James Jaccard's research while affiliated with New York University and other places

Publications (288)

Article
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Background Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) encompasses several common, costly, diagnoses including interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome that are poorly understood and inadequately treated with conventional medical therapies. Behavioral strategies, recommended as a first-line...
Article
Although youth anxiety treatment research has focused largely on severe and impairing anxiety levels, even milder anxiety levels including levels that do not meet full criteria for a diagnosis can be impairing and cause for concern. There is need to develop and test viable treatments for these concerning anxiety levels to improve functioning and re...
Article
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Background Child maltreatment recidivism substantially increases the likelihood of adverse life outcomes, but there is little evidence that family preservation services are effective at reducing recidivism. Mothers in child welfare have very high rates of trauma exposure; maternal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an intervention target that...
Article
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Objective: Although implementation science has taken hold in many areas of psychiatric services research, a need remains for developing effective, low-cost interventions for specific subpopulations with mental health conditions. The experimental therapeutics approach has gained momentum as a framework for developing effective interventions. Howeve...
Article
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Background We leveraged a recent efficacy trial to investigate directionality between parent anxiety and child anxiety at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up, and the potential role of parent psychological control as a mediator. We also explored child age and sex as moderators. Method Two-hundred and fifty-four children were randomized to individ...
Article
Background: Medical gender affirmation (i.e., hormone use) is one-way transgender (trans) people affirm their gender and has been associated with health benefits. However, trans people face stigmatization when accessing gender-affirming healthcare, which leads some to use non-prescribed hormones (NPHs) that increase their risk for poor health. Pu...
Article
Objective: This study sought to characterize change mechanisms that underlie gastrointestinal (GI) symptom improvement in IBS patients undergoing two dosages of CBT for IBS as compared to a nondirective education/support (EDU) condition. Method: Data were collected in the context of a large clinical trial that randomized 436 Rome III-diagnosed IBS...
Article
We conducted a dismantling design treatment study comparing individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), CBT targeting parents’ reinforcement skills (CBT + Reinf), and CBT targeting parents’ relationship skills (CBT+ Relat) in 341 youths with primary anxiety diagnoses. At posttreatment, youths in CBT with parent involvement had lower anxiety than...
Article
Purpose The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of a new young adult–centered metaintervention to improve treatment engagement among those with serious mental illness. Methods Young adults, clinic staff, and policy makers provided feedback on the intervention, which is a two-module engagement program provided by a clini...
Article
Objective: This study sought to characterize change mechanisms that underlie gastrointestinal (GI) symptom improvement in IBS patients undergoing two dosages of CBT for IBS as compared to a nondirective education/support (EDU) condition. Method: Data were collected in the context of a large clinical trial that randomized 436 Rome III-diagnosed IBS...
Article
Monte Carlo simulations are widely used in the social sciences to explore the viability of analytic methods in the face of assumption violations. Simulation results, however, may not be applicable to substantive research applications because they often are conducted under idealized rather than realistic conditions. Shortcomings of simulation design...
Article
Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, often disabling gastrointestinal (GI) disorder for which there is no satisfactory medical treatment but is responsive to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Purpose To evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a minimal contact version of CBT (MC-CBT) condition for N = 145 for IBS relative to...
Article
Aims: The primary purpose of this study is to understand how community violence exposure is associated with both common and unique variance characterizing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among young adults living in a low-resourced setting. Methods: Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey design. Participants were recruited from p...
Article
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Background: Young adults have elevated rates of mental health disorders, yet they often do not receive consistent care. The challenge of continuing to engage young adults has been pervasive worldwide. Few engagement interventions have been designed for young adults with serious mental illness. Just Do You is a theoretically guided engagement inter...
Article
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Background: Gender differences in alcohol use are more substantial among early adolescents in China than in the United States, presumably because of more permissive drinking norms for boys than girls in Chinese culture. This study tested a theory that gender differences in early experimentation with alcohol can be reduced through general parenting...
Article
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Importance Adolescent well care visits provide opportunities for clinicians to facilitate parent-adolescent communication (PAC) to reduce pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and alcohol-related harm among adolescents. Objective To test the effect of brief parent-targeted interventions delivered in primary care settings on PAC about sexual...
