J Lascaratos's research while affiliated with Κωνσταντοπούλειο νοσοκομείο Νέας Ιωνίας (Η Αγία Όλγα) and other places

Publications (76)

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The eminent doctor Constantin Levaditi represents one of the most important researchers in the field of medicine in the 20th century. Although he was engaged in many areas of the rapidly growing field of immunology, his name is associated mainly with research in poliomyelitis. His laboratory research contributed decisively to the clarification of t...
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To describe hydrocephalus, the techniques applied for its treatment by Byzantine physicians, and their later influence. A study and analysis of the original texts of the Byzantine medical writers, written in Greek, was undertaken. A comparison with current concepts also was made. Three eminent Byzantine physicians: Oribasius (4th century AD), Aetiu...
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The aim of this report is to present the ophthalmic wound of King Philip II of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great. From a series of ancient literary and historical sources, a number of archaeological finds, and the paleopathological remains in the supposed tomb of Philip in Vergina, it can be deduced that the king was seriously wounded in his...
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Research into the welfare institutions for the elderly, which were established in the Byzantine Empire. The purpose of the study is the research into the texts of the Byzantine chroniclers and the contemporary historical sources so as to determine the social policy of the Byzantine State regarding the homes for the aged. The histories and chronicle...
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A medical school was founded in Constantinople in 1827. Greek medics were involved with the new school right from its foundation, mainly because they had studied in Europe and knew other European and Asian languages. This paper reviews the lives of five of them: Stefanos Caratheodory; Constantinos Caratheodory; Sarantis Archigenis; Spyridon Mavroge...
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The aim of this article is to present the techniques applied by Byzantine physicians for inguinal hernia repair and to note their influence on the development of surgery after that time. A study and analysis of the original texts of the Byzantine medical writers, written in Greek, and containing the now mostly lost knowledge of the ancient Hellenis...
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History of Medicine was the first subject chosen in the syllabus of the Medical School of Athens National University, which was founded in 1837. The subject was taught by professor Anastasios Georgiadis-Lefkias who was also appointed to be the first Dean of the School. After the departure of professor Georgiadis in 1848, the subject was partially n...
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This study sought to clarify if Alexander the Great indulged pathologically in alcohol and whether it contributed to his death. The texts of the historians Diodorus of Sicily, Plutarch, Arrian, Curtius Rufus, Athenaeus, Aelian and Justin were studied, with their information concerning wine consumption by Macedonians, and especially Alexander, and w...
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The aim of this study is to present the scientific work of Constantin Levaditi (1874-1953), the unknown pioneer in immunology research. Information was collected through secondary data, such as international bibliographic sources and especially the archives of the Pasteur Institute, where the inspired doctor spent most of his fruitful career. Const...
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To report on the career of Professor Nicolas Taptas of Constantinople (1871-1955) and his contribution to the development of an artificial larynx. Historical review. The unpublished documents of Taptas's family archives and one of his papers, describing his own original technique for voice rehabilitation after total laryngectomies, were studied. In...
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To present selected highlights from the evolution of diagnosis of laryngeal disease and treatment of laryngeal cancer from ancient Greece until the 20th century. Historical study of diagnosis of laryngeal disease and treatment of laryngeal cancer from the ancient Greek medical scriptures until the most recent evolutional steps in the 20th century....
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The purpose of the study is the investigation of perinatal nutrition in the early Byzantine period. The original Greek language works of the celebrated physician of the fourth century, Oribasius, were studied. The first Byzantine author who studied perinatal nutrition, Oribasius, provided his own concepts about the topic, focusing on the suitable c...
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The goal of this report is to describe the therapeutic methods and surgical techniques used by Hippocrates (5th century BC) in the treatment of nasal injuries. We studied the original Greek texts of the (generally considered genuine) Hippocratic book Mochlicon and, especially, the analytical On Joints. We identified the treatments and techniques ap...
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It is postulated that the first temples of Asclepios were established in the 5th century BC in many regions in Greece. The healthiest regions with suitable springs of water were chosen for the sites of Asclepieia vath a view to enhancing the rapid recovery of the sick people who presented themselves at the temples. The suppliants entering the templ...
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This present paper analyses and comments on two possible cases of smallpox in Byzantium, derived from historical sources. The sources provide much information on these two unique cases which makes possible an ex post facto approach to the disease. From Arabia, where the disease was endemic, smallpox spread to the Byzantine Empire. Regarding the cli...
