James C. McCroskey's research while affiliated with Pennsylvania State University and other places

Publications (214)

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Based on a study on employees and their immediate manager in a Malaysian organization, we examine the total, direct, and indirect effects of supervisory communication practices with LMX and group commitment using structural equation modeling and bootstrap procedure. Based on our analysis, we found that within the group where the supervisor and subo...
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This study examined the degree to which six self-perceived communication traits are related to self-perceived communication competence (SPCC), both individually and collectively. The results indicate communication apprehension and shyness were strongly and inversely related to SPCC, whereas willingness to communicate was strongly and positively ass...
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While considerable polling and research suggests that religious differences exist between Democrats and Republicans, little research has quantitatively examined such specific hypothesized differences in relation to religious ideology, political affiliation, and communication. Our research (a part of a series of quantitative based investigations int...
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The General Model of Instructional Communication introduced by McCroskey, Valencic, and Richmond (2004) is supported in its original conception by canonical data. This study, however, uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to provide a more detailed analysis. Although the model as originally hypothesized fits the data poorly, analysis of the SEM r...
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Reciprocity and accommodation theories were applied to communication between supervisors and subordinates. It was reasoned that supervisors and subordinates informally (and not necessarily consciously) negotiate communication styles with each other which become significantly correlated over time. It was hypothesized that the supervisors’ Socio‐Comm...
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This article explores the coordination, evolution, and expansion of the Communication in Instruction Master of Arts Program that is taught throughout the state of West Virginia. The article describes the program—its development goals, course offerings and structure, and evaluation techniques used to assess its effectiveness.
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As intercultural communication and communication competence studies continue to develop, an understanding of how different cultures value these components of human communication is of considerable importance. This study focuses on Thai culture values related to self-perceived communication competence. Several measures of Thai students’ self-percept...
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This study developed and validated the Perceived Coaching Scale (PCS). The PCS was created for current study as a measure of the extent to which someone perceives her or his supervisor as engaging in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor oriented coaching, which were designed to measure Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwohl’s (1956) three do...
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Research on organizational orientations has determined that workers can be categorized into three groups on the basis of their trait orientations toward working in organizations: “upward mobiles,” “indifferents,” and “ambivalents.” Because workers' organizational orientation is predictive of their success, we reasoned that students' orientation wou...
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Early research relating to communication apprehension (CA) indicated a strong association between CA in first and second language interactions in Puerto Rico and Micronesia. More recent research has indicated similar associations involving individuals from a variety of Asian cultures. The study discussed in this paper broadens the focus of attentio...
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Religious communication apprehension (RCA) is conceptualized as the anxiety or fear associated with either real or anticipated interaction about religion with people of other religions. A RCA scale was constructed and results from this study indicated that the scale is both generally valid and reliable. In this study, 426 participants completed sur...
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Many studies have demonstrated that student motivation is an important factor in student learning. The recently proposed General Model of Instructional Communication, however, does not include motivation. Based on the assumption that student motivation may be an important factor in student learning, particularly long-term learning and retention, th...
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The reliability and validity of two generalized measures are evaluated based on research reported over the past four decades. These measures have been used to record attitudes and beliefs in a wide variety of communication research studies. Both the generalized attitude measure (GAM) and the generalized belief measure (GBM) were designed to be used...
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The purpose of this study was to examine how patients' perceptions of source credibility related to their satisfaction with the quality of medical care they received and satisfaction with their physician. Patients' perceptions of the competence and caring dimensions of source credibility were analyzed for physicians, nurses, and support staff membe...
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This paper reports the development of the Perceived Supervisor Machiavellian Measure (PSMM) for use in the organizational communication context. Data were drawn from full-time employees who were part-time graduate students in a corporate and organizational communication program. Employees' perceptions of supervisor Machiavellianism were negatively...
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Editors Note: With this issue we inaugurate a new section of HCR devoted to summaries of research and theory in specialised areas within the field of human communication. Papers in this section will he designed to bring research and theory in a given area together so that both specialists and nonspecialists can determine the “state of the art” in t...
