James I. Hudson's research while affiliated with McLean Hospital and other places

Publications (267)

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Initial controlled trials of the serotonergic antidepressant fluvoxamine showed promise for treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in outpatients, although more recent outpatient data have been less encouraging. Turning to studies of hospitalized patients, a retrospective cohort study by Hoertel and associates in 2021 found a markedly reduced risk...
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Substance use is associated with poor outcomes for individuals with early psychosis. Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is an evidence-based approach that helps families to reduce substance use, engage in treatment, and improve family wellbeing, but it has not yet been studied for psychosis and substance use. The present study aime...
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Purpose Ostracism is a highly aversive interpersonal experience. Previous research suggests that it can increase consumption of highly palatable food in some individuals, but decrease it in others. Thus, we developed the Cyberball-Milkshake Task (CMT), to facilitate research investigating individual differences in ostracism’s effects on consumption...
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Automated, wearable cameras can benefit health-related research by capturing accurate and objective information about individuals’ daily experiences. However, wearable cameras present unique privacy- and confidentiality-related risks due to the possibility of the images capturing identifying or sensitive information from participants and third part...
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Background Genetics and biology may influence the age at onset of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aims of this study were to determine whether common genetic variation contributes to AN age at onset and to investigate the genetic associations between age at onset of AN and age at menarche. Methods A secondary analysis of the Psychiatric Genomics Consor...
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Background and Objectives Anabolic‐androgenic steroid (AAS) use has become a major worldwide substance use disorder, affecting tens of millions of individuals. Importantly, it is now increasingly recognized that some individuals develop uncharacteristically violent or criminal behaviors when using AAS. We sought to summarize available information o...
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Purpose Gamma‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) abnormalities have been implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite substantial interest in probing GABA in vivo, human imaging studies relying on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have generally been hindered by technical challenges, including GABA’s relatively low concentration and spect...
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Objective: Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder; however, few evidence-based treatments are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dasotraline, a novel dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in adults with BED. Methods: Patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of BED (intent-to-tr...
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A number of studies have examined the association of the three major eating disorders - anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder - with metabolic syndrome, or with individual components of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Present evidence suggests that anorexia nervosa confers...
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Objective.: The aim of this fixed-dose study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dasotraline in the treatment of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Methods.: Patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria for BED were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with fixed doses...
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Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying...
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Background Dasotraline is a long-acting dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with a PK profile characterized by slow absorption and a t½ of 47-77 hours, permitting once-daily dosing. In a previous flexible dose study, dasotraline demonstrated significant efficacy in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). The aim of this confirmatory fi...
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Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co‐occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg], twin‐based = 0.23‐0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation...
Preprint
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Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg], twin-based=0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlati...
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Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness¹, affecting 0.9–4% of women and 0.3% of men2–4, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50–60%⁵. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders⁶, and outcomes are unacceptably poor⁷. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nerv...
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Background: The increased mutational burden for rare structural genomic variants in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders has so far not yielded therapies targeting the biological effects of specific mutations. We identified two carriers (mother and son) of a triplication of the gene encoding glycine decarboxylase, GLDC, presumably...
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Supraphysiologic-dose anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with physiologic, cognitive, and brain abnormalities similar to those found in people at risk for developing Alzheimer's Disease and its related dementias (AD/ADRD), which are associated with high brain β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau (tau-P) protein levels. Suprap...
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Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from...
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Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from...
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Objective: The literature on eating disorders in older males is still very limited. We assessed the relationship between aging male symptomatology and eating behavior in middle-aged and older men. Method: We distributed anonymous questionnaires to men aged 40–75 years living in or near Innsbruck, Austria, covering demographic items, current eating...
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Objective: In two Phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (NCT01718483 and NCT01718509 at ClinicalTrials.gov), lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) reduced binge eating days/week in adults with moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder (BED). We describe the effects of LDX (50mg and 70mg) on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS; exploratory endpo...
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Background Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is known to be associated with other psychiatric disorders, such as body image disorders, conduct disorder/sociopathy, and other substance use disorders (SUD) – but the causal pathways among these conditions remain poorly delineated. Methods We created a directed acyclic graph to diagram hypothesize...
Preprint
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Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and serious eating disorder, occurring in ~1% of individuals. Despite having the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder, little is known about the aetiology of AN, and few effective treatments exist. Global efforts to collect large sample sizes of individuals with AN have been highly successful, and a...
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Objectives Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder in the US, with a lifetime prevalence of 2.8%. Disturbances in reward circuitry have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Dasotraline is a novel and potent dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with slow absorption and a long half-life resulting in stable plasma conc...
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Little is known about the acute effects of antidepressant treatments on brain glutamate and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) levels, and their association with clinical response. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) we examined longitudinally the effects of citalopram on glutamine/glutamate ratios and GABA levels in the pregenual...
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Importance The ability of pharmacotherapies to prevent relapse and maintain efficacy with long-term treatment in psychiatric conditions is important. Objective To assess lisdexamfetamine dimesylate maintenance of efficacy in adults with moderate to severe binge-eating disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants A multinational, phase 3, double-bl...
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Background: Millions of individuals have used illicit anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), but the long-term cardiovascular associations of these drugs remain incompletely understood. Methods: Using a cross-sectional cohort design, we recruited 140 experienced male weightlifters 34 to 54 years of age, comprising 86 men reporting ≥2 years of cumul...