Article
Objective: Treatment specificity and long-term recovery mediation of peer-involvement group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) and parent-involvement CBT (PCBT) were investigated for youth anxiety disorders. Method: 240 youths with primary anxiety diagnoses participated in a randomized controlled efficacy trial. Youth anxiety and peer variables...
Article
Objective: Hoarding disorder (HD) is a common and potentially debilitating psychiatric disorder. Thus far, psychological treatments have yielded modest effects and/or were time-consuming and costly to deliver. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a brief group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with HD and to test hy...
Article
Objective Randomized clinical trials of augmentation strategies for youth with treatment-resistant anxiety disorders do not exist. This report presents findings from an efficacy trial of attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) as an augment for this population compared with attention control training (ACT). Method Sixty-four youths (34 boys;...
Article
We describe randomized explanatory trials (RETs), a framework for evaluating interventions to prevent adolescent problem behaviors. The approach maps intervention components onto hypothesized mediators of program effects and then uses structural equation modeling to evaluate whether the program changed those mediators and if assumptions of mediator...
Article
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Background: There is a need for safe and effective IBS treatments that provide immediate and sustained improvement of IBS symptoms, particularly among more severe patients. The aim was to assess long-term clinical response of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with reference to IBS education. Methods: A total of 436 Rome III-diagnosed IBS patien...
Article
Background & aims: Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it would be helpful to identify those most likely to respond to specific treatments, yet few factors have been identified that reliably predict positive outcome. We sought to identify pretreatment baseline characteristics that associate with gastrointestinal symptom improvement...
Article
Background: The effects of parent-based interventions on adolescent alcohol use are unclear, including what factors moderate intervention effects. This study examines the effects of parent-based interventions on adolescent alcohol use and whether the treatment effects vary by participants' characteristics and intervention characteristics. Methods...
Research
Purpose: To describe a framework, coined here as randomized explanatory trials (RETs), for program evaluation as applied to interventions to prevent adolescent problem behaviors. RETs are grounded in randomized trial design but synthesize key theoretical, methodological, and analytic issues into a new evaluation framework. The approach maps program...
Article
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Background & aims: There is an urgent need for safe treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that relieve treatment-refractory symptoms and their societal and economic burden. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment that has not been broadly adopted into routine clinical practice. We performed a randomized controlled trial...
Article
Full-text available
Research on mental health service engagement has been dominated by attempts to identify determinants of engagement. Such knowledge is important but incomplete. Once identified, program designers need to use evidence-based principles to design programs to bring about changes in the empirically identified determinants. Research is relatively silent o...
Working Paper
Background: Gender differences in alcohol use are more substantial among early adolescents in China than in the United States, presumably because of more permissive drinking norms for boys than girls in Chinese culture. Objectives: This research tests a theory that gender differences in early experimentation with alcohol can be negated or reduced t...
Working Paper
Abstract: Background: The effects of parent-based interventions on adolescent alcohol use are unclear, including what factors moderate intervention effects. This study examines the effects of parent-based interventions on adolescent alcohol use and whether the treatment effects vary by participants' characteristics and intervention characteristics....
Article
Pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) are increasingly expected to know how to assess, diagnose, and treat a wide range of mental health problems in children and adolescents. For many PPCPs, this means learning and performing new practice behaviors that were not taught in their residency training. Typical continuing education approaches to engag...
Article
Working-class educational paths tend to be associated with elevated drinking. Little research has examined whether disproportionate alcohol use among vocationally oriented youth begins before or after the start of their vocational education. The present study analyzes a large sample of Russian middle-school students (N = 1269; mean age = 14.9), com...
Article
Little research has connected underage drinking with adolescent information management strategies. The present study uses longitudinal analyses to theoretically link adolescent lying with parental “monitoring knowledge,” and, in turn, with prospective adolescent drinking, in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. seventh- and eighth-grade...
Article
Given the size of the Hispanic bilingual market in the United States, it is important to understand the relative effectiveness of using English versus Spanish when advertising to these consumers. This research proposes that Hispanic bilinguals' cultural stereotypes about the users of Spanish living in America are a potent determinant of which langu...
