studies mental health and loneliness in the Netherlands for individuals beyond age 50. The analysis is based on panel data over the period 2008 to 2018 and focuses on the effects of life events and ageing. It appears that mental health gets worse and loneliness increases if individuals lose their partner (through divorce or death) or bec...
Article
This paper studies the association between homelessness and mental health episodes focusing on episodes of depression, anxiety and other conditions (bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder). Using panel data from the Australian Journeys Home survey, we investigate the extent to which this association is due to...
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Registered partnership (RP) and marriage in the Netherlands are identical in terms of rights and obligations but may differ in symbolism. Exploiting same-sex marriage legalization (SSML) in the Netherlands as a policy shock, we investigate the effect of marital symbolism on partnership stability. Applying a mixed competing risks model to administra...
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We study the relationship between cannabis use and early labor market experiences of young men, focusing on the time it takes them to find their first job, and the wage rate they receive at that job. We find that early cannabis users accept job offers more quickly and at a lower wage rate compared with otherwise similar males who did not use cannab...
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We study seasonal home advantage in English professional football over the period 1974 to 2018. We distinguish between absolute home advantage, enjoyed equally by all teams in a division, and relative home advantage, which differs among teams in the division. We find that absolute home advantage is substantial, ranging from 0.59 to 0.64 in terms of...
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Boys typically initiate delinquent behaviour during their teenage years, and many go on to be arrested. We show that engaging in delinquency and being arrested in youth are each associated with early school leaving. The effect of delinquency on school leaving is largely driven by crimes that produce a monetary return, and the increase in school lea...
Article
We study the retirement effects on mental health using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design based on the eligibility age to the state pension in the Netherlands. We find that the mental effects are heterogeneous by gender and marital status. Retirement of partnered men positively affects mental health of both themselves and their partners. Partn...
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Buying lottery tickets is not a rational investment from a financial point of view. Yet, the majority of people participate at least once a year in a lottery. We conducted a field experiment to increase understanding of lottery participation. Using representative data for the Netherlands, we find that lottery participation increased the happiness o...
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We investigate the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking initiation in eleven European countries. Based on individual data about age of onset of smoking, we use hazard rate models to study smoking initiation. Thus, we are able to take into account observed and unobserved personal characteristics as well as the effect of the introduction of...
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Our paper studies the effects of daily dialect-speaking on hourly wages of native Dutch workers. The unconditional difference in median hourly wage between Standard Dutch speakers and dialect speakers is about 10% for males and 8% for females. Taking into account differences in personal characteristics, family characteristics and geographical diffe...
Article
This paper examines prices of cannabis sold over the anonymous internet marketplace AlphaBay. We analyze cannabis prices of 500 listings from about 140 sellers, originating from 18 countries. We find that both listing characteristics and country characteristics matter. Cannabis prices are lower if sold in larger quantities, so there is a clear quan...
Article
Drug use among homeless young people tends to be higher than drug use among those who are not homeless. Is that because drug use causes homelessness, as is often assumed? Duncan McVicar, Julie Moschion and Jan van Ours investigate. Drug use among homeless young people tends to be higher than drug use among those who are not homeless. Is that becaus...
Article
Our paper studies the causal effect of dialect speech on wages of native Dutch workers. Using an instrumental variable approach, we find evidence of a wage penalty of dialect speech for males but not for females.
Article
We investigate stadium attendance in the highest level of Dutch professional football for the seasons 2000/01–2015/16 focusing on outcome uncertainty, loss aversion and team quality. We find that for individual football matches, attendance is related to reference-dependent preferences with loss aversion dominating the preference for uncertain outco...
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In professional football there is an advantage of playing at home. In the Netherlands, in the Eredivisie, the top tier of professional football the majority of teams play their home matches on natural grass but there are also quite a few teams playing on an artificial pitch. Analyzing match data from the seasons 2014/15 to 2017/18, this paper finds...
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We analyze Dutch panel data to investigate whether partnership has a causal effect on subjective well-being. As in previous studies, we find that, on average, being in a partnership improves well-being. Well-being gains of marriage are larger than those of cohabitation. The well-being effects of partnership formation and disruption are symmetric. W...
Article
This paper investigates whether parental separation increases the likelihood of becoming homeless for disadvantaged households. Previous studies have only provided descriptive evidence for the general population suggesting that parental separations relate to reductions in housing quality and stability. Using a unique dataset of disadvantaged Austra...
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We examine the effect of the sending-off of a player on the goal-scoring rates in FIFA World Cup matches in tournaments from 1998 to 2014. We use a hazard rate framework in which the effect of a red card is modeled as a shift in the goal-scoring rate. A red card may harm the team that receives a red card and may be beneficial for their opponent. In...