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This paper discusses several decisions that researchers must make in their application of factor analysis to data related to communication phenomena. Several suggestions are provided to aid researchers in reaching appropriate decisions.
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This study investigated the relationship between interaction behavior in a small group setting and the resulting perceptions group members have of one another. Trained raters coded the interaction behavior of subjects, who discussed a task-oriented topic in small groups. Results indicate that interaction behavior can account for a substantial perce...
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The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, religious fundamentalism, homonegativity, and tolerance for religious disagreements. This study found a positive relationship between religious fundamentalism with ethnocentrism and homonegativity. The study further found...
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The effects of reward-oriented (pleasure) and punishment-oriented (fear) appeals were examined in conjunction with initial credibility on attitude change and terminal credibility. Ss were exposed to either a reward-oriented or a punishment-oriented message by either a high-credible or low-credible source. Reward and punishment appeals did not diffe...
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A scale with face validity for measuring oral communication apprehension in the organizational setting was generated and found to have adequate internal reliability, concurrent validity with the PRCA, and predictive validity in the organizational environment.
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This study examined the effects of two types of analogy on attitude change and source credibility. Subjects were exposed to either a literal, figurative, or no-analogy message. Comparison of attitude change scores and terminal source credibility ratings by message condition indicated that both the literal and figurative versions produced greater at...
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Three decades ago measures of interpersonal attraction and homophily were introduced to the field. A substantial number of research studies have been reported that employed one or more of these measures. This research was examined to evaluate their reliability and validity. It is concluded that all of these measures are reasonably reliable and vali...
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The motive analysis included in Nelson's (2004) textual critique of the writings regarding communibiology is examined and found erroneous. It is suggested that the claim that traditional genre theories are contradicted by this analysis is not justified. The motives for communibiological texts alleged by Nelson are seen as preempted by the (consciou...
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Nonverbal communication in instructional contexts Instructional communication is the area of communication theory and research that centers attention on the role of communication in teaching and training contexts. It focuses on communication in the instructional environment and assesses its effects on cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning...
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This study investigated the effect of teacher misbehavior on student affect for the teacher and teacher credibility. Participants completed an Affect Toward Teacher Scale and a Source Credibility Scale in reference to one of four experimental conditions. The first two research questions examined the effect of misbehaviors on student affect for the...
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Patients at a large medical clinic provided data permitting an analysis of the relationships of perceived communication behaviors (nonverbal immediacy, assertiveness, and responsiveness) and source credibility (competence and caring) with perceptions of the confidentiality of their medical records. Perceptions of physicians, nurses, and support sta...
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Previous research has shown a relationship between measures of the big three (extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism) and similar validated measures (behavior activation scale, BAS and behavioral inhibition system, BIS) of activation and inhibition systems. The purpose of this study was to compare the extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N) measu...
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This paper presents the results of two studies that examine the influence of ethnocentrism on interpersonal perceptions of attractiveness, credibility, and managerial effectiveness. In Study I participants (N = 117) watched a video-taped interview of a Korean national student being interviewed for a job in the financial aid office of her United Sta...
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Organizational orientations theory posits three traits (upward mobile, ambivalent, and indifferent) of employees in organizations that are associated with communication traits, temperament, and perceptions of supervisor source credibility. All of these are hypothesized to be associated with organizational communication behavior and organizational o...
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Two studies are reported which sought to determine the possible limitations of the proposition that “temperament is manifest through communication.”; The results of earlier studies suggest that many communication related traits indeed are correlated with one or more temperament variables. In the present study Willingness to Communicate, Singing App...
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A general model of instructional communication is advanced and the linkages of four components in the model are tested. Data were drawn from college teachers and college students through a split‐class design which permitted collection of unique data from teachers and two sets of their students. Using by‐class analyses of data it was determined that...
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This study addresses the communication apprehension of the non‐native English speaker in the U.S. Previous studies which have examined the implications of communication apprehension (CA) for bilingual, non‐native communicators have generated results which indicate that trait‐like CA is consistent across first and second language‐speaking situations...
