J.A. Galarza's research while affiliated with University of Helsinki and other places

Publications (72)

Article
Viruses are key actors of ecosystems and have major impacts on global biogeochemical cycles. Prophages deserve particular attention as they are ubiquitous in bacterial genomes and can enter a lytic cycle when triggered by environmental conditions. We explored how temperature affects the interactions between prophages and other biological levels by...
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Colour is often used as an aposematic warning signal, with predator learning expected to lead to a single colour pattern within a population. However, there are many puzzling cases where aposematic signals are also polymorphic. The wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis , uses bright hindwing colours as a signal of unpalatability, and males have discr...
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The definition of colour polymorphism is intuitive: genetic variants express discretely coloured phenotypes. This classification is, however, elusive as humans form subjective categories or ignore differences that cannot be seen by human eyes. We demonstrate an example of a 'cryptic morph' in a polymorphic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis), a ph...
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Antibiotics have long been used in the raising of animals for agricultural, industrial or laboratory use. The use of subtherapeutic doses in diets of terrestrial and aquatic animals to promote growth is common and highly debated. Despite their vast application in animal husbandry, knowledge about the mechanisms behind growth promotion is minimal, p...
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We report the assembly and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome of the warningly-coloured wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) and investigate its phylogenetic position within Arctiinae. The A.plantaginis mitogenome is 15,479 bp long with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region (D-loop)....
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Coloration is perhaps one of the most prominent adaptations for survival and reproduction of many taxa. Coloration is of particular importance for aposematic species, which rely on their coloring and patterning acting as a warning signal to deter predators. Most research has focused on the evolution of warning coloration by natural selection. Howev...
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Background Diploid genome assembly is typically impeded by heterozygosity because it introduces errors when haplotypes are collapsed into a consensus sequence. Trio binning offers an innovative solution that exploits heterozygosity for assembly. Short, parental reads are used to assign parental origin to long reads from their F1 offspring before as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Diploid genome assembly is typically impeded by heterozygosity, as it introduces errors when haplotypes are collapsed into a consensus sequence. Trio binning offers an innovative solution which exploits heterozygosity for assembly. Short, parental reads are used to assign parental origin to long reads from their F1 offspring before assem...
Preprint
Full-text available
Environmental changes can cause strong cascading effects in species communities due to altered biological interactions between species (Zarnetske et al., 2012). Highly specialized interactions arising from the co-evolution of hosts and parasites, such as bacteria and phages, and short generation times of these species could rapidly lead to consider...
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Insect metamorphosis is one of the most recognized processes delimiting transitions between phenotypes. It has been traditionally postulated as an adaptive process decoupling traits between life stages, allowing evolutionary independence of pre- and post-metamorphic phenotypes. However, the degree of autonomy between these life stages varies depend...
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Polyandry is widespread among many animal taxa, yet the benefits for females are still debated. The two main hypotheses to explain its evolution are the direct benefits and the genetic benefits hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive. We tested both in the wood tiger moth Arctia plantaginis (Arctiidae) by comparing fitness components in single...
Preprint
Full-text available
Colouration is perhaps one of the most prominent adaptations for survival and reproduction of most taxa. Colouration is of particular importance for aposematic species, which rely on their colouring and patterning to act as a warning signal against predators. Most research has focused on the evolution of warning colouration by natural selection. Ho...
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Full-text available
Many animals protect themselves from predation with chemicals, both self-made or sequestered from their diet. The potential drivers of the diversity of these chemicals have been long studied, but our knowledge of these chemicals and their acquisition mode is heavily based on specialist herbivores that sequester their defenses. The wood tiger moth (...
Article
The creation of geographic barriers has long been suspected to contribute to the formation of new species. We investigated the phylogeography of desert ants in the western Mediterranean basin in order to elucidate their mode of diversification. These insects which have a low dispersal capacity are recently becoming important model systems in evolut...
Article
The current magnitude of big-game hunting has outpaced the natural growth of populations, making artificial breeding necessary to rapidly boost hunted populations. In this study we evaluated if the rapid increase of red deer (Cervus elaphus) abundance, caused by the growing popularity of big-game hunting, has impacted the natural genetic diversity...
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In this paper we report the public availability of transcriptome resources for the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis). A comprehensive assembly methods, quality statistics, and annotation are provided. This reference transcriptome may serve as a useful resource for investigating functional gene activity in aposematic Lepidopteran sp...
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Biodiversity studies are more efficient when large numbers of breeds belonging to several countries are involved, as they allow for an in-depth analysis of the within- and between-breed components of genetic diversity. A set of 21 microsatellites was used to investigate the genetic composition of 24 Creole goat breeds (910 animals) from 10 countrie...
Article
AimTo investigate the phylogeography of the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) across its Holarctic distribution and to explore how its genetic structure relates to geographical differences in hindwing warning coloration of males and females. Males have polymorphic hindwing coloration, while female hindwing coloration varies continu...
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Understanding historical range expansions and population demography can be crucial for the conservation and management of endangered species. In doing so, valuable information can be obtained regarding, for example, the identification of isolated populations, associations to particular habitats and distribution range shifts. As poikilotherms, snake...
