Jan Baeyens's research while affiliated with Beijing University of Chemical Technology and other places

Publications (269)

Article
Electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the major causes of environmental concerns due to its large volume, high generation rate and toxic environmental burdens. Recent estimates put e-waste generation at about 54 million tonnes per annum with figures reaching approximately 75 million tonnes per annum by 2030. In this manuscript, the state-of-...
Article
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Future energy systems must call upon clean and renewable sources capable of reducing associated CO2 emissions. The present research opens new perspectives for renewable energy-based hydrogen production by water splitting using metal oxide oxidation/reduction reactants. An earlier multicriteria assessment defined top priorities, with MnFe2O4/Na2CO3/...
Article
Current energy systems have a significant environmental impact and contribute to the climate change. The future energy systems must call upon clean and renewable sources, capable of producing energy with low CO2 emission, hence partly decarbonizing the energy sector. Producing H2 by catalytic steam reforming of methanol (CSRM) is gaining interest f...
Article
A great deal of efforts has been put into studying the influence of the external macroenvironment for activated sludge to survive on microbial community succession, while granular internal spatial microenvironment should be given equal attention, because it is more directly involved in the information exchange and material transfer among microorgan...
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Watermelon is a fruit produced around the world. Unfortunately, about half of it—the rind—is usually discarded as waste. To transform such waste into a useful product like flour, a thermal treatment is needed. The drying temperature for the rind that produces flour with the best characteristics is most important. A multiobjective optimization (MOO)...
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The disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in deep stable geological formations is accepted at an international level to be the most promising option for its long-term management. The supercontainer concept is currently being considered as the Belgian reference design, wherein the waste will be stored in geological stable clay formations. T...
Article
Adsorption is a widely applied waste water treatment technology, especially for removing micro-pollutants and dyes of industrial effluents. Over the past decade, adsorbing metal oxide micron- and nano-particles have been successfully developed and investigated as adsorbents. In the present research, Mg-ferrite adsorbent particles were synthesized a...
Chapter
Concentrated solar energy is an unlimited source of heat, and therefore widely applied in solar electricity generation or in the application of industrial heat. The intermittent nature of solar energy imposes the use of a heat storage when a continuous operation is considered. Solar irradiance is only available during the daytime. Preliminary exper...
Article
An analysis has been completed for a comprehensive set of pressure drop data from the acceleration region of seven vertical, dilute-phase pneumatic conveyors. The data provided are for materials with terminal velocities from 2.05 to 22.4 m/s conveyed in risers with heights from 3 to 11.2 m and internal diameters from 0.028 to 0.083 m. Particle velo...
Article
Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs), consisting of nanoparticles and a polymeric matrix, have been proven high-efficiency separation media for gas separations. The interface engineering between the particles and polymeric matrixes is the key-point for MMMs to display an excellent separation performance. Herein, an amine modified ZIF-90 (ZIF-90-NH2) is di...
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Thermal water splitting by redox reactants could contribute to a hydrogen-based energy economy. The authors previously assessed and classified these thermo-chemical water splitting redox reactions. The Mn3O4/MnO/NaMnO2 multi-step redox cycles were demonstrated to have high potential. The present research experimentally investigated the MnOx/Na2CO3...
Article
CaO and MgO are important industrial raw materials commonly produced by either the decomposition of calcium carbonate at about 900 °C, or the calcination of dolomite, a mixed calcium and magnesium carbonate, calcined either to MgO.CaCO3 at about 750 °C, or to MgO.CaO at 900 °C. ln this research, the decomposition reaction of 104–147 μm dolomite and...
Article
Natural gas is a major fuel source for power generation and heating applications. To partly decarbonize its use, a promising technology is the production of hydrogen, easy to be mixed into the natural gas grid, or directly used in fuel cells and industrial kilns. The thermo-catalytic decomposition of CH4 into H2 and C is gaining interest. The produ...
Conference Paper
The current benchmark for CSP is the molten salt tower. The next generation of CSP plant should keep the general architecture of the current benchmark – namely the molten salt tower with its direct storage – but should operate at higher temperatures in order to downsize its solar field through higher efficiency. Solid particles are the best candida...
Article
Herein, we report an fast layer-by-layer assembly strategy via spraying method using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to heal the defects of P84 membranes which are easily formed by phase inversion preparation method. The viscous PDMS is spray-atomized and uniformly adhered on the surface of the P84 membrane. An ultra-short assembly time of 20-30 s is f...
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Spent grains from microbreweries are mostly formed by malting barley (or malt) and are suitable for a further valorization process. Transforming spent grains from waste to raw materials, for instance, in the production of nontraditional flour, requires a previous drying process. A natural convection solar dryer (NCSD) was evaluated as an alternativ...
