Jai G. Marathe's research while affiliated with Boston University and other places

Publications (7)

Article
Full-text available
Background Approximately 40% of human pregnancies are unintended, indicating a need for more acceptable effective contraception methods. New antibody production systems make it possible to manufacture reagent-grade human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for clinical use. We used the Nicotiana platform to produce a human antisperm mAb and tested its eff...
Article
Full-text available
Background MB66 film is a multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) product with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HIV-1 (VRC01-N) and HSV-1 and 2 (HSV8-N). The mAbs were produced by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana (N). We conducted a Phase I clinical trial to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and ex vivo efficacy of single...
Article
Background: Condylomata acuminata [anogenital warts (AGW)] are prevalent in HIV-infected individuals and sexually active populations at risk for HIV acquisition, and have been associated with HIV transmission. We compared AGW to control tissue for abundance, types and location of HIV-target cells, and for susceptibility to HIV infection in vitro,...
Article
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected leukocytes have been detected in genital secretions from HIV-infected men and women and may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV. However, they have been largely overlooked in studies on mechanisms of HIV transmission and in the design and testing of HIV vaccine and microbicide candida...
Article
The superficial layers of the human vaginal epithelium, which form an interface between host and environment, are comprised of dead flattened cells that have undergone a terminal cell differentiation program called cornification. This entails extrusion of nuclei and intercellular organelles, and the depletion of functional DNA and RNA precluding th...

Citations

... There are several alternative models to in vivo testing, such as in vitro assays [25,26], in vitro models [27,29,30,52], and ex vivo models [28,52,53] for assessment of vaginal irritation and toxicity. The EpiVaginal™ tissue model is widely used for the in vitro safety and irritancy evaluations, and applied to study various vaginal applications, such as topical contraception [54], lubricants [30], antiviral nanoparticles [55,56], and topical microbicides [57,58], as well as studies of interactions between vaginal epithelium and bacteria [59] and as antiviral assay by introducing herpes simplex virus infection in EpiVaginal TM tissue [60]. Moreover, the model can be applied as a cell-based tissue model to evaluate the in vitro drug permeability for vaginal drug delivery systems [29,61,62]. ...
... Indeed, isolation of neutralizing antibodies from individuals often provides the necessary starting point for developing therapeutic mAbs. Plant-produced mAbs formulated in various ways have recently reached clinical trials, including a cocktail of three mAbs (ZMapp) used for treating Ebola infection; 8 a mAb conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin for use as a personalized lymphoma vaccine; 9 a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-neutralizing mAb; 10 two antiviral mAbs (one against HIV and another against herpes simplex virus (HSV)) incorporated into a vaginal film for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases; 11 and a human contraceptive mAb incorporated into a vaginal film for prevention of pregnancy. 12 Several of these investigational products have completed a phase of clinical investigation and published outcomes have been made available. ...
... In addition, we have previously reported a high activation of the inflammasomes in GALT from Noncontrollers, compared with HIVcontrollers [17]. All these immune alterations induce recruitment, abnormal differentiation, exhausting, and cell death of different cell populations, including enterocytes and Th17 cells [43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52], favoring the development of several conditions as metaplasias, colitis, and condyloma [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]. Although we did not evaluate the presence of human papillomavirus, condyloma acuminate observed in Noncontrollers, was most likely due to serotypes 16 or 18, which particularly have a high prevalence among HIV infected patients [61,62], and had been associated with HIV progression [63,64]. ...
... HIV-1 gains access to the body by crossing epithelial barriers that compose the anorectal and genital mucosa during the sexual intercourse. One pathway of HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites is via transcytosis through epithelial cells after the formation of cell-cell contacts (virological synapses) [3] between epithelial cells and HIV-1 infected cells [4][5][6] present in all secretions that act as vector for HIV-1 infection [7]. Thus, HIV-1 infected cells form viral synapses with the foreskin and urethral tissue, the virus produced at the synapse transcytose, and in turn reaches Langerhans cells in the foreskin and macrophages in urethral mucosa [8][9][10][11]. ...
... Though the existing hypotheses cannot clearly explain the unique nature of the human vaginal microbiome, it is widely accepted that estrogen and glycogen deposition in the vaginal epithelium are key factors. The vaginal mucosa of reproductive women is covered by a stratified multilayered squamous epithelium (22). Vaginal epithelial cells deposit intracellular glycogen following estrogen stimulation. ...