James Fogarty's research while affiliated with Trinity Washington University and other places

Publications (152)

Article
Background Developers, designers, and researchers use rapid prototyping methods to project the adoption and acceptability of their health intervention technology (HIT) before the technology becomes mature enough to be deployed. Although these methods are useful for gathering feedback that advances the development of HITs, they rarely provide usable...
Article
Managing privacy of online content is difficult. We present a simple social access control where sharers specify test questions of shared knowledge, such as "what is our school mascot," instead of creating authenticated accounts and specifying explicit access control rules for all potential accessors. This demo will let attendees interact with our...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Developers, designers, and researchers use rapid prototyping methods to project the adoption and acceptability of their health intervention technology (HIT) before the technology becomes mature enough to be deployed. Although these methods are useful for gathering feedback that advances the development of HITs, they rarely provide usable...
Article
Depression is common but under-treated in patients with cancer, despite being a major modifiable contributor to morbidity and early mortality. Integrating psychosocial care into cancer services through the team-based Collaborative Care Management (CoCM) model has been proven to be effective in improving patient outcomes in cancer centers. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Parents and their school-age children can impact one another's sleep. Most sleep-tracking tools, however, are designed for adults and make it difficult for parents and children to track together. To examine how to design a family-centered sleep tracking tool, we designed DreamCatcher. DreamCatcher is an in-home, interactive, shared display that agg...
Conference Paper
Mobile mental health interventions have the potential to reduce barriers and increase engagement in psychotherapy. However, most current tools fail to meet evidence-based principles. In this paper, we describe data-driven design implications for translating evidence-based interventions into mobile apps. To develop these design implications, we anal...
Article
Full-text available
N-of-1 tools offer the potential to support people in monitoring health and identifying individualized health management strategies. We argue that elicitation of individualized goals and customization of tracking to support those goals are a critical yet under-studied and under-supported aspect of self-tracking. We review examples of self-tracking...
Article
Accessibility barriers in mobile applications (apps) can make it challenging for people who have impairments or use assistive technology to use those apps. Ross et al.’s epidemiology-inspired framework emphasizes that a wide variety of factors may influence an app's accessibility and presents large-scale analysis as a powerful tool for understandin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although exploring alternatives is fundamental to creating better interface designs, current processes for creating alternatives are generally manual, limiting the alternatives a designer can explore. We present Scout, a system that helps designers rapidly explore alternatives through mixed-initiative interaction with high-level constraints and des...
Article
Although self-tracking offers potential for a more complete, accurate, and longer-term understanding of personal health, many people struggle with or fail to achieve their goals for health-related self-tracking. This paper investigates how to address challenges that result from current self-tracking tools leaving a person's goals for their data uns...
Conference Paper
A digital calculator is one of the most frequently used touch screen applications. However, keypad-based character input in existing calculator applications requires precise, targeted key presses that are time-consuming and error-prone for many screen readers users. We introduce GestureCalc, a digital calculator that uses target-free gestures for a...
Conference Paper
Keypad-based character input in existing digital calculator applications on touch screen devices requires precise, targeted key presses that are time-consuming and error-prone for many screen reader users. We demonstrate GestureCalc, a digital calculator that uses target-free gestures for arithmetic tasks. It allows eyes-free target-less input of d...
Chapter
Tangible interfaces are a method of computer interaction that supports communication through the human kinesthetic system, a network of sensory inputs and outputs that allow the body to perceive the physical world. By leveraging the physical properties of objects identified by the kinesthetic system, a tangible interface makes it possible to intera...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying and planning strategies that support a healthy lifestyle or manage a chronic disease often require patient-provider collaboration. For example, people with healthy eating goals often share everyday food, exercise, or sleep data with health coaches or nutritionists to find opportunities for change, and patients with irritable bowel syndr...
Article
Full-text available
The rise of affordable sensors and apps has enabled people to monitor various health indicators via self-tracking. This trend encourages self-experimentation, a subset of self-tracking in which a person systematically explores potential causal relationships to try to answer questions about their health. Although recent research has investigated how...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although the exploration of variations is a key part of interface design, current processes for creating variations are mostly manual. We present Scout, a system that helps designers explore many variations rapidly through mixed-initiative interaction with high-level constraints and design feedback. Past constraint-based layout systems use low-leve...
Conference Paper
Accessibility issues in mobile apps make those apps difficult or impossible to access for many people. Examples include elements that fail to provide alternative text for a screen reader, navigation orders that are difficult, or custom widgets that leave key functionality inaccessible. Social annotation techniques have demonstrated compelling appro...
Conference Paper
We conduct the first large-scale analysis of the accessibility of mobile apps, examining what unique insights this can provide into the state of mobile app accessibility. We analyzed 5,753 free Android apps for label-based accessibility barriers in three classes of image-based buttons: Clickable Images, Image Buttons, and Floating Action Buttons. A...
Conference Paper
The absence of tactile cues such as keys and buttons makes touchscreens difficult to navigate for people with visual impairments. Increasing tactile feedback and tangible interaction on touchscreens can improve their accessibility. However, prior solutions have either required hardware customization or provided limited functionality with static ove...