Article
Fluidized beds are recognized as important gas-solid contacting technology in chemical synthesis reactors, in combustion/gasification/pyrolysis of coal and biomass, in multiple drying applications, in solar thermal energy capture and storage, and more recently also in the production of hydrogen by either catalytic steam reforming of organic feedsto...
Article
Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D-COFs) with permanent porosity, structural controllability, and excellent stability, are receiving ongoing attention in metal-free heterogeneous photocatalysis of organic conversions. In order to construct high optical performance COFs for selective organic transformation, herein, 2D porphyrin-based do...
Article
Light-driven catalysis on catalytically versatile group VIII metals, which has been widely used in thermal catalysis, holds great potential in solar-to-chemical conversion. We report a novel photocatalysis process for the selective hydrogenolysis of aryl ethers in lignin on a heterogeneous catalyst of non-precious Ni nanoparticles supported on ZrO2...
Article
Wheat straw is a favorable cell carrier in the caproate fermentation system, yet its smooth surface limits the biofilm formation. In this study, the modification of wheat straw was conducted using three different chemical methods and the influence of its modified surface on the caproate fermentation was investigated. Results showed that the sodium...
Article
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When dealing with powders, a fundamental knowledge of their physical parameters is indispensable, with different methods and approaches proposed in literature. Results obtained differ widely and it is important to define standards to be applied, both toward the methods of investigation and the interpretation of experimental results. The present res...
Preprint
BTDA-TDI/MDI (P84) has been widely applied in gas separation, however, pinholes or defects on P84 membrane surfaces were formed in the membrane preparation process and directly weaken its separation performance. Herein, we developed an ultrafast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer-by-layer assembly strategy via spraying method to heal the defects of...
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The steel industry represents about 7% of the world’s anthropogenic CO2 emissions due to the high use of fossil fuels. The CO2-lean direct reduction of iron ore with hydrogen is considered to offer a high potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and this direct reduction of Fe2O3 powder is investigated in this research. The H2 reduction reaction kinetics...
Article
An analysis has been completed for a comprehensive set of vertical, dilute-phase pneumatic conveying pressure drop data from an investigation by Flatow. The data were collected in the established flow region for eight different materials conveyed in 0.05-, 0.10-, 0.20-m internal diameter, 20-m tall steel risers. Particle velocities derived from the...
Article
Gas adsorption is widely used in air pollution control, with mainly activated carbon and zeolites used as adsorbents. Although physical and chemisorption can be used, most air pollution applications involve physical adsorption, now also increasingly investigated for CO2 abatement from combustion gas. Empirical adsorption treatments have been prese...
Article
Triazine-based N-rich covalent organic polymer (TBN-1) was prepared for effective removal and selective detection of Hg²⁺ from model solutions. The π-π conjugated structure formed by alternating electron-deficient triazine group and electron-rich benzene group promotes the electron transfer and strong fluorescence. The ultra-high specific surface a...
Article
Biological production of n-caproate through chain elongation is economically attractive, yet its application is limited due to the low caproate production and high cost of substrates. In this study, caproate production from food waste (FW) was carried out in an integrated system using the biofilm of C. kluyveri. The biofilm formed onto the carrier...
Article
In this work, a new structured linoleic-based hydroxytetrahydrofuran (HTHF) ester lubricant with excellent properties was developed. A synthesis route through regioselective enzymatic hydration was established, combining highly selective epoxidation with an intramolecular epoxide ring-opening reaction. The results proved that the enzymatic-chemical...
Article
The development of de-dusting hot gases is of increasing importance and growing interest, especially in advanced power generation systems and (petro-)chemical processes. High temperature de-dusting has advantages of exceeding dew points, enhancing energy recovery at higher temperatures, protecting the downstream heat recovery equipment from fouling...
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Flocculation is a mainstream technology for the provision of safe drinking water, but is limited due to the ineffectiveness of conventional flocculants in removing trace low-molecular-weight emerging contaminants. We described a synthesis strategy for the development of high-performance nanoflocculants (hydrophobic-organic-chain-modified metal hydr...
Article
During the seventh International Conference on Bio-refineries (ICB2019), held in Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa) in August 2019, the production of bio-energy from various biomass feedstock was one of the main focus domains of the conference. Submitted papers were peer review and a selection was made in terms of a Special Issue on "Biomass a...
Article
Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has been a hot research topic in recent years. The integration of microalgae cultivation using CO2 from power plants and factories has been introduced as an environmentally friendly approach. However, strains with high biomass productivity are required to achieve a sustainable integrated platform. Improving p...