Article
We investigate the effect of taking up daily cannabis use on the onset of homelessness using Australian data. We use a bivariate simultaneous mixed proportional hazard model to address potential biases due to common unobservable factors and reverse causality. We find that taking up daily cannabis use substantially increases the probability of trans...
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We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very s...
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The 1986 US Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was directed at tackling the problem of growing unauthorized migration through legalization of unauthorized immigrants, increasing border security and sanctioning employers who hired unauthorized immigrants. Our paper investigates how the IRCA affected the migration dynamics of male Mexican immi...
Article
Our paper investigates how winning a substantial lottery prize affects labour supply. Analysing data from Dutch State Lottery winners, we find that winning a lottery prize reduces labour earnings in the year of the winning, as well as in the years after the winning. This suggests that winning a lottery prize makes one work less hours. The effects a...
Article
Background: In the Czech Republic in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. Methods: We use 2012 survey data to examine the effect of a change in cannabis policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We estimate the effect of the policy change using a mixed p...
Article
If two partners smoke, their quit behavior may be related through correlation in unobserved individual characteristics and through common shocks. However, there may also be a causal effect whereby the quit behavior of one partner is affected by the quit decision of the other partner. If so, there is a spousal peer effect on the decision to quit smo...
Article
Statistics on workplace accidents do not always reflect workplace safety because workers under-report for fear of job-loss if they report having had an accident. Based on an analysis of fatal and non-fatal workplace accidents and road accidents in 15 EU-countries over the period 1995–2012, we conclude that there seems to be cyclical fluctuations in...
Article
Introduction: From the point of view of workplace safety, it is important to know whether having a temporary job has an effect on the severity of workplace accidents. We present an empirical analysis on the severity of workplace accidents by type of contract. Method: We used microdata collected by the Italian national institute managing the mand...
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Commentary to: Understanding and learning from the diversification of cannabis supply laws
Article
We study the impact of early cannabis use on the school to work transition of young men. Our empirical approach accounts for common unobserved confounders that jointly affect selection into cannabis use and the transition from school to work using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in which unobserved heterogeneities are drawn from...
Article
This paper investigates the effect of parental separation on homelessness. Previous studies have only been able to provide descriptive evidence that parental separations relate to reductions in housing quality and stability. Using a unique dataset of disadvantaged Australians who provide retrospective information on parental separation and housing...
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Full-text available
Our article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We find that the share of temporary workers (which includes a high...
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We present the results from a policy experiment in which single mothers on welfare were stimulated to enter the labor market and increase their work experience. The aim of the policy was not per se for single mothers to leave welfare completely but to encourage them to find a job if only a part-time job. Two policy instruments were introduced: an e...
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We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacement. The successfulness of managerial turnover dep...
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Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In addition, we study whether there are spillover effects...
Article
In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and...
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We analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom affects the educational performance of native Dutch children in primary schools. Using quantile regressions, our paper studies these peer effects at different parts of the test score distribution of native children. After accounting for selectivity in the allocation of immigrant studen...
Article
Using employees’ longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, part-time working women are as likely to receive training as full-time working women. Although we cannot r...
Article
From the point of view of workplace safety, it is important to know whether having a temporary job has an effect on the severity of workplace accidents. We present an empirical analysis on the severity of workplace accidents by type of contract. Method: We used micro data collected by the Italian national institute managing the mandatory insurance...
Article
We examine the effect of the sending-off of a player on the goal-scoring rates in FIFA World Cup matches in tournaments from 1998 to 2014. We use a hazard rate framework in which the effect of a red card is modeled as a shift in the goal-scoring rate. A red card may harm the team that receives a red card and may be beneficial for their opponent. In...
Article
Intergenerational immigrant integration is central to the economic growth and social development of many countries whose populations comprise a substantial share of the children and grandchildren of immigrants. In addition to basic demographics, relevant economic theories and institutional features are surveyed to assist in understanding these phen...
Article
This paper studies the causes and consequences of in-season changes of the head-coach of association football teams. We exploit data from the highest level of Dutch professional football during 14 successive seasons. An in-season change of the head-coach depends on recent match results and the difference between actual results and expectations as m...
Article
It is difficult to establish empirically whether or not there is positive assortative matching in the labor market. We use longitudinal data from a 24-hour relay marathon in Belluno, Italy, in which participants are affiliated with teams, to study group dynamics in a manner that closely resembles workers' accessions to and separations from firms. I...
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Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data re...
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Many immigrants in the Netherlands have poor Dutch language skills. They face problems in speaking and reading Dutch. Our paper investigates how these problems affect their labor market performance in terms of employment, hours of work and wages. We find that for female immigrants language problems have significantly negative effects on hourly wage...
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The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a high cross-country correlation of the unemployment r...
Article
This article presents an analysis of labour market dynamics, in particular of flows in the labour market and how they interact and affect the evolution of unemployment rates and participation rates, the two main indicators of labour market performance. Our analysis has two special features. First, apart from the two labour market states - employmen...