Article
The Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) suffered a striking collapse of its populations during the first half of the 20th century due to excessive hunting. In Andalusia, southern Spain, re-colonization took place from a few relict populations through natural dispersal, and through artificial reintroductions for big-game hunting. How the po...
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Many plants and animals advertise unpalatability through warning signals in the form of colour and shape. Variation in warning signals within local populations is not expected because they are subject to directional selection. However, mounting evidence of warning signal variation within local populations suggests that other selective forces may be...
Article
Gene flow is the main force opposing divergent selection, and its effects are greater in populations in close proximity. Thus, complete reproductive isolation between parapatric populations is not expected, particularly in the absence of ecological adaptation and sharp environmental differences. Here, we explore the biogeographical patterns of an e...
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Gene flow is the main force opposing divergent selection and its effects are greater in populations in close proximity. Thus, complete reproductive isolation between parapatric populations is not expected, particularly in the absence of ecological adaptation and sharp environmental differences. Here we explore the biogeographic patterns of an endem...
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The theories for the predominance of sexual reproduction predict that parthenogens should have no long-term evolutionary potential due to the lack of genetic recombination, despite short term advantages. Although parthenogenesis is rare among high order animals, true parthenogens can be found in various taxa. The intriguing question of the prolifer...
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Conspicuous cyclic changes in population density characterize many populations of small northern rodents. The extreme crashes in individual number are expected to reduce the amount of genetic variation within a population during the crash phases of the population cycle. By long-term monitoring of a bank vole (Myodes glareolus) population, we show t...
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Dispersal is an important step in animal's life cycle, one consequence of which is reducing local mate and resource competition. Dispersal is often achieved during one unique special movement, from the birthplace to a new appropriate area where to settle and reproduce. However, in species in which this special movement is limited by life history tr...
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Parthenogenetic lineages are predicted to be initially successful, but predisposed to deteriorate due to insufficient genetic diversity. Unexpectedly, parthenogenetic moths do not show any signs of deterioration. We hypothesize that these moths may exhibit levels of genetic diversity which allow them to successfully persist. To test our hypothesis,...
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Eight novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Allelic diversity varied between three and eleven alleles per locus with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.286 to 0.776 among 49 Detroit River fish, with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. One locus showed deviation from Hardy-Weinberg eq...
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Intraspecific competition is a pervasive phenomenon with important ecological and evolutionary consequences, yet its effect in natural populations remains controversial. Although numerous studies suggest that in many cases populations across all organisms are limited by density-dependent processes, this conclusion often relies on correlative data....
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Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Wood Tiger Moth (Parasemia plantaginis), a nocturnal moth of the Arctiidae family distributed throughout the globe at mid to northerly latitudes. Characterization of 25 P. plantaginis individuals form central Austria showed moderate to high allelic diversity ranging from 2...
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The accurate identification of genetic partitioning is of primarily importance when devising conservation management strategies for today's marine resources. The great variety of genetic structure displayed by demersal species underscores the need for the identification of common patterns that can be found across species. Here, we analyse allele fr...
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Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for Aphaenogaster senilis, a common ant species distributed in the Western Mediterranean. Characterization of 15 individuals form southern Spain showed moderate to high allelic diversity ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus. Cross-species tests on 10 individuals of A. iberica, A...
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The spatial distribution of neutral genetic diversity is mainly influenced by barriers to dispersal. The nature of such barriers varies according to the dispersal means and capabilities of the organisms concerned. Although these barriers are often obvious on land, in the ocean they can be more difficult to identify. Determining the relative influen...
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We developed 18 new microsatellite loci for the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Microsatellite loci were screened for variation in two different populations belonging to separate subspecies: the nominal N. p. percnopterus and the Canarian N. p. majorensis. Mean expected heterosygosities were respectively 0.51 and 0.46, while th...
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We have developed eight new microsatellite markers for the saddled bream (Oblada melanura) from an enriched genome library protocol. All these loci are polymorphic, with mean allelic diversity of 14.75 (range 3–22), and expected and observed heterozygosities from 0.233 to 0.918 and 0.212 to 0.913, respectively. Cross-species tests in two close rela...
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Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Cardinal fish (Apogon imberbis), a coastal-reef fish endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Characterization of 30 Cardinal fish individuals form the western Mediterranean showed moderate to high allelic diversity ranging from 6 to 19 alleles per locus. Two loci showed signifi...
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We have developed nine new microsatellite markers for the two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris) from an enriched genome library protocol. All these loci are polymorphic, with mean allelic diversity of 13 (range 5 –21), and expected and observed heterozygosities from 0.641 to 0.932 and 0.428 to 0.914, respectively. Cross-species tests in two clos...
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Ten polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the red mullet (Mullus barbatus). Allele variability was tested on both the red mullet and its congener the striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus). Characterization of 30 individuals of both species from the western Mediterranean showed moderate to high allelic div...
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Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the peacock wrasse (Symphodus tinca), a labrid fish inhabiting the Mediterranean and Black seas. Characterization of 35 individuals from the western Mediterranean indicated a relatively high allelic diversity (mean = 12.4, range 9–17), and observed heterozygosity ranging from...