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Objective: This study examined the time course of efficacy-related endpoints for lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) versus placebo in adults with protocol-defined moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED). Methods: In two 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, adults meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized 1:1 to receive p...
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Background A 12-month, open-label extension study assessed the long-term safety and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). Methods Adults (aged 18–55 y) with BED who completed 1 of 3 antecedent studies were enrolled in a 52-week, open-label extension study (dose optimization, 4 weeks [initial...
Article
Many individuals in clinical samples with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience high levels of functional impairment. However, little is known about the levels of functional impairment experienced by individuals with BPD in the general community. To address this issue, we compared overall and domain-specific (educational/occupational; so...
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The current study sought to expand on prior reports of the validity and reliability of the CAINS (CAINS) by examining its performance across diverse non-academic clinical settings as employed by raters not affiliated with the scale's developers and across a longer test-retest follow-up period. The properties of the CAINS were examined within the Ma...
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Recent studies of long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users reported amygdala structural and functional connectivity abnormalities. We assessed white matter microstructure in the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a major associative bundle of the amygdala network. Diffusion weighted images acquired from 9 male long-term AAS users...
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The maintenance of normal body weight is disrupted in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) for prolonged periods of time. Prior to the onset of AN, premorbid body mass index (BMI) spans the entire range from underweight to obese. After recovery, patients have reduced rates of overweight and obesity. As such, loci involved in body weight regulation m...
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In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questio...
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Background: Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that lower cerebral levels of glutathione (GSH), associated with increased oxidative stress, may contribute to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, no studies to date have investigated brain GSH levels in individuals with OCD. Methods: Twenty-nine individuals with OCD and 25 a...
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Background: Accumulating case reports have described tendon rupture in men who use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However, no controlled study has assessed the history of tendon rupture in a large cohort of AAS users and comparison nonusers. Hypothesis: Men reporting long-term AAS abuse would report an elevated lifetime incidence of tendon...
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The efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) versus placebo in binge eating disorder (BED) was evaluated in two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Adults (study 1, n=383; study 2, n=390) meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized (1:1) to placebo or LDX (50 or 70 mg/d) dose titration; optimized doses were main...
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Recent guidelines recommend a physiologic approach to non-intensive care unit (ICU) inpatient glucose management utilizing basal-bolus with correctional (BBC) insulin over traditional sliding scale insulin monotherapy. Unfortunately, few studies exist using a BBC approach restricted to human insulins (regular and NPH). This study evaluated changes...
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Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) have been linked to a range of problematic behaviors, but AAS use is still sometimes portrayed as more benign than other forms of classical drug abuse. To address this issue, we compared the prevalence of anti-social behaviors among adolescent AAS users, non-AAS illicit drug users, and drug non-users. We examined...
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The Management of Schizophrenia in Clinical Practice (MOSAIC), a disease-based registry of schizophrenia, was initiated in December 2012 to address important gaps in our understanding of the impact and burden of schizophrenia and to provide insight into the current status of schizophrenia care in the US. Recruitment began in December 2012 with ongo...
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Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with psychiatric symptoms including increased aggression as well as with cognitive dysfunction. The brain effects of long-term AAS use have not been assessed in humans. This multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain compared 10 male weightlifters reporting long-term AAS use with 10...
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To determine the acute effects of cigarette smoking on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones and subjective states as a function of the menstrual cycle in nicotine-dependent women. Seventeen healthy nicotine-dependent women were studied during the follicular and/or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Because of observation of a possib...
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The anterior cingulate cortex is implicated in the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined functional and neurochemical abnormalities specifically in the rostral subdivision of the ACC (rACC) in OCD patients. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an emotional counting Stroop task...
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AimsTo assess the frequency and severity of hypogonadal symptoms in male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misusers who have discontinued AAS use.DesignCross-sectional, naturalistic.SettingOutpatient facility.ParticipantsTwenty-four male former long-term AAS users and 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, recruited by advertisement in Massachus...
Article
Binge-eating disorder (BED), a public health problem associated with psychopathological symptoms and obesity and possibly with metabolic syndrome, lacks approved pharmacotherapies. To examine the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a dextroamphetamine prodrug, to treat moderate to severe BED. We performed a randomized, double-blind,...
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Objectives: Disgust is a well-established phenomenon with known neurobiological correlates. However, it remains unclear how or whether disgust changes with clinical treatment, because few longitudinal studies have tracked the association of disgust vulnerability and clinical symptoms in patient populations. Methods: We assessed disgust propensit...
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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and its core Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) factor-analytically derived phenotypes aggregate in families. To potentially inform future conceptualizations of BPD, this study examined the familial aggregation and co-aggregation with BPD of 3 additional candidate phenotypes for BPD psy...
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Background: Intensive residential treatment (IRT) is effective for severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We sought to characterize predictors and course of response to IRT. Methods: Admission, monthly, and discharge data were collected on individuals receiving IRT. We examined the association between baseline character...
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Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14 860 ancestrally matched contr...
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Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently display co-morbid mental disorders. These disorders include 'internalizing' disorders (such as major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders) and 'externalizing' disorders (such as substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). It is hypothesized that these disorders...
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Background Cross-national population data from the WHO World Mental Health surveys are used to compare role attainments and role impairments associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Methods Community surveys assessed 23 000 adults across 12 countries for BED, BN and ten other DSM-IV mental disorders using the WHO Compo...