James F Sallis's research while affiliated with Australian Catholic University and other places

Publications (812)

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Urban liveability is a global priority for creating healthy, sustainable cities. Measurement of policy-relevant spatial indicators of the built and natural environment supports city planning at all levels of government. Analysis of their spatial distribution within cities, and impacts on individuals and communities, is crucial to ensure planning de...
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We examined associations of micro-scale environment attributes (e.g., sidewalks, street crossings) with three physical activity (PA) measures among Hispanic/Latino adults (n = 1776) living in San Diego County, CA. Systematic observation was used to quantify micro-scale environment attributes near each participant’s home. Total PA was assessed with...
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Background A better understanding of the extent to which psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity are specific to locations would inform intervention optimization. Purpose To investigate cross-sectional associations of location-general and location-specific variables with physical activity and sedentary time in three common l...
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted life in extraordinary ways impacting health and daily mobility. Public transit provides a strategy to improve individual and population health through increased active travel and reduced vehicle dependency, while ensuring equitable access to jobs, healthcare, education, and mitigating climate change. Howev...
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Background Latina women are less likely to report engaging in leisure-time physical activity (PA) than non-Latina white women. This study evaluated the 24-month impact of a faith-based PA intervention targeting Latinas. Methods The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial of a PA intervention or cancer screening comparison condition, with ch...
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Background This study examined the strength, shape and direction of associations of accelerometer-assessed overall, school- and non-school-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) with BMI among adolescents across the world. Second, we examined whether these associations differed by study site and sex. Methods Cr...
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Tragically, the Unites States (US) surpassed one million documented deaths due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A convincing association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and poorer outcomes associated with COVID-19 infection has already been demonstrated and communicated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in...
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This Series on urban design, transport, and health aimed to facilitate development of a global system of health-related policy and spatial indicators to assess achievements and deficiencies in urban and transport policies and features. This final paper in the Series summarises key findings, considers what to do next, and outlines urgent key actions...
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City planning policies influence urban lifestyles, health, and sustainability. We assessed policy frameworks for city planning for 25 cities across 19 lower-middle-income countries, upper-middle-income countries, and high-income countries to identify whether these policies supported the creation of healthy and sustainable cities. We systematically...
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An essential characteristic of a healthy and sustainable city is a physically active population. Effective policies for healthy and sustainable cities require evidence-informed quantitative targets. We aimed to identify the minimum thresholds for urban design and transport features associated with two physical activity criteria: at least 80% probab...
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Climate change poses serious threats to public health and is exacerbating health inequities. Policy changes are essential to mitigate climate change impacts on human and planetary health. The purpose was to describe recommendations by the Policy and Advocacy Subgroup of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) Climate Change, Behavior Change and He...
Preprint
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Benchmarking and monitoring urban design and transport features is critical to achieving local and international health and sustainability goals. However, most urban indicator frameworks use coarse spatial scales that only allow between-city comparisons or require expensive, technical, local spatial analyses for within-city comparisons. This study...
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Benchmarking and monitoring of urban design and transport features is crucial to achieving local and international health and sustainability goals. However, most urban indicator frameworks use coarse spatial scales that either only allow between-city comparisons, or require expensive, technical, local spatial analyses for within-city comparisons. T...
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Despite experiencing health inequities, less is known about neighborhood environments and physical activity among Hispanic/Latino adults compared to other populations. We investigated this topic in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Hispanic/Latino adults in the San Diego, California area of the U.S. completed measures...
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Park use is associated with health, yet our understanding of park features related to their use is limited. Singapore's parks were audited for 30 micro-features, then geospatial analysis characterized micro-features scores for parks nearest to participants' homes. Adults (3,435) reported their park use and park-based physical activity. Using linear...
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Introduction: This study examines the associations of neighborhood environments with BMI, HbA1c, and diabetes across 6 years in Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods: Participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos San Diego site (n=3,851, mean age=39.4 years, 53.3% women, 94.0% Mexican heritage) underwent assessment of metaboli...
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Active transportation (AT) is widely viewed as an important target for increasing participation in aerobic physical activity and improving health, while simultaneously addressing pollution and climate change through reductions in motor vehicular emissions. In recent years, progress in increasing AT has stalled in some countries and, furthermore, th...
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Latinas report disproportionately low physical activity (PA) levels and related health conditions. Reducing chronic disease in Latinas requires interventions to increase and maintain health-enhancing PA levels; yet limited intervention studies have examined PA maintenance among Latinas. The present study evaluated the efficacy during the maintenanc...