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Four studies are reported which focus on organizational orientations theory and relevant measuring instruments. An initial study designed to develop measures of the three components believed to constitute organizational orientation (upward mobile, indifferent, and ambivalent) is reported. Since it was believed that valid measures of organizational...
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In recent years nonverbal immediacy has received considerable attention from researchers concerned with instructional communication, interpersonal communication, and organizational communication. Unfortunately, the instruments used to measure nonverbal immediacy in these contexts sometimes have been problematic in terms of their reliability estimat...
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The research reported in his study was a cross‐cultural test of the communibiological model of communication apprehension as temperamental expression. The study was designed to replicate the findings reported by Beatty, McCroskey, and Heisel (1998) in the U.S. and Japan. In this study participants from Japan and the U.S. completed measures of commu...
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Research involving communication apprehension (CA) and related constructs such as self‐perceived communication competence (SPCC) and willingness to communicate (WTC) has been conducted in a wide variety of cultures. In general, relationships among these variables have been found to be quite similar across cultures, even when substantial mean differ...
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This is a report of two studies that examined the association of receivers' perceptions of sources' levels of several communication traits (shyness, communication apprehension, verbal aggressiveness) with the receivers' reported levels of affect for the source (general affect and/or liking) and the receivers' perceptions of the sources' credibility...
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This study examined relationships between ethnocentrism, homophobia, and human temperament, and the impact these variables have on human communication. The first phase of the study examined the relationship between homophobia and ethnocentrism, and indicated a substantial relationship. Previous research in psychobiology has noticed that many factor...
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Some of the contributions of the discipline of Communication are reviewed with an eye toward their contributions to the larger Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. This scholarship, frequently referred to as the study of Communication in Instruction or Instructional Communication, is distinguished from Communication Education, but the two are seen...
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This study examined the relationships of physician socio‐communicative style variables (assertiveness and responsiveness) with patients’ perceptions of the physician's credibility (competence, trustworthiness, goodwill/caring) and patients’ satisfaction with their physician and the quality of medical care they received. Results indicated that both...
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Over the past decade, communication scholars have increasingly considered biological contributions to the ways in which we communicate. One approach to exploring the links between biology and communication involves analysis of relationships between communication variables and variables containing strong biological underpinnings. The present study w...
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This study examined the relationships between the nonverbal immediacy of physicians and their patients’ satisfaction with them as doctors and overall medical care. Consistent with the results of previous studies in the instructional and organizational communication areas, substantial associations were found in this medical context. Patients who see...
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This study examined humor creation from a communibiological perspective. Employing Eysenck's temperamental framework (based on the super traits of extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism ‐ ENP), the study found positive relationships between humor orientation, humor assessment, and sense of humor with the super‐trait extroversion. Additionally,...
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This study is a cross‐cultural comparison of ethnocentrism among Japanese and American college students. Both Japanese (N=372) and American (N=173) college students completed a measure of ethnocentrism and responded to several questions about their travel experiences, interaction with foreigners, and other similar kinds of questions. Results reveal...
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The first of two studies investigated the differences between reported relational maintenance strategy usage by high and low interethnic communication apprehensives (IECAs). An instrument based on Canary and Stafford's (1992) relational maintenance strategies taxonomy and Neuliep and McCroskey's (1997a) Personal Report of Interethnic Communication...
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This study examines the relationships among receiver apprehension, teacher clarity, and teacher immediacy in the instructional context. The relationships between state receiver apprehension and student motivation, affect, and cognitive learning are examined, as are the relationships of teacher clarity and immediacy with receiver apprehension. Analy...
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This study called the use of the learning‐loss scale into question to the extent that the scale has not been validated experimentally. In order to conduct such a validation, students’ performance in an experimental lecture was compared to their self‐report of how much they learned during that lecture. The results identified a moderately strong vali...
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A body of literature produced through the decades overwhelmingly supports the assertion that nonverbal immediacy plays a vital role in communication. The present study reviewed a substantial portion of the nonverbal immediacy research focusing primarily on communication in the classroom. Research has shown that teacher nonverbal immediacy in the cl...
