Jackson Champer's research while affiliated with Peking University and other places

Publications (67)

Preprint
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With their ability to rapidly increase in frequency, gene drives can be used to modify or suppress target populations after an initial release of drive-containing individuals. Recent advances in this field have revealed many possibilities for different types of drives, and several of these have been realized in experimental demonstrations. These dr...
Preprint
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Though engineered gene drives hold great promise for spreading through and eventually suppressing populations of disease vectors or invasive species, complications such as resistance alleles and spatial population structure can prevent their success. Additionally, most forms of suppression drives, such as homing drives or driving Y chromosomes, wil...
Article
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Recent experiments have produced several Anopheles gambiae homing gene drives that disrupt female fertility genes, thereby eventually inducing population collapse. Such drives may be highly effective tools to combat malaria. One such homing drive, based on the zpg promoter driving CRISPR/Cas9, was able to eliminate a cage population of mosquitoes....
Article
Full-text available
CRISPR/Cas9 provides a highly efficient and flexible genome editing technology with numerous potential applications ranging from gene therapy to population control. Some proposed applications involve the integration of CRISPR/Cas9 endonucleases into an organism's genome, which raises questions about potentially harmful effects to the transgenic ind...
Preprint
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Wolbachia is a maternally-inherited bacteria, which can spread rapidly in populations by manipulating reproduction. CifA and CifB are genes found in Wolbachia phage that are responsible for cytoplasmic incompatibility, the most common type of Wolbachia reproductive interference. In this phenomenon, no viable offspring are produced when a male with...
Article
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Background Homing gene drives hold great promise for the genetic control of natural populations. However, current homing systems are capable of spreading uncontrollably between populations connected by even marginal levels of migration. This could represent a substantial sociopolitical barrier to the testing or deployment of such drives and may gen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Suppression gene drives are designed to bias their inheritance and increase in frequency in a population, disrupting an essential gene in the process. When the frequency is high enough, the population will be unable to reproduce above the replacement level and could be eliminated. CRISPR suppression drives based on the homing mechanism have already...
Article
Gene drives have shown great promise for suppression of pest populations. These engineered alleles can function by a variety of mechanisms, but the most common is the CRISPR homing drive, which converts wild-type alleles to drive alleles in the germline of heterozygotes. Some potential target species are haplodiploid, in which males develop from un...
Article
Full-text available
Gene drives are engineered alleles that can bias inheritance in their favor, allowing them to spread throughout a population. They could potentially be used to modify or suppress pest populations, such as mosquitoes that spread diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 homing drives, which copy themselves by homology-directed repair in drive/wild-type heterozygotes, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent experiments have produced several Anopheles gambiae homing gene drives that disrupt female fertility genes, thereby eventually inducing population collapse. Such drives may be highly effective tools to combat malaria. One such homing drive, based on the zpg promoter driving CRISPR/Cas9, was able to eliminate a cage population of mosquitoes....
Article
Full-text available
Mosquitoes bring global health problems by transmitting parasites and viruses such as malaria and dengue. Unfortunately, current insecticide-based control strategies are only moderately effective because of high cost and resistance. Thus, scalable, sustainable, and cost-effective strategies are needed for mosquito-borne disease control. Symbiont-ba...
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Invasive rodent populations pose a threat to biodiversity across the globe. When confronted with these invaders, native species that evolved independently are often defenseless. CRISPR gene drive systems could provide a solution to this problem by spreading transgenes among invaders that induce population collapse, and could be deployed even where...
Article
The invasive sea lamprey was a significant factor in the collapse of fish stocks in the Great Lakes, and it continues to threaten the multi-billion-dollar fishing industry. Thus, substantial resources are invested annually on sea lamprey control. Current control strategies have reduced sea lamprey populations by up to 90%, but they are expensive an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gene drives have shown great promise for suppression of pest populations. These engineered alleles can function by a variety of mechanisms, but the most common is the CRISPR homing drive, which converts wild-type alleles to drive alleles in the germline of heterozygotes. Some potential target species are haplodiploid, in which males develop from un...