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Background/objectives Little is known about the separate or combined effects of state and national nutrition policies regulating food and beverages in schools on child overweight/obesity (OV/OB) and related racial/ethnic disparities. We investigated the influence of school nutrition policies enacted in California, independently and in combination w...
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Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation can increase risk for higher blood pressure or hypertension, while greater neighborhood safety and walkability may protect against hypertension. Large-scale prospective research, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, is lacking. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between neighborhoo...
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Background Active travel to school contributes to multiple physical and psychosocial benefits for youth, yet population rates of active travel to school are alarmingly low in the USA and many other countries. Though walking school bus interventions are effective for increasing rates of active travel to school and children’s overall physical activit...
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At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US, 42.5% of adults and 18.5% of children had obesity1,2 and less than 50% of the population met physical activity recommendations.³ Emerging evidence indicates that physical activity declined during the pandemic, likely due in part to school closures and restricted access to common indoor and outdoor pl...
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As the U.S. population ages, communities must adapt to help older adults thrive. Built environment features, like safe sidewalks and crosswalks, provide the foundation for age- and physical activity-friendly communities. Controlled studies are needed to evaluate advocacy training programs that instruct and support seniors to advocate for more walka...
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Background: Built environment approaches to promoting physical activity can provide economic value to communities. How best to assess this value is uncertain. This study engaged experts to identify a set of key economic indicators useful for evaluation, research, and public health practice. Methods: Using a modified Delphi process, a multidiscip...
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Objectives The use of online imagery by non-local observers to conduct remote, centralized collection of streetscape audit data in international studies has the potential to enhance efficiency of collection and comparability of such data for research on built environments and health. The objectives of the study were to measure (1) the consistency i...
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Socioeconomic factors appear to impact mental health conditions such as depression, but little is known about the relative and combined role of neighborhood and personal socioeconomic deprivation among Hispanics/Latinos. This study examined cross-sectional associations of neighborhood and personal socioeconomic deprivation with depression symptoms...
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Nature underpins human well-being in critical ways, especially in health. Nature provides pollination of nutritious crops, purification of drinking water, protection from floods, and climate security, among other well-studied health benefits. A crucial, yet challenging, research frontier is clarifying how nature promotes physical activity for its m...
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Background Performing regular muscle-strengthening activity has numerous health benefits, including improvements in blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, and lean body mass. Despite the disproportionate prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic disease in Latinas (diabetes, hypertension, obesity), most do not report meeting the national guidelines for musc...
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Objectives To compare hospitalisation rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality for patients with COVID-19 who were consistently inactive, doing some activity or consistently meeting physical activity guidelines. Methods We identified 48 440 adult patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis from 1 January 2020 to 21 October 2020, with at le...
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Active travel (AT) provides an opportunity to alleviate the physical inactivity and climate crises contributing to the global chronic disease burden, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Though AT shows promising links to reduced CVD risk, prior studies relied on self-reported AT assessment. In the present study, device-measured and self-report...
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Valid and reliable measures are needed to better understand the relationship between physical activity and crime. This paper provides a comprehensive psychometric evaluation of measures developed in the Safe and Fit Environments (SAFE) Study to assess a crime-PA conceptual framework. In addition to assessing the basic psychometric properties of eac...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Most older adults spend the majority of their waking hours sitting, which increases their risk of chronic diseases. Given the challenges many older adults face in engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity, understanding the health benefits of decreasing sitting time and increasing the number of sit-to-stand transitions is needed...
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Background Many older adults spend the majority of their waking hours sitting, which increases their risk of chronic diseases. Given the challenges that many older adults face when engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, understanding the health benefits of decreasing sitting time and increasing the number of sit-to-stand transitions is...
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Introduction This study identified correlates of active commute mode, transport physical activity (TPA), and intention to use light rail transit (LRT) at a large university in advance of a new LRT connection to campus. Methods Staff, faculty and students completed a campus-wide travel survey in 2017. Multivariable logistic and linear regression mo...
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Background Microscale environmental features are usually evaluated using direct on-street observations. This study assessed inter-rater reliability of the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes, Global version (MAPS-Global), in an international context, comparing on-street with more efficient online observation methods in five countries with v...
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Introduction Only international studies can provide the full variability of built environments and accurately estimate effect sizes of relations between contrasting environments and health-related outcomes. The aims of the International Physical Activity and Environment Study of Adolescents (IPEN Adolescent) are to estimate the strength, shape and...
