J. Stewart Black's research while affiliated with INSEAD and other places

Publications (29)

Article
Full-text available
The authors report the collaborative efforts of 2 research teams that independently investigated the effects of stable personality traits (the Big Five) and specific behavioral competencies (cultural flexibility, task and people orientations, and ethnocentrism) on key dimensions of expatriate effectiveness: psychological adjustment, assignment with...
Article
Marriott International celebrates its 75th anniversary in 2002. The company now has over 2,400 hotels, 156 senior living services communities, 60 vacation resorts worldwide, 7,500 ExecuStay apartments, 13 Marriott Conference Centers in the USA, 140,000 employees, and operations in 65 countries. It has under its umbrella 18 brands, including hotels...
Article
Global leaders can be "made", but it takes a training approach that is as serious and sophisticated as the global world these individuals are being asked to lead in. Fundamentally, global leaders require training programs that will help them radically redraw their provincial mental maps into global ones. In this article, we outline the key ingredie...
Article
Building on and extending the literature on organizational commitment, this study examines the relationship between repatriates' work and non-work-related expectations and their commitment to their parent companies and new local work units after completing international assignments. The results, based on a sample of 174 repatriates and 92 partners...
Article
Global leaders can be "made", but it takes a training approach that is as serious and sophisticated as the global world these individuals are being asked to lead in. Fundamentally, global leaders require training programs that will help them radically redraw their provincial mental maps into global ones. In this article, we outline the key ingredie...
Article
After working abroad for extended periods, managers returning to their parent companies and communities are more likely to resign and seek outside employment than executives with comparable experience. Based on a sample of 174 repatriates and 92 spouses with five U.S. multinationals, our research indicates that gaps often exist between the expatria...
Article
Few topics have resulted in as much theory, empirical study, controversy, and practical application as participative decision-making (PDM). Although most past empirical research has assumed that the decision-making process in PDM was unidimensional, this paper explores a multidimensional view and examines the integration of degree of participation...
Article
The exploratory study examines empirically expatriate performance appraisal(EPA) practices for U.S. multinational firms and assesses how such practices relate to the perceived accuracy of EPAs. From a sample of U.S. multinationals, the results suggest that a balanced set of raters from host and home countries and more frequent appraisals relate pos...
Article
Building on the domestic multiple commitment literature, recent international research found that upon repatriation, U.S. expatriates exhibited dual commitments to the parent corporation and local work unit. These results, however, may have been a function of specific cultural values of American managers and may not be generalizable to other sample...
Article
To formulate and implement global strategies, multinational firms need to develop and retain executives with global perspectives and skills. From a sample of U.S., Japanese, and Finnish repatriates, this study addresses the strategic development of international executives by examining the retention of high-performing expatriates after repatriation...
Article
Full-text available
Although the increased internationalization of business has brought greater scholarly attention to the issue of adjustment to overseas assignments, comparatively little research activity has been paid to the topic of adjustment back to the home country and home office—repatriation adjustment. In this article we argue that repatriation adjustment is...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sources of external authority and multiple denominations of value are two distinguishing aspects of the environment faced by multinational enterprises (MNEs). After defining the MNE as an organizational form, we examine the research implications of these two environmental influences on four aspects of MNE internal organization: modes of en...
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Examined the impact of organizational socialization tactics and the moderating effect of organizational tenure on role innovation or the extent to which expatriate American managers overseas changed the procedures and objectives of their jobs. A sample of 220 American expatriate managers working in the Pacific region responded to a questionnaire, a...
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Full-text available
This study examined anticipatory and in-country individual, job, organizational, and non-work variables and their relationship with work, interaction, and general repatriation adjustment for U.S. managers. The study also examined anticipatory and in-country individual and non-work variables and their relationship with interaction and general repatr...
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Full-text available
Scholars have argued that the adjustment of the expatriate's spouse is an important factor in the success or failure of expatriates in overseas assignments; however, they have not empirically examined which factors are related to spouse adjustment. This study is the first to systematically examine the antecedents of spouse cross-cultural adjustment...