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Presentation and comment on the problematic delivery of the Byzantine empress Eudoxia's stillborn child. The original Greek language Byzantine histories, chronicles and hagiographical sources were investigated. Comparisons were then made of the knowledge of obstetrics among contemporary and ancient physicians. The case of Eudoxia's delivery is desc...
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Although the issue of consent in medical practice has grown immensely in recent years, and it is generally believed that historical cases are unknown, our research amongst original ancient Greek and Byzantine historical sources reveals that it is a very old subject which ancient philosophers and physicians have addressed. Plato, in ancient Greece,...
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Research in the works of the Byzantine medical authors brought to light significant information concerning disorders of the sperm as causes of infertility. The eminent Byzantine physicians give detailed accounts about the anatomy of the genitals, the creation of the sperm and its disorders as regards its quantity, quality, appearance, consistency,...
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The purposes of this article are to describe Byzantine varicose vein surgery and to note its influence on the development of these operations after that time. A study and analysis of the original texts of the Byzantine physicians, written in Greek and containing the now mostly lost knowledge of the earlier Hellenistic and Roman periods, was underta...
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The goal of this study was to describe the therapeutic methods and surgical techniques used during Byzantine times (AD 324-1453) for a disease that has occupied physicians since antiquity: nasal polyps. The original Greek-language texts of the Byzantine medical writers, most of which were published after the 17th century, were studied in order to i...
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The aim of this article is the presentation and brief analysis of some historical cases, unknown in the broader medical bibliography, of child sexual abuse in Byzantine Society (324-1453 A.D.). The original texts of the Byzantine historians, chroniclers and ecclesiastical authors, written in the Greek language, were studied in order to locate insta...
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Oribasius was an eminent Byzantine physician who lived in the fourth century. His greatest contribution to medical history was his anthology of all important medical works of his time, entitled Synagogue Medicae. This complete medical encyclopedia of his era consisted of more than 70 volumes. A significant part of this work has been lost. What rema...
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Presentation of epilepsy suffered by Byzantine Emperor Michael IV, Paphlagon (who reigned from 1034 to 1041 A.D.) and the attitude of his contemporary society to his disorder. Research into the accounts of Byzantine historians and chroniclers referring to the case of the emperor and Byzantine medical texts revealing the opinion of official medicine...
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Byzantine surgery flourished from the early stages of the Byzantine empire (324-1453 A.D.). The first great Byzantine physicians, among the most eminent being Oribasius from Pergamun (fourth century), not only compiled anthologies of the works of ancient Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman physicians but added their own personal practical experience and...
Article
We present the techniques of various operations on the larynx and pharynx (incision of abscesses of the tonsils, tonsillectomy, tracheotomy, uvulectomy, and removal of foreign bodies) found in the Greek texts of Byzantine physicians. The techniques of these operations were the first to be so meticulously described and were compiled from the texts,...
Article
We present the techniques of various operations on the larynx and pharynx (incision of abscesses of the tonsils, tonsillectomy, tracheotomy, uvulectomy, and removal of foreign bodies) found in the Greek texts of Byzantine physicians. The techniques of these operations were the first to be so meticulously described and were compiled from the texts,...
Article
The search for the roots of geriatric medicine, which has been considered a relatively new branch. The purpose of the study is the research of the original Byzantine medical texts and the contemporary historical sources so as to bring to light knowledge about ancient medical care. The medical texts of Byzantine physicians were studied and analysed,...
Article
Several Greek and Byzantine sovereigns are known in history by nicknames that are of ophthalmologic origin; the sobriquets derive from characteristics of their eyes or their actions in relation to the eyes. The first was Antigonos I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed), who was the most eminent successor of Alexander the Great and Sovereign of Eastern Medi...
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Our research on the texts of the Byzantine historians and chroniclers revealed an apparently curious phenomenon, namely, the abandonment of terminally ill emperors by their physicians when the latter realised that they could not offer any further treatment. This attitude tallies with the mentality of the ancient Greek physicians, who even in Hippoc...
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The aim of this study is to present the therapeutic methods and surgical techniques in diseases of the ear during Byzantine times (324-1453 A.D.). The original Greek language texts of the Byzantine medical writers were studied to research early otologic knowledge of symptomatology, conservative treatments, and surgical confrontation of diseases of...