Preprint
Full-text available
Homing gene drives hold great promise for the genetic control of natural populations. However, current homing systems are capable of spreading uncontrollably between populations connected by even marginal levels of migration. This could represent a substantial sociopolitical barrier to the testing or deployment of such drives and may generally be u...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gene drives are engineered alleles that can bias inheritance in their favor, allowing them to spread throughout a population. They could potentially be used to modify or suppress pest populations, such as mosquitoes that spread diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 homing drives, which copy themselves by homology-directed repair in drive/wild-type heterozygotes, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
CRISPR/Cas9 systems provide a highly efficient and flexible genome editing technology with numerous potential applications in areas ranging from gene therapy to population control. Some proposed applications involve CRISPR/Cas9 endonucleases integrated into an organisms genome, which raises questions about potentially harmful effects to the transge...
Article
Full-text available
CRISPR gene drive systems offer a mechanism for transmitting a desirable transgene throughout a population for purposes ranging from vector‐borne disease control to invasive species suppression. In this simulation study, we assess the performance of several CRISPR‐based underdominance gene drive constructs employing toxin‐antidote principles. These...
Article
Rapid evolutionary processes can produce drastically different outcomes when studied in panmictic population models versus spatial models. One such process is gene drive, which describes the spread of “selfish” genetic elements through a population. Engineered gene drives are being considered for the suppression of disease vectors or invasive speci...
Article
Full-text available
Gene drive organisms (GDOs), whose genomes have been genetically engineered to spread a desired allele through a population, have the potential to transform the way societies address a wide range of daunting public health and environmental challenges. The development, testing, and release of GDOs, however, are complex and often controversial. A key...
Preprint
Full-text available
Invasive rodent populations pose a threat to biodiversity across the globe. When confronted with these new invaders, native species that evolved independently are often defenseless. CRISPR gene drive systems could provide a solution to this problem by spreading transgenes among invaders that induce population collapse. Such systems might be deploye...
Article
Significance CRISPR gene drives have sparked considerable interest among scientists and the public alike due to their potential for genetic alteration of entire species. However, despite the initial hype, experiments soon revealed that such drives suffer from a critical flaw—the rapid evolution of resistance alleles. These alleles are frequently fo...
Article
Full-text available
Background: CRISPR gene drive systems allow the rapid spread of a genetic construct throughout a population. Such systems promise novel strategies for the management of vector-borne diseases and invasive species by suppressing a target population or modifying it with a desired trait. However, current homing-type drives have two potential shortcomi...
Article
Underdominance systems can quickly spread through a population, but only when introduced in considerable numbers. This promises a gene drive mechanism that is less invasive than homing drives, potentially enabling new approaches in the fight against vector-borne diseases. If regional confinement can indeed be achieved, the decision-making process f...
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Full-text available
The rapid evolution of resistance alleles poses a major obstacle for genetic manipulation of populations with CRISPR homing gene drives. One proposed solution is using multiple guide RNAs (gRNAs), allowing a drive to function even if some resistant target sites are present. Here, we develop a model of homing mechanisms parameterized by experimental...
Article
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Engineered gene drives based on a homing mechanism could rapidly spread genetic alterations through a population. However, such drives face a major obstacle in the form of resistance against the drive. In addition, they are expected to be highly invasive. Here, we introduce the Toxin-Antidote Recessive Embryo (TARE) drive. It functions by disruptin...
Article
人体是各种微生物的宿主, 各种微生物合称为微生物组。人类微生物组由寄居在我们身体内及体表上的细菌、真菌、病毒及小节肢动物组成。 此微生物组对人类健康和疾病很重要, 包括皮肤病学。 研究表明, 益生菌或活微生物有助于恢复健康的微生物组群, 并可能给予我们健康益处。此回顾评估了皮肤病学中微生物组的作用, 并提供了支持使用益生菌治疗皮肤疾病的临床数据, 包括口服益生菌以及直接涂抹于皮肤的外用益生菌。 包括不同类型的研究, 例如基本科学、转化研究和临床研究, 其研究了皮肤微生物组的差异以及益生菌对湿疹、痤疮、银屑病、慢性伤口、头屑和某些类型皮肤癌患者的影响。 作者们发现, 只有一些临床试验探索了益生菌对皮肤疾病的有效性, 但已充分研究的湿疹除外。大多数研究使用口服益生菌, 但分析外用益生菌的研究频率...