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Purpose This study examined dietary indicators, sedentary time, and physical activity as potential mediators of the association between TV time and BMIz in youth. Design Cross-sectional study in 2 independent samples of youth. Setting Data collection occurred by mail and telephone for adolescents and either at home or in medical settings for chil...
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Excessive screen time among adolescents increases risk for overweight/obesity. Having electronic devices in the adolescent’s bedroom is associated with more screen time. The present study expanded on previous studies by also examining portable personal electronic devices and social media membership as correlates of screen time use and total sedenta...
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Within the away-from-home food environment there is a need to account for individual exposure (e.g., frequency of visitation) to that environment. The present study examined the consumer environment in both proximal and visited restaurants and their association with childrens’ diet quality and anthropometrics. A cross-sectional analysis used baseli...
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Purpose and objectives: Walking school bus programs increase children's physical activity through active travel to school; however, research to inform large-scale implementation of such programs is limited. We investigated contextual factors, implementation outcomes, and student outcomes in existing walking school bus programs in the United States...
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Objectives This study was designed to assess patterns of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in a sample of adults in a rural setting from a low-income Sub-Saharan African country (Malawi). The patterns of PA and sedentary behaviour in Malawi were compared with US data collected and analysed using the same methodolog...
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Background Investigation of physical activity and dietary behaviors across locations can inform “setting-specific” health behavior interventions and improve understanding of contextual vulnerabilities to poor health. This study examined how physical activity, sedentary time, and dietary behaviors differed across home, school, and other locations in...
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Physical activity is vital for the health and well-being of youth and adults, although the prevalence of physical activity continues to be low. Promoting active transportation or human-powered transportation through policy, systems, and environmental change is one of the leading evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity regardless of...
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Walkable, activity-friendly neighbourhoods are recommended for their benefits for non-communicable diseases, environmental sustainability, and economic performance. But how do activity-friendly neighbourhoods function during infectious disease pandemics like COVID-19? The spread of COVID-19 in some of the world’s dense cities has raised concerns ab...
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The study's main aim was to examine whether adults' accelerometer-based physical activity and sedentary time mediated the associations of neighbourhood physical environmental perceptions with body mass index (BMI) and weight status across 10 high- and middle-income countries. Data from the IPEN Adult study, an observational multi-country study (n =...
Preprint
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Valid and reliable measures are needed to better understand the relationship between physical activity and crime. This paper provides a comprehensive psychometric evaluation of measures developed in the Safe and Fit Environments (SAFE) Study to assess a conceptual framework. In addition to assessing the basic psychometric properties of each measure...
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Creating more physical activity–supportive built environments is recommended by the World Health Organization for controlling noncommunicable diseases. The IPEN (International Physical Activity and Environment Network) Adult Study was undertaken to provide international evidence on associations of built environments with physical activity and weigh...
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Purpose: To test the validity of the Ecological Video Identification of Physical Activity (EVIP) computer vision algorithms for automated video-based ecological assessment of physical activity in settings such as parks and schoolyards. Methods: 27 hours of video were collected from stationary overhead video cameras across 22 visits in 9 sites ca...
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Introduction Numerous studies have found associations between characteristics of urban environments and risk factors for dementia and cognitive decline, such as physical inactivity and obesity. However, the contribution of urban environments to brain and cognitive health has been seldom examined directly. This cohort study investigates the extent t...
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Background: Leisure-time and transport activity domains are studied most often because they are considered more amenable to intervention, but to date evidence on these domains is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine patterns of socio-demographic correlates of adults' leisure-time and transport physical activity and how these associ...
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Background: The IPEN International Physical Activity and Environment Network Adolescent project was conducted using common study protocols to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with adolescents' physical activity and overweight/obesity using data from 15 countries. Co...
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Active Living Research (ALR) was supported as a National Program by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2001–2016 to build an evidence base to inform solutions to the epidemic of inactive lifestyles. ALR was designed to help develop a new interdisciplinary research area to understand environmental and policy influences on physical activity that coul...
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The study aimed to examine associations of neighborhood built environments and proximity of food outlets (BE measures) with body weight status using pooled data from an international study (IPEN Adult). Objective BE measures were calculated using geographic information systems for 10,008 participants (4463 male, 45%) aged 16-66 years in 14 cities....
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Background: To examine relations between parents' perceived neighborhood recreation environments and multiple measures of adolescent physical activity (PA). Methods: Participants (N = 928; age 14.1 [1.4] y, 50.4% girls, and 33.4% nonwhite/Hispanic) and their parents were recruited. Teen moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed with 7-day acce...