Article
Objective : The present study aimed to (a) identify what mental health profiles exist among emerging adults with a history of childhood contact with Child Protective Services (CPS), and (b) examine whether the level of young-adult functioning varies across the profiles. Method : Latent profile analysis was conducted with a nationally representativ...
Article
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Background Transition-age youth have elevated rates of mental disorders, and they often do not receive services. This is a serious public health concern, as mental health conditions persist into adulthood. Continuing to engage this population has been a pervasive challenge for the mental health care system worldwide. Few mental health interventions...
Article
Examining the sources of health communication that young adults with mental health challenges receive regarding service use is critical to curbing the societal concern of unmet mental health needs of this population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 59 young adults, all of whom were diagnosed with a mood disorder and used public mental...
Article
The distinction between behavior and outcomes is important when using behavioral decision theory for program design. A behavior is an action that someone performs, usually in a given setting at a given point in time. By contrast, an outcome is an end state that often (but not always) results from the performance of behaviors. Engaging in unprotecte...
Article
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This article draws insights from several disciplines to propose an integrated perspective on mechanisms underlying narrative persuasion. One approach to narratives emphasizes a deictic shift into the narrative, resulting in an absorbed state of processing and a loss of one’s sense of self (e.g., transportation, narrative engagement, identification)...
Article
Suicide is among leading causes of death for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. While symptoms of depression are consistently supported factors involved in suicidal ideation, findings on the role of positive symptoms of psychosis have been mixed with limited understandings of risk. Accordingly, this study aimed to identify the pathways of influen...
Article
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Objective: This project considered how inattention to left-out variable error and measurement correspondence in the assessment of explicit measures can result in upwardly biased estimates of the predictive utility of implicit measures designed to predict health behaviors. Method: A pilot study (n = 96) used a cross-sectional design to predict beer...
Article
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Purpose: Patient-centered health care recognizes that adolescents and parents are stakeholders in adolescent health. We investigate adolescent and parent interest in receiving information about health topics and parent-teen communication from clinicians. Methods: Ninety-one parent-adolescent dyads in one practice completed individual interviews....
Conference Paper
Purpose: Suicide is increasingly considered a crisis in countries throughout the world with rates of adolescent suicide on the rise in many regions of the world. The present study examined gender and age differences in suicide ideation as a function of depression and anxiety in youth from 21 different countries. The study also explored how family a...
Conference Paper
Purpose:Behavioral health conditions cause the greatest burden of disability among young adults. Yet, we know young adults often do not seek professional help. Research has long examined utilization as a single behavioral option focused on evaluation of seeking professional help without taking into account the full ‘set of behavioral options’ (i.e....
Article
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Background: In old age, both apathy and depression have been associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study evaluated the mediating role of cardiovascular risk factors in the relationship of apathy and mood symptoms with incident CVD. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 1,790 community-dwelling older individuals (70-...
Article
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A significant number of sexually active youth experience poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes, including unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and human immunodeficiency virus infection.1 Nearly half (47%) of all high school students in the United States have ever had sex and more than one-third (34%) are sexually active.1 E...
Article
The current study presents an approach for empirically identifying tailoring variables at midtreatment of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols for youth with anxiety disorders that can be used to guide moves to second-stage treatments. Using 2 independent data sets (Study 1 N = 240, M age = 9.86 years; Study 2 N = 341; M age = 9.53 years),...
Article
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Greenwald, Banaji, and Nosek (2015) present a reanalysis of the meta-analysis by Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013) that examined the effect sizes of Implicit Association Tests (IATs) designed to predict racial and ethnic discrimination. We discuss points of agreement and disagreement with respect to methods used to synthesize t...
Article
The modal distribution of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is commonly interpreted as showing high levels of implicit prejudice among Americans. These interpretations have fueled calls for changes in organizational and legal practices, but such applications are problematic because the IAT is scored on an arbitrary psychological metric. The prese...
Article
Full-text available
The modal distribution of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is commonly interpreted as showing high levels of implicit prejudice among Americans. These interpretations have fueled calls for changes in organizational and legal practices, but such applications are problematic because the IAT is scored on an arbitrary psychological metric. The prese...