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Hypotheses were advanced based on the immediacy principle, accommodation theory, reciprocity theory, and previous research in another applied context which argue that increased nonverbal immediacy behaviors of supervisors have the potential to enhance subordinates’ perceptions of that supervisor, increase subordinate satisfaction with the superviso...
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This study investigated the relationship of scores on temperament dimensions for both three‐ (Eysenck, 1985) and five‐factor (McCrae & John, 1992) models with scores on two dimensions of socio‐commu‐nicative orientation (Richmond & McCroskey, 1990). The Eysenck Personality Inventory and the Five‐Factor Model measure have previously been validated a...
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Recent advances in neurobiology and psychobiology have raised serious questions about the generality and usefulness of the social learning model upon which a meaningful portion of the curriculum of many communication departments is based. Evidence is accumulating to indicate there is a major role played by genetics in human communication behavior....
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This study explored the relationships of immediacy and verbal aggression with homophily and interpersonal attraction in the instructional context. Immediacy was negatively related to verbal aggression and positively related to all dimensions of homophily and interpersonal attraction. Verbal aggression was also found to be negatively related to both...
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As a result of the controversy over the dimensionality of the ethos/source credibility construct and the associated plethora of empirical studies in the 1960s and 1970s, Aristotle's dimension of “goodwill” has been dismissed by many contemporary theorists and researchers. It is argued that this occurred as a result of errors made in the earlier emp...
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An examination of the relationship between Teacher Management Communication Style (TMCS) and affective learning revealed that TMCS and affective learning were significantly positively correlated. TMCS and nonverbal immediacy were also positively correlated, as were nonverbal immediacy and affective learning. A multiple linear regression analysis pe...
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Communibiology has emerged recently as a new paradigm for the study of communication. A model for the study of communibiology is advanced and two studies are presented which exemplify one method of beginning research under this paradigm. The results indicate how theories related to whether variables are or are not genetically based can be prelimina...
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This research investigated the impact of teacher immediacy and teacher misbehavior on student perceptions of their teachers’ credibility on the dimensions of competence, trustworthiness, and caring (goodwill). While the results of the two studies conducted indicated the presence of strong positive main effects for teacher immediacy and strong negat...
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This study examined the impact of state receiver apprehension in the instructional context. Because of its negative relationship with information processing effectiveness, receiver apprehension is an experience which can act as a barrier to elective learning. Teacher clarity and teacher immediacy were examined in terms of their relationship with st...
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Over the past two decades, a large amount of research focusing on correlates and consequences of communication apprehension has accumulated. Despite this massive research effort, few viable models of the development of the trait have been proffered. Also during the past twenty years, psychobiologists have made impressive strides toward the explanat...
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This study examined the relationships among trait CA, state CA (fear of interacting with a physician), and patient perceived satisfaction with quality of medical care and physician. The results indicated that trait CA and fear of the physician were positively related. However, trait CA was not significantly related to patient perceived satisfaction...
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This study presents the Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) as an alternative to existing measures of teacher clarity. Though existing scales measure both the clarity of content and classroom processes, they are disproportionate in length when compared to common instructional measures, such as measures of immediacy, student state motivation, and...
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This paper reports the development of a measure of Tolerance for Disagreement (the TFD scale). The paper reviews the evolution of the TFD construct and previous efforts with reference to measurement. In this study, a 15‐item version of a TFD instrument was found to be unidimensional, reliable, and able to demonstrate good discriminant validity. Imp...
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Students’ perceptions of “teacher misbehaviors”; may be related to teacher's socio‐communicative style (i.e., assertiveness and responsiveness), type of instructor (graduate assistant versus professor), and affect for teacher and course material. Four hypotheses were confirmed, indicating an inverse relationship between perceptions of teacher misbe...
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Over the past ten years, a substantial body of research focusing on verbal aggressiveness has accumulated. One major observation emerging from this literature is that some people are more disposed toward aggressive symbolic action than are others. Despite this considerable research effort, why individuals vary in their predispositions toward aggres...
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The two studies reported here deal with the development and validation of a generalized ethnocentrism scale. In Study 1 two scales, including USE, which was designed to assess ethnocentrism in the United States, and GENE, which was designed to measure generalized ethnocentrism, were administered to 396 participants. Their responses were subjected t...