Article
Hydrogen is a top chemical and potential fuel. Its sustainable production from biomass or water splitting gains importance. Whereas sole thermal water splitting requires too high temperatures, thermo-chemical water splitting cycles offer a solution at moderate temperatures. Such cycles were investigated over the past decades, mostly by small-scale...
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The in situ analysis of industrial processes, mostly conducted in opaque equipment is difficult. Whereas previously the positron emission technique was successfully applied to study the flow and mixing in gas-solid and liquid-solid systems using radio-active tracer particles, research on imaging a radio- active tracer gas is scarce. The present pap...
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The worldwide production of polymeric foam materials is growing due to their advantageous properties of light weight, high thermal insulation, good strength, resistance and rigidity. Society creates ever increasing amounts of poly-urethane (PU) waste. A major part of this waste can be recycled or recovered in order to be put into further use. The P...
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Pyrolysis is widely used in the chemical industry to produce e.g. carbon black from heavy fuel oil (HFO) and coke from coal, to convert post-consumer plastic waste into chemicals, to transform heavier hydrocarbons into lighter ones, and to thermo-chemically treat biomass. Whereas a lot of work has been presented on the fast pyrolytic production of...
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Buildings are increasingly considered as a key to de-carbonize the economy, with improvements in their energy efficiency and in their heating systems as primary targets. The heating systems have a moderate lifespan, are renewed more frequently, and the integration of renewable energy sources is increasingly important. The energy selecting problem i...
Article
A techno-economic assessment of a 100 MWe concentrated solar power (CSP) plant with 8 h thermal energy storage (TES) capacity is presented, in order to evaluate the costs and performance of different storage configurations when integrating the CSP plant electricity into a spot market. Five different models were considered: a two-tank direct sensibl...
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Hydrogen is a common reactant in the petro-chemical industry and moreover recognized as a potential fuel within the next 20 years. The production of hydrogen from biomass and carbohydrate feedstock, though undoubtedly desirable and favored, is still at the level of laboratory or pilot scale. The present work reviews the current researched pathways....
Article
CCS, Carbon Capture and Storage, is considered a promising technology to abate CO2 emissions from point sources. The present review deals with the principle of post-combustion capture techniques, including thermal or pressure swing principles, adsorption or absorption, and electrical swing or membrane separation processes. Opportunities and challen...
Article
A major action to reduce CO2 emissions is replacing fossil fuels by renewable energy sources. Matching the energy supply and demand by the mostly intermittent renewable resources (wind, solar, wave) is hence a hot topic, and energy storage has become crucial. Thermo-chemical energy storage (TCES) has a higher energy density than sensible and latent...
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Electricity from concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, gains an increasing interest and importance. To fully match the supply-demand principle, CSP processes include a thermal energy storage and back-up fuel supply. Novel CSP concepts are needed with specific targets of increased efficiency and reliability, and of reduced CAPEX and OPEX. The use o...
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Presently, hydrogen is for ∼50% produced by steam reforming of natural gas – a process leading to significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG). About 30% is produced from oil/naphtha reforming and from refinery/chemical industry off-gases. The remaining capacity is covered for 18% from coal gasification, 3.9% from water electrolysis and 0.1% from...
Article
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Very few industrial processes only produce the target product, but other materials not desired by the manufacturer are also obtained. These unwanted products constitute the residues of the processes and their discharge contributes to the overall environmental impact. The concept of preventing pollution is gaining increased importance, and certain i...
Article
The efficient 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) production remains challenging due to the limited tolerance of HMF to strong Brønsted acids. Herein, this work provides a new strategy for effective HMF production from fructose via purposefully constructing a halogen-functionalized heterogeneous catalyst. Specifically, a novel bromine-functionalized tria...
Article
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes are widely used for bioethanol separation. However, the network cavity size r3 of PDMS membranes is generally smaller than ethanol kinetic radius (0.225 nm), which limits the transport of ethanol molecules and weakens the pervaporation performance. Herein, we proposed a particle-driven, ultrafast-cured strategy...
Article
The abatement of CO2 emitted from combustion is a hot research topic. Current CO2 capture techniques of adsorption, absorption, membrane separation and cryogenics involve high investment and operation costs. For moderate and high temperature exhaust gas, carbonation/decarbonation cycles offer an attractive alternative. An objective assessment metho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work investigates the performance of the software ANSYS Fluent(R) and OpenFOAM(R), at their current state of development, to study the relevant characteristics of bubbling fluidized beds (BFB) with Geldart A, B and D particles, for which 3D and pseudo-2D experimental devices have been developed to measure the pressure drop and solids volume fr...