Article
Full-text available
The cross-cultural adjustment research literature has largely been conducted from an atheoretical perspective. When a theoretical framework is imposed, the U-Curve adjustment theory has been the one most commonly used. The lack of a comprehensive review of the empirical literature on the U-Curve adjustment theory has allowed scholars to accept or d...
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Although past studies of expatriate adjustment have asked human resource executives their opinions about important antecedents of cross-cultural adjustment (e.g., Tung, 1981, 1988), very few studies have attempted to empirically determine which factors significantly affect cross-cultural adjustment based on data collected from actual expatriate man...
Article
Full-text available
Primarily because of the significant rate and costs of failed international assignments, the attention paid by scholars to the topic of international adjustment has increased recently. Unfortunately, most of the work has been without substantial theoretical grounding. In an effort to move toward a theoretical framework for guiding future research,...
Article
Few studies have attempted to examine how American managers actually manage while on assignment in foreign countries or the effectiveness of these managerial behaviors. This study compared the self-reported managerial behaviors of American expatriate managers in Hong Kong to a sample of American managers in the U.S. and Hong Kong Chinese managers i...
Article
Many multinational corporations experience high and costly rates of expatriates returning prematurely from overseas assignments. Extending the general turnover literature, we test the specific relationships between expectations, satisfaction, and intent to leave for a sample of American expatriates in Japan. In a path analysis, work role clarity an...
Article
Building on the commitment and adjustment literature, this article examines the degree to which dual organizational commitments and multiple facets of cross-cultural adjustment relate to expatriate retention in international assignments. In this study of 321 American expatriates assigned to four countries in the Pacific Rim and four countries in We...
Article
This study examined the direct effects of locus of control and social support on stressors and adjustment, as well as the moderating effects of these variables on the relationship between stressors and adjustment, for a sample of American managers transferred to overseas positions in four Pacific Rim countries — Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong....
Article
Full-text available
Increased internationalization in the economic, political, and social arenas has led to greater interpersonal cross-cultural contact. Because much of this contact has not been successful, cross-cultural training has been proposed by many scholars as a means of facilitating more effective interaction. A review of the cross-cultural training literatu...
Article
Increased internationalization in the economic, political, and social arenas has led to greater interpersonal cross-cultural contact. Because much of this contact has not been successful, cross-cultural training has been proposed by many scholars as a means of facilitating more effective interaction. However, most firms do not utilize cross-cultura...
Article
Past international human resource management literature has suggested that most American multinationalfirms that employ expatriate managers have difficulty successfully retaining these managers in overseas assignments. Although some scholars have suggested that the inability of the spouse to adjust is one of the major reasons expatriate managers re...

Citations

... These studies focused on the concept of fairness that is critical in any form of social relationships and instrumental in the formation of OC (Adams, 1965). Other theoretical perspectives adopted in prior research include person-organization fit theory (Froese & Xiao, 2012), job embeddedness theory (Garcia-Cabrera & Garcia-Soto, 2011), expectancy theory (Gregersen & Black, 1992), procedural and organizational justice theory (Johnson et al., 2002), leadermember exchange theory (Liu & Ipe, 2010), human capital theory (Shaffer, Harrison, Gilley, & Luk, 2001) and contingency theory (Taylor et al., 2008). Table 1 summarizes the most common theoretical lens used in examining OC in MNC context. ...
... Returnees who experience more RCS would have more psychological difficulties and negative feelings about living in their home country, and may therefore intend to re-expatriate. A smooth cross-cultural readjustment process generally leads to positive attitudes toward their firms and their jobs (Gregersen and Black 1993). RCS and poor cross-cultural readjustment would generate dissatisfaction or negative attitudes toward the country and people, an essential element for decision to leave a country (Baruch et al. 2007;Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al. 2005). ...
... al., (2002: 25) observed: "By the early 1990s, this was no longer a radical proposition." The management challenges that continually spawned out of globalization increased the need on the part of MNCs to develop executives who could manage and lead from a global perspective (Mendenhall, Jensen, Gregersen, & Black, 2003). Leadership was deemed to be more complex and challenging than it once was due to the onslaught of the processes of globalization. ...