Article
Full-text available
Critical flicker frequency (CFF) is the minimum frequency at which a flickering light source appears fused to an observer. Measuring CFF can support early diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), a condition affecting up to 80% of people with cirrhosis of the liver. However, adoption of CFF measurement in clinical practice has been hamper...
Conference Paper
Self-tracked health data can help people and their health providers understand and manage chronic conditions. This paper examines personal informatics practices and challenges in migraine, a condition characterized by unpredictable, intermittent, and poorly-understood symptoms. To investigate how people with migraine track and use data related to t...
Article
Full-text available
Computing affects how scientific knowledge is constructed, verified, and validated. Rapid changes in hardware capability, and software flexibility, are coupled with a volatile tool and skill set, particularly in the interdisciplinary scientific contexts of oceanography. Existing research considers the role of scientists as both users and producers...
Conference Paper
Mobile accessibility is often a property considered at the level of a single mobile application (app), but rarely on a larger scale of the entire app "ecosystem," such as all apps in an app store, their companies, developers, and user influences. We present a novel conceptual framework for the accessibility of mobile apps inspired by epidemiology....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We consider why and how women track their menstrual cycles, examining their experiences to uncover design opportunities and extend the field's understanding of personal informatics tools. To understand menstrual cycle tracking practices, we collected and analyzed data from three sources: 2,000 reviews of popular menstrual tracking apps, a survey of...
Conference Paper
Diagnostic self-tracking, the recording of personal information to diagnose or manage a health condition, is a common practice, especially for people with chronic conditions. Unfortunately, many who attempt diagnostic self-tracking have trouble accomplishing their goals. People often lack knowledge and skills needed to design and conduct scientific...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many people appropriate social media and online communities in their pursuit of personal health goals, such as healthy eating or increased physical activity. However, people struggle with impression management, and with reaching the right audiences when they share health information on these platforms. Instagram, a popular photo-based social media...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most web applications are designed as one-size-fits-all, despite considerable variation in people's expertise, physical abilities, and other factors that impact interaction. For example, some web applications require the use of a mouse, precluding use by many people with severe motor disabilities. Other applications require laborious manual input t...
Conference Paper
We present Group Touch, a method for distinguishing among multiple users simultaneously interacting with a tabletop computer using only the touch information supplied by the device. Rather than tracking individual users for the duration of an activity, Group Touch distinguishes users from each other by modeling whether an interaction with the table...
Conference Paper
We introduce interaction proxies as a strategy for runtime repair and enhancement of the accessibility of mobile applications. Conceptually, interaction proxies are inserted between an application's original interface and the manifest interface that a person uses to perceive and manipulate the application. This strategy allows third-party developer...
Conference Paper
Patient-generated data can allow patients and providers to collaboratively develop accurate diagnoses and actionable treatment plans. Unfortunately, patients and providers often lack effective support to make use of such data. We examine patient-provider collaboration to interpret patient-generated data. We focus on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS),...
Conference Paper
In families composed of parents and children, the health of parents and children is often interrelated: the health of children can have an impact on the health of parents, and vice versa. However, the design of health tracking technologies typically focuses on individual self-tracking and self-management, not yet addressing family health in a unifi...
Article
Full-text available
The authors present an approach for designing self-monitoring technology called "semi-automated tracking," which combines both manual and automated data collection methods. Through this approach, they aim to lower the capture burdens, collect data that is typically hard to track automatically, and promote awareness to help people achieve their self...
Conference Paper
People stop using personal tracking tools over time, referred to as the lapsing stage of their tool use. We explore how designs can support people when they lapse in tracking, considering how to design data representations for a person who lapses in Fitbit use. Through a survey of 141 people who had lapsed in using Fitbit, we identified three use p...
Conference Paper
The UbiComp community's research in mental health has often focused on depression, but we believe there are many additional opportunities. As participants in this workshop, we will present our initial work to create a portable and self-administered version of the Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) test. We focus on hepatic encephalopathy, but the tes...
Article
Background: Paper food and gastrointestinal (GI) symptom journals are used to help irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients determine potential trigger foods. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, usability, and clinical utility of such journals as a data collection tool. A secondary aim was to explore a method for analyzin...
