James D. Hitchmough's research while affiliated with The University of Sheffield and other places

Publications (16)

Article
Full-text available
Forb species abundance and richness determine both ecological and social values in naturalistic meadows in urban landscapes. However, species loss and dominance through competition are naturally part of meadow ecological processes often leading on productive soils to large grass biomass in the absence of appropriate management. Sowing density is a...
Article
Full-text available
Urban forests in northern Europe are threatened by climate change and biosecurity risks, and in response, city planners are urged to select a wider portfolio of tree species to mitigate the risks of species die-off. However, selecting the right species is a challenge, as most guidance available to specifiers focuses on ecosystem service delivery ra...
Article
Full-text available
The multiple benefits of ‘nature’ for human health and well‐being have been documented at an increasing rate over the past 30 years. A growing body of research also demonstrates the positive well‐being benefits of nature‐connectedness. There is, however, a lack of evidence about how people's subjective nature experience relates to deliberately desi...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout Europe climate change has rendered many plant species used in contemporary urban planting design less fit for use in public greenspaces. A growing evidence base exists for the ecological value of introducing non-native species, yet urban policy and practice guidance continues to portray non-native species negatively, focusing on their as...
Article
Full-text available
Urban populations experience the multiple health and well-being benefits of nature predominantly via urban green infrastructure. If this is to be designed and managed optimally for both nature and people, there is an urgent need for greater understanding of the complex relationships between human aesthetic experience, well-being and actual or perce...
Article
The conifer, Juniperus seravschanica is a keystone species within Oman, yet its decline is typical of other arid-adapted, montane tree species. This research aimed to identify causes of decline and subsequent viable conservation strategies; strategies that may have wider application for tree conservation. Decline in J. seravschanica is typified by...
Article
Interactions between two canopy layers in a designed perennial herbaceous plant community were investigated over a period of four and a half years to see whether it was possible to create an urban landscape vegetation that was both flower rich for an extensive time period and resistant to weed colonization at very low levels of maintenance by sowin...
Article
Climate change predictions pose a serious threat to the survival and distribution of Juniperus seravschanica in the northern mountains of Oman. A better understanding of this species responses to ecological changes is essential, if the potentially harmful effects of climate change are to be mitigated. One such step is to understand how changes in c...
Article
This paper explores how contemporary ecological science, and aut-ecology in particular, can improve the sustainability of designed vegetation. It is proposed that ecological understanding can be applied to design at three levels: 1) as representation, 2) as process, and 3) as aut-ecology, representing a gradient from the least to the most profound....
Article
There are fundamental difficulties in trying to apply conservation notions constructed around created objects and artefacts in which there is a clearly defined physical end point, to the management of vegetation in which meaningful endpoints are rather difficult to identify. These issues become particularly tangled when dealing with plants, not as...
Article
The whole plan of the London Olympic Park in Stratford, including the planting strategy, is dictated by the park's Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP), which sets out the range of habitats and species the park needs to support. One of the planning conditions for the park was that it must provide 50 hectares of new habitat. In reality this means that mos...
Article
Establishment and management of North American prairie grasses by field sowing was investigated at the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley, Surrey, in Southern England. Untreated seed of little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash); indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash); and prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis (A.Gray...

Citations

... extracted from species' geographic ranges. Alternatively, combinations of ecological and plant functional traits can be used to identify stress-tolerant species for urban forestry (Petruzzellis et al., 2021;Watkins et al., 2021). For example, plant drought strategies can be described along a continuum ranging from 'tolerance' to 'avoidance' (Klein, 2014;Volaire, 2018) using leaf-level traits, such as leaf size, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf water potential at turgor loss point (Ψ tlp ; Tabassum et al., 2021b). ...
... Therefore, the Magnolia genus has been a model system in the study of intercontinental disjunctions and the origin and diversification of angiosperms, attracting research attention from biogeographers and molecular botanists (Hebda and Irving, 2004;Nie et al., 2008b;Veltjen et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2020;Ye et al., 2019). Moreover, the Magnolia genus is culturally important, with some taxa of high importance in horticulture (Jiang et al., 2005;Seaton et al., 2014;Watkins et al., 2020) or with potential applications in medicine and agriculture (Bai et al., 2003;Koo et al., 2001;Martínez et al., 2006;Ramírez-Reyes et al., 2015;Schühly et al., 2001). At the same time, nearly half of Magnolia species are classified as globally threatened with extinction (Sánchez-Velásquez et al., 2016), with the Botanic Gardens Conservation International advocating for conservation assessments of Magnolia to be a global priority (Rivers et al., 2016). ...
... Natural forests usually feature dense, structurally rich, and tall vegetation which may be perceived as more natural and wild than other natural settings (Lamb & Purcell, 1990). The degree to which environments are perceived as natural and wild has been found to positively correlate with a number of well-being indicators (Colley & Craig, 2019;Hoyle et al., 2019;Schebella et al., 2019), which may explain the positive well-being effects of forest settings in comparison to other natural settings. ...
... Kitam. has been the subject of many studies as it is a key species in the Western Hajar Mountains [14][15][16][17]. In another species-of-special-concern survey, Dracaena serrulata Baker was studied in the Dhofar mountains in southern Oman by Vahalík et al. [18]. ...
... The starting point can be more controlled through, for example, stripping off topsoil or sowing into a low productivity mineral mulch layer to greatly reduce the establishment of spontaneous weeds and grass competition Hitchmough, 2017a). Plant communities can be designed to utilise different canopy layers and species composition to maximise cover and competitiveness with invading grasses (Hitchmough, 2009;Hitchmough et al., 2017). Weed management can be utilised at critical phases to reduce the development of dominance by undesired species. ...
... Recent Global North studies that compared native and non-native plantings in urban environments in terms of insect habitat show that native plants support greater abundance [38] and species richness [39]. Yet, both social and ecological studies agree that non-native plants offer ecological value in urban settings [38,40], for example, extended flowering periods [31]. A new emphasis on native species has resulted from a greater uptake of "wilder" urban spaces. ...
... Exotic species prevail; they are clearly preferred in domestic gardens or public spaces and are associated with cultural landscapes by people [116][117][118]. Most studies reveal that common citizens do not distinguish exotic species from native ones, especially if they have been introduced for a long time [119]. ...
... Dettmar, 2005;Weiss et al., 2005) and Britain (e.g. Jorgensen et al., 2005;Millard, 2000). Even if legacies of former industrial and mining land uses such as soil contamination, a condition common to different analysed woodlands, can hamper future development, several practices have proved the effectiveness (also in terms of cost-benefit) of phytoremediation of woodlands areas (Sharma and Pandey, 2014). ...
... Poorly fited species were largely selected from the continental climate of the western North American steppe, with two species from Eurasian and central Asian steppe. The possibility of using North American dry to moist prairie species in UK green space has been investigated by Hitchmough et al. (2005); and Hitchmough and De La Fleur (2006). This is however the first research on the effects of the UK climate change scenarios on Western North American steppe communities as plants for designed landscapes in Britain. ...
... 15 To be valued by the public at large, they say, such vegetation 'must be strongly informed by aesthetic principles', and 'preferences can change through experience and learning'. 16 In Germany, too, there are still challenges to the acceptance of Fourth Nature among the general public. This is evidenced in the case of the renaturalization of the Isar River in Munich. ...