James A. Drake's research while affiliated with The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville and other places

Publications (17)

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The quest to understand animate nature, its origins, current state and future course, its dynamical underpinnings and interface with the physical world, is surely the tacit aspiration of contemporary ecology. As a field of inquiry, academic ecology emerged in earnest from the descriptive realm of natural history in the late nineteenth century when...
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The competition-colonization trade-off has long been considered an important mechanism explaining species coexistence in spatially structured environments, yet data supporting it remain ambiguous. Most competition-colonization research examines plants and the dispersal-linked traits of their seeds. However, colonization is more than just dispersal...
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This chapter examines various concepts in community ecology that are difficult to observe in natural systems and examines some laboratory studies that document the production of ecological structure in multi-species systems. Two aspects of ecology have been explored where laboratory studies are crucial for the understanding of ecological phenomena....
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A recent explanation of the declining species richness gradient with increasing latitude away from the tropics implicated broad scale habitat variability, an associated range expansion, and a resulting increase in niche breadth. The niche breadth in turn was thought to affect richness by competition and rescue effect. While all three factors appear...
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Relative variability of species has been shown to increase significantly with a decrease in their ecological range. Similarly, the distribution of collapse (e.g., extinctions, disturbances, population declines) magnitudes has also been shown to follow an inverse power-law form described by the 1/f(omega) curve. We hypothesized that the two, possibl...
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Previous numerical studies of community assembly have found (1) that invasion resistance increases with time, and (2) that different assembly sequences typically result in different community endpoints. The algorithm used in these studies involved sequential introductions of species coupled with tests for existence of feasible equilibria with local...
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Experimental testing of ecological theory in the field is often difficult because of the number of factors influencing the test system. Adequate control of relevant variables may require the use of laboratory microcosms for the performance of proper experimental tests. Our efforts to study the effects of species invasion sequence on community struc...
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1. An ecological landscape consisting of discrete interconnected patches was constructed in the laboratory. Each patch in the landscape was a 1-litre aquatic microecosystem containing producers and consumers. 2. Species invaded and spread throughout the landscape in a specific sequence following prescribed invasion pathways. 3. Species distribution...

Citations

... Cryptomonas erosa and Cryptomonas ovata or Chroomonas acuta from the same family were often concurrent in HRB (Table 2). These species can benefit from both mixotrophy and phagotrophy, and also can tolerate high dissolved nutrients and limiting light conditions (Graham & Wilcox, 2000;Kruk & Segura, 2012), Scenedesmus and Selenastrum are more resistant to grazing than either Chlamydomonas or Ankistrodesmus, while the latter two taxa are better competitors in the absence of grazing (Drake et al., 1993). ...
... This is particularly interesting if we consider that several of the analyzed communities had a different taxonomic composition [21,46] and that they may display large changes in compositional abundances (especially coastal communities) within short time periods. Such SAD similarity, in spite of spatio-temporal variation in community composition, may represent a stable equilibrium (or self-organization process [47]) emerging from biotic and abiotic interactions within communities. ...
... Ecosystems are quintessentially complex study objects (Cadotte, Drake, and Fukami 2005;Jørgensen, Patten, and Straškraba 1992;Levin 1998;Tansley 1935). Most characteristics of complexity in ecosystems arise from the fact that they are composed of many interacting variables. ...
... This was demonstrated by the studies on ASS with a ''too short'' time scale, where past perturbation events or initial differences led to alternative communities, which are nonetheless rather snapshots in time and represent transient dynamics instead of stable end states. To understand a recent, transient state, history and stochasticity has to be taken into account as is necessary for bistable systems (Drake et al. 1994, Hastings 2004), but their implications for the system are totally different. As neither discontinuous threshold responses to environmental change, risks for unfavourable state transitions or divergent development trajectories occur historical and stochastic effects are reversible and will influence the system only for the limited time period of the transient, even if this time period can be long in absolute time. ...
... We tested these hypotheses in a natural system of 49 natural rock pools inhabited by 69 invertebrate species for which long-term (nine annual surveys) environmental and population dynamics data are available. The data span tens to hundreds of generations for most of the constituent species (Kolasa and Romanuk 2005). Earlier work determined that the variable physical environment in these rock pools induces dynamic responses in community structure at both local and regional scales (Kolasa et al. 1996). ...
... For consumer-resource models, however, the community always reaches a unique steady-state that depends only on the presence or absence of species initially. Recent studies show that time-dependence and multi-stability are more of an exception than the norm and most (especially engineered) communities exhibit the simple behavior of consumer-resource models (see Table 1 and Ref. [56,57]). ...
... Furthermore, invasion, disturbance, evolution, species movement and other fluctuating resources can all destabilize the values of the observables, and prevent asymptotic behaviour. As Drake et al. (2007) put it, "asymptotic behavior is seldom realized in the real world because nature happens" (168). ...
... Cyclic fluctuations in sea level are naturally reflected in the distribution of benthos, including ostracods, on the shelf (Andreev, 1988;Babinot and Lethiers, 1984;Boomer and Eisenhauer, 2002;Kolasa et al., 1998;Pokorný, 1971;Tesakova, 2008Tesakova, , 2013aTesakova and Shurupova, 2018;Tesakova et al., 2016). The coastal shallow-water environment (low sea level and closeness to the coast) is characterized by low taxonomic diversity, and the total number of organisms can be small or large depending on the trophic status (large population size is only attained owing to the dominant species). ...
... Excessive flow has the potential to detach periphyton. Water flow also contributes to the cycling of nutrients and energy exchange in ecosystem, thus indirectly influencing the periphyton's metabolism (Ahn et al. 2013;Flum et al. 1993;Horner and Welch 1981). ...
... One explanation for the widespread occurrence of restoration failures is the humpty-dumpty effect (Pimm 1991, Drake et al. 1996. This concept, named after the fabled nursery rhyme, suggests that once a community is disassembled, it becomes difficult to reassemble it again from the predisturbance species (Pimm 1991, Hang-Kwang andPimm 1993). ...