Article
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Long tubes with small internal diameter find increasing applications in indirect concentrated solar receivers using an Upflow Bubbling Fluidized Bed of Geldart-A powders as heat carrier. Although successfully demonstrated for tubes of 0.5 to 1 m length, longer tubes are required to increase the solar energy capture efficiency and capacity. The flui...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of ANSYS Fluent ® and OpenFOAM ® , at their current state of development, to study the relevant bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) characteristics with Geldart A, B and D particles. Design/methodology/approach For typical Geldart B and D particles, both a three-dimensional cylindrical and a...
Article
As the most promising biofuel, biobutanol is considered a competitive substitute of fossil fuels. Efficient separation of biobutanol from fermentation broth requires the application of membrane technologies. The commonly used polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane cannot meet the required demand due to its discontinuous and highly polluting thermal f...
Article
The worldwide utilization of fossil energy, including its specific application as transportation fuel, significantly contributes to the continuous increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Several solutions have been promoted or scheduled to reduce CO2 emissions. Among these solutions, the development of renewable energy resources, such as bio...
Article
As the most promising biofuel, biobutanol is considered a competitive substitute of fossil fuels. Efficient separation of biobutanol from fermentation broth requires the application of membrane technologies. The commonly used polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane cannot meet the required demand due to its discontinuous and highly polluting thermal f...
Article
Furfural is globally produced at 300,000 tons per year by the hydrolysis of biomass rich in hemicellulose. Exploring novel materials for efficient adsorption of furfural from the aqueous solution is thus highly required. Herein, we demonstrated COF-300 as a high-efficient adsorbent for furfural via studies on time-dependent adsorption, isotherms, d...
Conference Paper
The solar horizontal bubbling fluidized bed concept developed within the SOLPART research project can be used as a solar receiver-reactor. This application offers a considerable industrial potential, as illustrated in the paper further to different experiments and industrial contacts. The most demanding application is the calcination of limestone,...
Conference Paper
Using group A particle suspensions as heat transfer fluid in concentrated solar power plants leads to higher efficiency and lower costs. Combined cycle power generation becomes possible with e.g. a topping Brayton air turbine cycle and an advanced steam power block as bottoming cycle. This hybrid combined cycle solar tower power plant will be teste...
Conference Paper
Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) are a promising technology for electricity generation. Indirect particle receivers can operate at high receiver temperatures and foster the application of advanced power generation cycles. The present work specifically considers the scale-up of the CNRS concept, referred to as Upflow Bubbling Fluidized Bed (UBF...
Article
The advanced treatment of industrial wastewater often calls upon the use of highly-efficient treatment methods to remove hazardous pollutants prior to the effluent discharge. Adsorption can be used towards removing micro-pollutants. Congo Red dye is widely used in the paper and textile industry, and residual quantities are present in the process ef...
Article
Fluidized particle-in-tube solar absorbers are increasingly investigated both as receiver in a solar power concept, or as receiver/reactor for the thermal decomposition of minerals or for gas-solid reactions such as CO2 looping concepts and thermo-chemical energy storage. Such applications require a high heat transfer rate from the tube wall to the...
Article
The detection of phenomena occurring inside multiphase opaque reactors is difficult. The present work investigated the novel application of a non-intrusive ultrasound monitoring technique to the complex case of gas–solid fluidized beds. Comparisons of data obtained from video-imaging and theoretical calculations with the ultrasound signal data demo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The main objective of the SOLPART H2020 project is to develop, at a pilot scale (30-50 kW), a high temperature (800-1000°C) 24h/day solar process suitable for particle treatment in energy intensive non-metallic minerals’ industries. Calcium carbonate decomposition (Calcination reaction: CaCO3= CaO + CO2) is the most representative and most endother...
Article
Soybean oil is widely used as cooking oil, whereas the soybean cake is a valuable ingredient for animal food. The extraction of soybean oil is an energy-intensive process, with additional significant impact on the environment via the wastewater and hexane emissions. The research investigated different ways to minimize the energy consumption. In a t...
Article
Determination of rate parameter for kinetics of nitrification The nitrification process is the bottleneck step in the total nitrogen removal. The formation of nitrate is considered as the rate limiting step in the whole process and its kinetics determine the design of the nitrification reactor. Heavy metals (Zn2+ and Cu2+) and different organic com...
Article
This study defines and assesses the selection criteria for suitable particulate materials to be used in an upflow bubbling fluidized bed (UBFB) or dense up-flow powder circulation system for solar energy capture and storage. The main criteria identified are based on the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties, attrition behavior, and the con...
Article
The key to achieve an economically more attractive concentrated solar power plant is to work at higher operating temperatures, allowing both higher power conversion efficiencies resulting in a smaller heliostat field for a given energy output, and higher temperature ranges in the storage tanks, with increased energy storage density and smaller size...