Article
The body is host to a vast range of microorganisms and this diversity of microorganisms is known as the microbiome. The human microbiome is collectively composed of resident bacteria, fungi, viruses, and small arthropods that live in and on our bodies. This microbiome is important to human health and disease, including in dermatology. Research has...
Preprint
Full-text available
CRISPR gene drive systems offer a mechanism for transmitting a desirable transgene throughout a population for purposes ranging from vector-borne disease control to invasive species suppression. In this simulation study, we model and assess the performance of several CRISPR-based underdominance gene drive constructs employing toxin-antidote princip...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rapid evolutionary processes can produce drastically different outcomes when studied in panmictic population models versus spatial models where the rate of evolution is limited by dispersal. One such process is gene drive, which allows 'selfish' genetic elements to quickly spread through a population. Engineered gene drive systems are being conside...
Preprint
Full-text available
CRISPR homing gene drives potentially have the capacity for large-scale population modification or suppression. However, resistance alleles formed by the drives can prevent them from successfully spreading. Such alleles have been found to form at high rates in most studies, including those in both insects and mammals. One possible solution to this...
Preprint
Full-text available
Engineered gene drives are being explored as a potential strategy for the control of vector-borne diseases due to their ability to rapidly spread genetic modifications through a population. While an effective CRISPR homing gene drive for population suppression has recently been demonstrated in mosquitoes, formation of resistance alleles that preven...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gene drives can potentially fixate in a population by biasing inheritance in their favor, opening up a variety of potential applications in areas such as disease-vector control and conservation. CRISPR homing gene drives have shown much promise for providing an effective drive mechanism, but they typically suffer from the rapid formation of resista...
Preprint
Full-text available
Engineered gene drives have been suggested as a mechanism for rapidly spreading genetic alterations through a population. One promising type of drive is the CRISPR homing drive, which has recently been demonstrated in several organisms. However, such drives face a major obstacle in the form of resistance against the drive that typically evolves rap...
Article
Background Commensal bacteria are a major factor in human health and disease pathogenesis. Interest has recently expanded beyond the gastrointestinal microflora to include the skin microbiome and its impact on various skin diseases. Objectives Here, we present the current data reviewing the role of the microbiome in dermatology, considering both t...
Article
Gene drives could allow for control of vector-borne diseases by directly suppressing vector populations or spreading genetic payloads designed to reduce pathogen transmission. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) homing gene drives work by cleaving wild-type alleles, which are then converted to drive alleles by homology...
Article
Estimating fitness differences between allelic variants is a central goal of experimental evolution. Current methods for inferring such differences from allele frequency time series typically assume that the effects of selection can be described by a fixed selection coefficient. However, fitness is an aggregate of several components including matin...
Article
Full-text available
CRISPR-based homing gene drives have sparked both enthusiasm and deep concerns due to their potential for genetically altering entire species. This raises the question about our ability to prevent the unintended spread of such drives from the laboratory into a natural population. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the suitability of synthetic targ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Underdominance gene drive systems promise a mechanism for rapidly spreading payload alleles through a local population while otherwise remaining confined, unable to spread into neighboring populations due to their frequency-dependent dynamics. Such systems could provide a new tool in the fight against vector-borne diseases by disseminating transgen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gene drives could allow for control of vector-borne diseases by directly suppressing vector populations or spreading genetic payloads designed to reduce pathogen transmission. CRISPR homing gene drives work by cleaving wild-type alleles, which are then converted to drive alleles by homology-directed repair, increasing the frequency of the drive in...
Preprint
Full-text available
CRISPR-based gene drives have sparked both enthusiasm and deep concerns due to their potential for genetically altering entire species. This raises the question about our ability to prevent the unintended spread of such drives from the laboratory into a natural population. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the suitability of synthetic target site...
Preprint
Full-text available
Estimating fitness differences between allelic variants is a central goal of experimental evolution. Current methods for inferring selection from allele frequency time series typically assume that evolutionary dynamics at the locus of interest can be described by a fixed selection coefficient. However, fitness is an aggregate of several components...
Article
Significance A functioning gene drive mechanism could fundamentally change our strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue, and Zika. CRISPR homing gene drive promises such a mechanism, which could be used to rapidly spread genetic modifications among the mosquitoes that transmit these diseases. However, recent stud...
