J. Mullin's research while affiliated with United States Postal Service and other places

Publications (23)

Article
The physical and chemical properties of various biofuels (biodiesels and gasoline/ethanol blends) were reviewed to determine if they pose any handling problems or exposure risks to personnel at Ohmsett. It was quickly determined that the testing of ethanol/gasoline blends (aka gasohol) at Ohmsett, the National Oil Spill Response Research & Renewabl...
Chapter
Preliminary and small-scale laboratory testing at the scale of 1 and 10 m2 of the concept of using chemical herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in-situ burning was completed in 2004. The encouraging results obtained from these tests prompted further research to be carried out. This paper will present the res...
Article
As a result of the encouraging findings from small-scale tests reported in last year's AMOP, further research has been carried out on using chemical herding agents to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in situ burning. This year's paper presents the results of testing at larger scales at CRREL and at Ohmsett. The results to date show that there is...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared dispersant performance at the U.S. Minerals Management Service facility, Ohmsett, with dispersant performance at sea. In 2003, at-sea dispersant tests were conducted in the United Kingdom with Intermediate Fuel Oils (IFO) of differing viscosities aimed at determining the viscosity of oil that limits chemical dispersion. These te...
Article
Interest was expressed early in 2001 in extending the capabilities of Ohmsett to include testing of spill response equipment in realistic ice conditions. In particular, there was a desire to quantitatively test the oil recovery performance of the prototype Mechanical Oil Recovery in Ice (MORICE) skimmer in representative sea ice in January 2002. A...
Conference Paper
Emulsions are sometimes called mousse by oil spill workers. Emulsions change the properties and chacteristics of oil spills to a very large degree. Studies carried out to determine the stability of water-in-oil emulsions in the OHMSETT tank facility were examined and compared with laboratory results. The conditions for emulsion formation were analo...
Conference Paper
A study on the stability of water-in-oil emulsions in the OHMSETT tank facility was carried out. The conditions for emulsion formation were analogous in the OHMSETT tank and in the laboratory tests. The prime variant was the energy level. The energy levels between the laboratory mixing experiments and the OHMSETT was similar. During the second roun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A study on the temperature effect on the kinetics and stability of water-in-oil formation was carried out. Although a minimum energy threshold was necessary for most emulsion formation, that only work correlated with the value of stability. The work correlated most closely with the stability of the emulsion or water-in-oil state. The stability of a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A study was carried out to examine the kinetics and formation of energy of emulsions. The total energy applied to the oil/water in the emulsion formation apparatus was varied from ∼ 50-600,000 ergs. Although a minimum energy threshold is necessary for most emulsion formation, only work correlated with the stability value. Four clearly-defined state...
Conference Paper
Studies to determine the stability of water-in-oil emulsions of over 100 oils, including one emulsion from the ERIKA spill were summarized. The stability of emulsions could be grouped into three categories: stable, unstable, and meso-stable. Water could also reside in oil as entrained water, in which larger droplets of water are temporarily suspend...
Article
A propane-fueled system for testing fire-resistant booms was installed at Ohmsett in the fall of 1998. The system exposes candidate booms to air-enhanced propane flames and waves, to reproduce a realistic in situ burning environment essentially equal to that of a diesel or crude oil fire. Four fire boom systems were successfully tested in 1998 in t...
Conference Paper
Studies to determine the energy onset of water-in-oil formation were presented. The total energy applied to the oil/water in the emulsion formation apparatus was varied from a minimum to a maximum value of approximately 200 to 600,000 ergs. Four, clearly-defined states of water-in-oil were defined by a number of measurements and by their visual app...
Article
A laboratory test program was conducted with six crude oils to determine the following parameters with respect to in situ burning: •� the limits to ignition using gelled-gasoline igniters imposed by evapora­ tion and emulsion-formation; •� the ability of commercially-available emulsion breakers and alternative fuel igniters to extend the window-of-...
Article
A near full-scale screening test protocol was developed in 1996 that evaluates a fire resistant boom's durability and its ability to contain oil during an in situ burn. Benchmarking the screening test protocol showed that it reproduced the correct stresses (both mechanical and heat) of an in situ burning operation, but that their intensity needed t...
Conference Paper
Studies to determine the stability of water-in-oil emulsions resulting from asphaltene or resin content and viscosity stabilization were presented. These studies have confirmed that the stability of emulsions can be grouped into three categories: stable, unstable, and meso-stable. A class of very stable emulsions exists, characterized by their pers...
Article
Full-text available
Several mesoscale burns were conducted in 1994 in Mobile Bay, AL, to study various aspects of diesel fuel burning in situ. Samples were taken from the oil, residue and the smoke plume during each burn and analyzed by capillary GC-MS. The burn residue and soot produced from the burns were estimated to account for 0.1-0.3% and 8-14% of the diesel by...
Article
A new method has been developed for determining the wax content in crude oils. Saturate fractions, obtained during hydrocarbon group separations by open column chromatography, were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID). The ratio of the resolved C18 + area to the total area was used to calculate the wax content of...
Article
A series of research burns was carried out in the fall of 1997 in Prudhoe Bay, AK in a new wave tank purpose-built for in situ burning studies. These tests were the culmination of a three-year research project by Alaska Clean Seas (ACS) and SL Ross into the effects of oil type, emulsification, temperature and waves on in situ burning in Arctic open...