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This research focused on use of power, decision‐making and communication styles of spouses in marital dyads, and the level of marital satisfaction of the partners in these relationships. Drawing primarily on previous work involving Management Communication Style and decision‐making styles in organizational and instructional communication contexts,...
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Intercultural communication apprehension (ICA) is conceptualized as the fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated interaction with people of different groups, especially cultural and ethnic and/or racial groups. Based on this conceptualization, two scales were developed, including the Personal Report of Intercultural Communication...
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The research reported relates to the construct of “perceived caring” in the instructional context which is believed to be related to the classical construct of “good will” in Aristotelian rhetorical theory as well as to more contemporary social scientific views of “intent toward receiver” in conceptualizations of source credibility. Student percept...
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Teacher clarity was found to be positively correlated with perceived nonverbal immediacy and socio‐communicative style of the instructor. It also was found to be associated with enhanced student affect toward the instructor and the course. Students who perceived the verbal and nonverbal communication of their instructors as being clear and understa...
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This study involved the manipulation of teacher immediacy and teacher misbehaviors to determine their individual and combined impacts on perceived teacher immediacy and teacher misbehavior. Participants in the study were students enrolled in undergraduate communication classes. The results indicated that teacher nonimmediacy and teacher misbehavior...
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The current research was based on data drawn from the cultures of Australia, Finland, and Puerto Rico as well as the dominant United States culture. The direction of the relationship between immediacy and perceived cognitive learning did not differ among the cultures studied (a very positive relationship exists within each culture). However, the ma...
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Since the late 1970s an expanding body of research has pointed to the importance of nonverbal immediacy for effective teacher communication, particularly in terms of the teachers' impact on the affective learning of their students. Most of this research has been conducted with subjects who have represented a primarily Caucasian, middle‐class U.S. c...
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A student's trust of a teacher is seen as an important factor in determining the degree to which that student will be open to being taught by that teacher. Trust, then, is seen as a necessary component of a student‐teacher relationship for maximal learning to occur. The present research found that student perceptions of both increased teacher asser...
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Nonverbal immediacy of teachers has been demonstrated to be substantially associated with increased cognitive and affective learning in students. The assumption underlying the current research is that teacher communication behaviors that enhance student learning will also enhance positive evaluations of teachers by those students. This study sought...
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The purpose of this study was to test Chesebro et al.'s (1992) conjecture—based on research with at‐risk students—that students highly apprehensive in speaking in dyads and groups, and who perceive themselves as lacking competence in speaking to strangers and acquaintances, do not fare well academically. A group of academically successful students...
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This study focuses on communication correlates of compulsive communication. Participants in the study completed the Talkaholic Scale as a measure of their tendency to be a compulsive communicator. Measures of other trait orientations related to communication also were completed. Results indicated that compulsive communication has low positive relat...
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The very strong association of immediacy with positive instructional outcomes has led some to question whether teacher immediacy amounts to anything more than being responsive with students. The present study demonstrates that a measure of teacher immediacy is strongly associated with the Socio‐Communicative Style of the teacher—both the assertiven...
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A ten‐item Likert‐type scale, named the “Talkaholic Scale,”; is advanced as a method of identifying individuals who are aware of their tendencies to over‐communicate in a consistent and compulsive manner. People who score beyond two standard deviations above the mean on the scale are labeled as “talkaholics,”; a term chosen to reflect the similarit...
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One in five eighth‐graders is at serious risk of failing in school or dropping out before graduating from high school. While other characteristics have been identified, few descriptions of the attitudes of academically at‐risk students toward communication have been provided. This study examined the attitudes toward communication of 2,793 academica...
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The nature and assumptions underlying the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) scale are outlined and discussed. Data are discussed which relate to the reliability and validity of the instrument. It is concluded that the scale is of sufficient quality to be recommended for research and screening purposes.
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The purpose of this research was to make comparisons between Finnish persons and persons from other populations, particularly those from the United States, on a variety of common measures of communication orientations. The results of the study indicated that differences between Finnish and United States samples do exist, but the differences are pri...