Article
Full-text available
A functioning gene drive system could fundamentally change our strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases by facilitating rapid dissemination of transgenes that prevent pathogen transmission or reduce vector capacity. CRISPR/Cas9 gene drive promises such a mechanism, which works by converting cells that are heterozygous for the drive const...
Preprint
Full-text available
CRISPR gene drives can efficiently convert heterozygous cells with one copy of the drive allele into homozygotes, thereby enabling super-Mendelian inheritance. This mechanism could be used, for example, to rapidly disseminate a genetic payload through a population, promising novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. However, all CR...
Article
Tweetable abstract: A review of the research to date on the relation between the vaginal microbiome and gynaecological cancers.
Preprint
Full-text available
A functioning gene drive system could fundamentally change our strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases by facilitating rapid dissemination of transgenes that prevent pathogen transmission or reduce vector capacity. CRISPR/Cas9 gene drive promises such a mechanism, which works by converting cells that are heterozygous for the drive const...
Article
Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal bacterium that contributes to the development of acne vulgaris and other infections. Recent work revealed that P. acnes clinical isolates can be classified into distinct phylotypes, several of which have associations with healthy skin or acne. We sought to determine if these phylotypes induce different im...
Article
Engineered gene drives - the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes - have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic eleme...
Article
Full-text available
We are presenting a quantitative proteomics tally of the most commonly expressed conserved fungal proteins of the cytosol, the cell wall, and the secretome. It was our goal to identify fungi-typical proteins that do not share significant homology with human proteins. Such fungal proteins are of interest to the development of vaccines or drug target...
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Propionibacterium acnes, plays an important role in acne vulgaris and other diseases. However, understanding of the exact mechanisms of P. acnes pathogenesis is limited. Few studies have investigated its proteome, which is essential for vaccine development. Here, we comprehensively investigate the proteome of P. acnes strain ATCC 6919, including se...
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The human microbiome has recently gained prominence as a major factor in health and disease. Here we review the literature regarding the microbiome and cancer and suggest how the microbiome may be manipulated for improved health outcomes. The gut microbiome has been relatively well studied, and the mechanisms of how it may increase or decrease the...
Article
Full-text available
Although antibiotics are a common treatment for acne, the difficulties inherent to effective antimicrobial penetration in sebum and selective antimicrobial action in skin are compounded by increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes clinical isolates. To address these problems, we engineered Pentobra, a peptide-aminoglycoside molecule which ha...
Article
Propionibacterium acnes is a major commensal of the human skin. However, it is also the pathogen responsible for acne vulgaris and other diseases, such as medical device infections. Strains of Propionibacterium acnes have long been classified into several different types. Recently, typing systems for this bacterium have taken on an increased import...
Article
Introduction: Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is an antioxidant that has multiple biologic effects including antimicrobial properties. Acne vulgaris is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by an inflammatory host immune response to the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). This study sought to determine whether resvera...
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Growing evidence links tumor progression with chronic inflammatory processes and dysregulated activity of various immune cells. In this study, we demonstrate that various types of macrophages internalize microvesicles, called exosomes, secreted by breast cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. Although both types of exosomes targeted macrophages, only...
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Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are cutaneous pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We sought to determine if chitosan, a polymer of deacetylated chitin, could be used as a potential treatment against these bacteria. We found that higher molecular weight chitosan had superior antimicrobial properties co...
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Despite the availability of new antifungal compounds, morbidity and mortality of invasive aspergillosis are still unacceptably high, in particular in immunocompromised patients such as patients with hematological malignancies or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplant recipients. Over the last decades, our knowledge of the immu...
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Aspergillus species are responsible for most cases of fatal mold infections in immunocompromised patients, particularly in those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Experimental vaccines in mouse models have demonstrated a promising avenue of approach for the prevention of aspergillosis, as well as infections caused by other fungal patho...
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Advances in nanotechnology have demonstrated potential application of nanoparticles (NPs) for effective and targeted drug delivery. Here we investigated the antimicrobial and immunological properties and the feasibility of using NPs to deliver antimicrobial agents to treat a cutaneous pathogen. NPs synthesized with chitosan and alginate demonstrate...