Article
Aims and objectives: This study aimed to test feasibility of a home-based sensor system that is designed to assess mobility and daily activity patterns among Korean American older adults (KAOAs; n = 6) and explore sensor technology acceptance among participants. Background: Home-based sensors have the potential to support older adults' desire to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent research examines how and why people abandon self-tracking tools. We extend this work with new insights drawn from people reflecting on their experiences after they stop tracking, examining how designs continue to influence people even after abandonment. We further contrast prior work considering abandonment of health and wellness tracking t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many people struggle with efforts to make healthy behavior changes, such as healthy eating. Several existing approaches promote healthy eating, but present high barriers and yield limited engagement. As a lightweight alternative approach to promoting mindful eating, we introduce and examine crumbs: daily food challenges completed by consuming one f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In situ self-report is widely used in human-computer interaction, ubiquitous computing, and for assessment and intervention in health and wellness. Unfortunately, it remains limited by high burdens. We examine unlock journaling as an alternative. Specifically, we build upon recent work to introduce single-slide unlock journaling gestures appropriat...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Seventy percent of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) identify certain foods as triggers for their symptom flare-ups. To help identify potential trigger foods, practitioners often rely on patient food and gastrointestinal (GI) symptom journaling. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and usability of a novel fo...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: To describe an interdisciplinary and methodological framework for applying single case study designs to self-experimentation in personalized health. The authors examine the framework's applicability to various health conditions and present an initial case study with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: An in-depth lite...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
" We introduce the first forearm-based EMG input system that can recognize fine-grained thumb gestures, including left swipes, right swipes, taps, long presses, and more complex thumb motions. EMG signals for thumb motions sensed from the forearm are quite weak and require significant training data to classify. We therefore also introduce a novel a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Personal informatics applications support capture and access of data related to an increasing variety of dimensions of everyday life. However, such applications often fail to effectively support diagnostic self-tracking, wherein people seek to answer a specific question about themselves. Current approaches are therefore difficult, tedious, and erro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current models of how people use personal informatics systems are largely based in behavior change goals. They do not adequately characterize the integration of self-tracking into everyday life by people with varying goals. We build upon prior work by embracing the perspective of lived informatics to propose a new model of personal informatics. We...
Conference Paper
Although food journaling is understood to be both important and difficult, little work has empirically documented the specific challenges people experience with food journals. We identify key challenges in a qualitative study combining a survey of 141 current and lapsed food journalers with analysis of 5,526 posts in community forums for three mobi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Food choices are among the most frequent and important health decisions in everyday life, but remain notoriously difficult to capture. This work examines opportunities for lightweight photo-based capture in mobile food journals. We first report on a survey of 257 people, examining how they define healthy eating, their experiences and challenges wit...
Patent
An interactive concept learning image search technique that allows end-users to quickly create their own rules for re-ranking images based on the image characteristics of the images. The image characteristics can include visual characteristics as well as semantic features or characteristics, or may include a combination of both. End-users can then...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Food choices are among the most frequent and important health decisions in everyday life, but remain notoriously difficult to capture. This work examines opportunities for lightweight photo-based capture in mobile food journals. We first report on a survey of 257 people, examining how they define healthy eating, their experiences and challenges wit...
Article
Pixel-based methods have the potential to fundamentally change how we build graphical interfaces, but remain difficult to implement. We introduce a new toolkit for pixel-based enhancements, focused on two areas of support. Prefab Layers helps developers write interpretation logic that can be composed, reused, and shared to manage the multi-faceted...
Article
Sharing personal informatics data to social networking sites is a common and well-studied practice in both research and commercial applications, but there have been substantial mistakes and failures within this space that offer important lessons to application developers. We discuss three common types of failures salient in our own work, other rese...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As people continue to adopt technology-based self-tracking devices and applications, questions arise about how personal informatics tools can better support self-tracker goals. This paper extends prior work on analyzing and summarizing self-tracking data, with the goal of helping self-trackers identify more meaningful and actionable findings. We be...
Article
Interactive end-user training of machine learning systems has received significant attention as a tool for personalizing recognizers. However, most research limits end users to training a fixed set of application-defined concepts. This paper considers additional challenges that arise in end-user support for defining the number and nature of concept...
Patent
A multiple model data exploration system and method for running multiple machine-learning models simultaneously to understand and explore data. Embodiments of the system and method allow a user to gain a greater understanding of the data and to gain new insights into their data. Embodiments of the system and method also allow a user to interactivel...
Conference Paper
Personal informatics applications in a variety of domains are increasingly enabled by low cost personal sensing. Although applications capture fine-grained activity for self reflection, sharing is generally limited to high level summaries. There are potential advantages to fine-grained sharing, but also potential harms. To help investigate this com...
Conference Paper
We describe the design and evaluation of POND, a Pattern-Oriented Nutrition Diary. POND is a mobile-phone food diary designed using a theory-driven approach to address a common challenge users report when using food diaries on mobile phones: the amount of effort required to create food entries in relation to the perceived self-benefit of self-monit...
Patent
Full-text available
Access to resource(s) intended to be shared with specific groups of individuals is controlled using concise tests of shared knowledge instead of (or in addition) to accounts and access control lists. Users can readily learn the concept and choose questions that will control the access by the desired group with little effort. Such questions can be r...
Conference Paper
We describe the design and evaluation of POND, a Pattern-Oriented Nutrition Diary. POND is a mobile-phone food diary designed using a theory-driven approach to address a common challenge users report when using food diaries on mobile phones: the amount of effort required to create food entries in relation to the perceived self-benefit of self-monit...
Conference Paper
User interface toolkit research has traditionally assumed that developers have full control of an interface. This assumption is challenged by the mashup nature of many modern interfaces, in which different portions of a single interface are implemented by multiple, potentially mutually distrusting developers (e.g., an Android application embedding...