Article
Using employees’ longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, parttime working women are as likely to receive training as full-time working women. Although we cannot ru...

Citations

... By analyzing soccer players, we also contribute to a large body of economic research, which has frequently applied sports data to uncover otherwise hidden economic mechanisms ( Bar-Eli et al., 2020 ). Among others, this concerns the testing of theoretical hypotheses from game theory (e.g., Bhaskar, 2008;Chiappori et al., 2002;Kassis et al., 2021 ), identifying psychological drivers of cognitive performance (e.g., Apesteguia and Palacios-Huerta, 2010;González-Díaz and Palacios-Huerta, 2016 ), or deriving conclusions for public and labor economics (e.g., Caselli et al., 2022;Kahn and Sherer, 1988;Kleven et al., 2013;Lichter et al., 2017;Parsons et al., 2011;Principe and van Ours, 2022 ). ...
... In general, workers in smaller companies have a greater risk for accidents and injuries at the workplace [16,17]. Temporary employees are generally at higher risk of an accident [16][17][18]. In this study, temporary workers were involved in 17% of the accidents. ...
... Finally, moderator analyses will provide information about the robustness of the findings, by testing whether rank-order stability differs across sample and methodological characteristics. It is important to note that some potentially relevant moderators could not be examined in this meta-analysis, such as personality variables, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation (Chen & van Ours, 2018;Conger et al., 2010;Karney & Bradbury, 1995). The reason is that (a) information on the characteristics was not reported in most primary studies (i.e., personality variables), (b) the information that was available was not comparable across most primary studies (i.e., socioeconomic status), or (c) the very low number of samples that provided information on the characteristic would not have allowed for reliable conclusions (i.e., sexual orientation). ...
... However, assuming an immediate and constant response to MEL, might lead to misspecification. In Panel B, I include indicator variables for year of exposure (1-2 years, 3-6 years, and 7 or more years of the policy phase) to allow for a more flexible, non-linear response to the legislation (Chen & van Ours, 2022). These estimates support that the effects are not constant over time, but the longer a state has implemented a same-sex marriage law, the higher the health benefits. ...
... Rather than excluding unpartnered individuals, for whom our rubric does not allow for sexual orientation to be classified, the results of Table 10 repeat the analysis with these individuals included and regarded as heterosexuals (along the same lines as Chen & Van Ours, 2021). This has the advantage of increasing sample sizes and extending across partnered and unpartnered individuals, but this reclassification in itself is likely to misclassify some sexual minorities. ...
... Because poor health is particularly common among the elderly, old age is sometimes considered a critical risk factor for loneliness. However, although studies conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic found that average loneliness was highest in the oldest age group (80 years and older) 18,[21][22][23] , increased loneliness has also been reported in younger age groups 18,24 , and a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies found no significant relationship between age and loneliness 25 . Identifying with a group that is marginalized within a society (for example, ethnic/racial 26,27 or sexual orientation/identity 28-31 minority groups) is associated with higher average levels of loneliness, presumably because these groups are more likely to experience stressors such as discrimination or rejection, which increase the risk of loneliness [29][30][31][32][33] . ...
... cionados se deduce que las experiencias de victimización no son las mismas para todas las PsSH. En este sentido, las diferencias asociadas a la edad, el género, el origen o la situación residencial, y el impacto interseccional entre las mismas, adquieren una relevancia fundamental (Moschion & van Ours, 2021). Como consecuencia, destaca la importancia de la interseccionalidad como elemento clave del análisis de la realidad que afecta a las PsSH y a sus trayectorias de violencia y discriminación. ...
... There is a wealth of research that examines the factors that influence performance in professional football (Peeters & van Ours, 2021;Van Ours & Van Tuijl, 2016;Wilson et al., 2018). Yet, we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of how participating in pan-European competitions, such as the UEFA Champions League (CL), or UEFA Europa League (EL) impacts domestic performance. ...
... it provides a wide range of benefits to same-sex couples. Examples of those benefits are access to partner's health coverage (Gonzales, 2014;Carpenter, Eppink, Jr., & Mckay, 2021), improved mental health (Teo, Metheny, & Chum, 2021), health (Ogolsky, Monk, Rice, & Oswald, 2019), partnership stability (Chen & Ours, 2020;Kennedy & Dalla, 2020), and the rights to adopt children (LGBT parenting) (Takacs, Szalma, & Bartus, 2016). ...
... Contrary to the above, a growing body of research focuses on problem behaviors or anti-social behaviors (ASB) among young people (Basen-Engquist et al., 1996;Childs et al., 2011;Childs & Sullivan, 2013;Chun & Mobley, 2010;Dembo et al., 2010;Hair et al., 2009;Ward et al., 2021). Research on risk and protective factors for problem behaviors among young people holds that youth is characteristically a time of problematic behavior (C. . ...