... Örgütsel bağlılık ile farklı değişkenler arasında çok sayıda çalışma bulunmaktadır. Literatür incelendiğinde, ödüller ve maliyetler (Grusky, 1966), geç kalma, işle ilgili beklentiler ve normlar (Buchanan, 1974), iş karakteristikleri (Steers, 1977), aşırı iş yükü (Stevens vd.,1978), iş seçimi ve iş tatmini (O'Reilly & Caldwell, 1980), rol stresi (Morris & Sherman, 1981), kişi iş uyumu (Stumpff & Hartman, 1984), işten ayrılma (Reichers, 1985), iş süreçleri (Gregersen & Black, 1996), örgütsel etik (Fritz vd., 1999), iletişim (Varona, 2002), insan kaynakları uygulamaları (Fiorito vd., 2007), örgütsel iklim (Noordin vd.,2010) ve işe katılım (Sing & Gupta, 2015) konularında örgütsel bağlılıkla ilişkili olarak farklı çalışmaların yapıldığı görülmektedir. ...
... Our results show how responsibility shared across the PA system encourages collective and interdependent decision-making. As participants accumulated information, solving the problems facing them from various sources relates to the idea of participative decision-making [87]. By being open to new ideas and agents, and carefully balancing the inherently different interests this creates, this helps policy-makers navigate complexity [88]. ...
... Whereas assignments in recent decades have focused on ensuring appropriate control of subsidiaries, the current focus is predominantly on relaying information between countries and developing employees through knowledge sharing (Caligiuri & Bonache, 2016). However, despite a growing body of research surrounding the expatriate experience, questions remain regarding the challenges associated with expatriation (Black & Gregersen, 1991;Takeuchi et al., 2005). Further, although scholarship indicates that social interaction and knowledge sharing contribute to successful cultural adjustment (e.g., Farh et al., 2010), and a sizable literature exists that explores the antecedents of adjustment (e.g., Caligiuri & Bonache 2016), why expatriates fail to achieve desired developmental outcomes remains unanswered. ...
... En paralelo, se ha evidenciado que los directivos de las empresas con actividades internacionales o que compiten en ambientes de negocios globales deben poseer las competencias profesionales que les permitan hacer frente de forma eficaz a los rápidos cambios del entorno empresarial y comunicarse de forma efectiva en la esfera internacional; esto se denomina competencia intercultural, que se ha convertido en un motor crítico del rendimiento internacional (NG, Dyne, & Ang, 2009;Ji, 2020;Ramburuth & Welch, 2005). De otro lado, a medida que aumenta la demanda de personal capaz de obtener un alto rendimiento en un lugar de trabajo multicultural, un mayor número de escuelas de negocios están actualizando sus planes de estudio e ideando nuevas herramientas educativas que puedan preparar mejor a sus graduados para el entorno empresarial cada vez más global (Black & Gregersen, 2000;Jurse & Mulej, 2011;Schmidt-Wilk, 2010;Taras, Caprar, Rottig, Sarala, et.al. 2013). ...
... According to Bingham et al. (2000), major global competencies such as local responsiveness and appreciation of diversity refer to global mindset and cross-cultural leadership, both connected on how to influence others. Multicultural companies, like Procter & Gamble, Novartis, and McKinsey, create computerized talent inventories to support their talent development in emerging markets like China, India, or Eastern Europe (Fitzsimmons, 2013). ...
... Similarly, constructs, such as international entrepreneurial orientation (Chen et al., 2020;Covin & Miller, 2014), international market orientation (Brännback et al., 2007;Knight & Kim, 2009), and institutional capabilities (Jean & Tan, 2019), are typically represented as factors. In contrast, constructs such as cross-cultural adjustment (Black & Stephens, 1989), global mindset (Gupta & Govindarajan, 2002), cultural intelligence (Ang et al., 2007), and foreignness-induced cognitive disorientation (Obadia, 2013) are often considered components, each measured by (a weighted) sum of observed variables that capture different dimensions or facets of the construct. Other constructs such as international performance (Hult et al., 2008;Richter et al., 2019) and export performance (Diamantopoulos, 1999;Sousa, 2004) are represented by either factors or components. ...