Chapter
This chapter describes the design of parent-based interventions to prevent adolescent problem behaviors based on theories that are rooted in adolescent self regulation. It integrates traditional attitude theories of social behavior with theories of split second decision making that rely on models of memory, including sensory memory, short term memo...
Article
Full-text available
The modal distribution of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is commonly interpreted as showing high levels of implicit prejudice among Americans. These interpretations have fueled calls for changes in organizational and legal practices, but such applications are problematic because the IAT is scored on an arbitrary psychological metric. The prese...
Article
Greenwald, Banaji and Nosek (2015) present a reanalysis of the meta-analysis by Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard and Tetlock (2013) that examined the effect sizes of Implicit Association Tests designed to predict racial and ethnic discrimination. We discuss points of agreement and disagreement with respect to methods used to synthesize the IAT st...
Article
Obtaining accurate information about gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is critical to achieving the goals of clinical research and practice. The accuracy of patient data is especially important for functional GI disorders (e.g., IBS) whose symptoms lack a biomarker and index illness severity and treatment response. Retrospective patient-reported data...
Conference Paper
Young people are increasingly utilizing mobile and internet technology to seek sexual and reproductive health information. It is essential to better understand how that technology can be used to meet their needs in accessing information and care. In order to capitalize on the ubiquity of technology in young people’s lives, Planned Parenthood develo...
Article
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Psychometricians strive to eliminate random error from their psychological inventories. When random error affecting tests is diminished, tests more accurately characterize people on the psychological dimension of interest. We document an unusual property of the scoring algorithm for a measure used to assess a wide range of psychological states. The...
Article
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Young adults with serious mental health conditions (SMHCs) often do not engage continuously with mental health services, and there are few engagement interventions designed for them. This qualitative study presents a blueprint for conceptualizing and developing an engagement intervention designed for young adults with SMHCs. The blueprint includes...
Article
This study examined the effects of a two-year maintenance treatment assessed at 1 and 2 years following Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Sixty-one of 100 clinic-referred children (M age = 4 years, 4 months) originally diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) completed the standard treatment and were then randomized to PCIT mainten...
Article
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This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination. The meta-analysis estimates the heterogeneity of effects within and across 2 domains of intergroup bias (interracial and interethnic), 6 crit...
Article
Background: Patient reported outcomes (PRO) assessing multiple GI symptoms are central to characterizing the therapeutic benefit of novel agents for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Common approaches that sum or average responses across different illness components must be unidimensional and have small unique as opposed to common variance to avoid a...
Article
This study uses a social capital and collective socialization lens to examine nonacademic factors in middle school that predict students’ failure to complete high school, and focuses on youth who engage in adolescent problem behaviors of smoking cigarettes, sexual intercourse, delinquency, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Our area of interest was th...
Article
Research on contraceptive counseling of adolescents in clinics and service delivery settings is considered. The provider context as well as the developmental context of adolescence is characterized and their implications for contraceptive counseling are explicated. After reviewing research on the effectiveness of contraceptive counseling, it was co...
Article
Background: Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. Limited research has explored how alcohol venues facilitate HIV transmission. Methods: We spatially mapped locations of alcohol venues in a Dominican tourism town and conducted a venue-based survey of...
Article
Patient-reported outcomes assessing multiple gastrointestinal symptoms are central to characterizing the therapeutic benefit of novel agents for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Common approaches that sum or average responses across different illness components must be unidimensional and have small unique variances to avoid aggregation bias and misi...
Article
Full-text available
Most past research on the effects of early pubertal timing on girls' depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior has focused on either age of menarche or has combined multiple indicators of development into a single index of puberty. Past research has rarely examined both the onset of puberty such as age of menarche, as well more psychologically me...
Article
Data from 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative database, are used to test complex models addressing the developmental links between child adoption or non-adoption and suicidal ideation across adolescence, early young adulthood, and young adulthood. Diverse developmental dynamics are tested, wh...
Article
The present study examined cognitive and emotional correlates of sexual decision-making among three groups of Dominican adolescents: (a) Dominican youth who were born and raised in New York City, (b) Dominican youth who recently immigrated to New York City from the Dominican Republic, and (c) Dominican adolescents who were born and currently reside...