Citations

... Two separate fire boom test evaluations using air-enhanced propane were conducted in Fall 1998 by MAR, Inc. and S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd. [33,34]. Both tests were conducted at the OHMSETT facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. ...
Reference: In Situ Burning
... The general test procedure was to put 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 20 cm (4' x 4' x 8") slabs of freshwater ice supplied by CRREL into a 32-foot diameter boom circle with the desired ice piece size distribution (55% 4'x4'+ 30% 2"x2" + 15% small fragments - Buist et al. 2002), then move it to the upwind end/side of the tank. Next, the boom was released and allowed to accelerate to its terminal drift speed. ...
... A utility lighter was used to ignite the crude oil before it started spreading. Here, fresh water was used as experimental medium because previous studies reported little difference between herder effectiveness in saline water versus fresh water (Buist et al. 2006;Bullock et al. 2017;Pope et al. 1985). ...
... Smoke was characterized as soot aerosols (particulate) and gases. Soot aerosol primarily consists of elemental carbon and organic carbon such as 3-6 ring PAHs, while gases are mainly composed of CO 2 and CO (Benner Jr et al., 1990;Booher and Janke, 1997;Fingas et al., 1996;Ross et al., 1996;Wang et al., 1999), as well as small quantities of volatile organic compounds, such as benzene and aldehydes (Booher and Janke, 1997), SO 2 (Ross et al., 1996), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (Aurell and Gullett, 2010). ...
... Energy Thresholds to Formation Experiments to measure the effects of energy on emulsion formation were conducted by Fingas et al. (1999Fingas et al. ( , 2000. Water-in-oil emulsions were made in a rotary agitator and the rheometric characteristics of these emulsions studied over time. ...
... Energy Thresholds to Formation Experiments to measure the effects of energy on emulsion formation were conducted by Fingas et al. (1999Fingas et al. ( , 2000. Water-in-oil emulsions were made in a rotary agitator and the rheometric characteristics of these emulsions studied over time. ...
... Depending on the in-situ turbulence level, the physical properties, and the chemical composition of the oil, and the various weathering processes the oil is subjected to while at sea, some oils form water-in-oil emulsions. Water-in oil emulsions (also referred to as mousse) may contain as much as 80% water in the form of micrometer-sized droplets dispersed within a continuous phase of oil (Daling and Brandvik 1988;Fingas et al., 1995;Fingas et al., 1997). ...
... Emulsification is the process by which water is being mixed into the oil. This waterin-oil emulsion in the form of suspended small droplets is often referred to as "mousse" [7,10,[43][44][45][46]. It occurs due to wave breaking, inducing sea surface turbulence, while oil composition, temperature, and viscosity play a significant role in the process [11,[47][48][49]. ...
... The kinetics of emulsion formation has been studied, and data are available to compute the time to formation [74,75]. This study has shown the time to formation for stable emulsions is particularly rapid and that of entrainment is also rapid-both in a matter of minutes. ...