Article
The study and analysis of the Byzantine texts after the 9th century, especially those of Theophanes and Ioannes Actuarius, reveals that the ophthalmology of this epoch follows in general lines the knowledge of the earlier ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians, adding, however, remarkable clarifications as to differential diagnosis and treatment. N...
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The study and analysis of aetiology, symptomatology and treatment of intestinal obstruction, based on the texts of Byzantine physicians from the early until the late epoch, prove that the way in which this illness is conceived is substantially unchanged throughout this period. The texts of Byzantine historians and chroniclers present three fatal in...
Article
Several Greek and Byzantine sovereigns are known in history by nicknames that are of ophthalmologic origin; the sobriquets derive from characteristics of their eyes or their actions in relation to the eyes. The first was Antigonos I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed), who was the most eminent successor of Alexander the Great and Sovereign of Eastern Medi...
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The study of contemporary historic sources affords us a clinical picture of the epilepsy of the Byzantine Emperor, Theodore II Lascaris (1254–1258). It appears that he suffered from an epileptic disorder of rather generalized tonic-clonic type (grand mal), which started to afflict him in all probability before the age of 30 years. Numerous incident...
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A new explanation of the death of the Byzantine Emperor
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CASE REPORT: In this paper, two possible cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning previously not identified in the medical and historical literature are discussed. The first concerns the famous Byzantine Emperor Julian the Apostate, who may have suffered mild carbon monoxide poisoning from which he quickly and completely recovered. The second case...
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Hagiographical texts of the Byzantine period contain a significant number of miraculous treatments of several diseases of the ear, nose and throat. The comparison of the conservative treatments referred to as well as the often concealed surgical interventions of these texts with those known from the medical texts of the eminent Byzantine physicians...
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I believe that the transient blindness which presented Alexander the Great after his being wounded on his head and/or his neck by a stone from a catapult during the siege of Cyropolis (329 BC) was in all probability a case of transient cortical blindness that was recognized as a special entity in the 1960s. I reached this conclusion after the compa...
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The Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341 AD) died at age 45 from a disease the nature of which is unknown. However, light is thrown on this by the texts of the Byzantine historians John Cantacuzenus (who became Emperor under the name of John VI) and Nicephorus Gregoras, both of whom belonged to the immediate entourage of the Empe...
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Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the cou...
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The authors present and comment on the surgical methods performed on hermaphrodites and for castration, which are unique in the medical bibliography of Byzantium and were described by the famous physician of the 7th century, Paul of Aegina. The latter describes the techniques of reconstruction of hermaphrodites learned from the now lost work of the...
Article
Mutilation was a common punishment in Byzantium, which in all probability was introduced from the East. In legislation it was first featured in the "Eclogi" collection of laws of the Emperor Leo Isavrus III (717-741 A.D.). There are, however, indications that this punishment was already established and widespread in the time of Justinian I (527-565...
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The knowledge of the Byzantine physicians in the field of otorhinolaryngology and especially of the eminent ones, Oribasius, Aetius of Ameda, Paul of Aegina and Alexander of Tralles is noteworthy. They knew an adequate number of diseases of the ear, nose and throat and treated them with a plethora of drugs and some of them, especially tonsillitis a...
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The legislation and the texts of the most important medical writers of Byzantine times have been studied with reference to abortions, the ethical aspect of this social and medico-legal problem, the theological and the scientific approach. The theoretical basis of the permanent and absolute condemnation of all kinds of abortions except those permitt...
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Two characteristic historical examples of defensive medicine are referred to and analysed. The first of them relates to the behaviour of the eminent and experienced physician Critobulus, a member of the family of Asclepiades of Cos Island, native island of Hippocrates, who hesitated to undertake the operation on the severely wounded Alexander the G...
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The present study presents the case of Didymus the Blind, worthy author, philosopher and theologian of the 4th century AD. Blinded by ophthalmia at the age of four years, Didymus succeeded in achieving great learning in the philosophical and natural sciences. He began his education by using a system which was remarkably like Braille, that is readin...
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Between the 15th and 19th centuries the University of Padua attracted a great number of Greek students, who wanted to study medicine. They came not only from Venetian dominions (where the percentage reaches 97% of the students in Italian universities) but also from Turkish-occupied territories of Greece. It is also characteristic that several profe...
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Based on the typikon of the Imperial Monastery of the Pantocrator of Constantinople (12th century) and the manuscripts used in the Byzantine hospitals as well as the published Lives of the Saints and other related sources, it is undeniable that special ophthalmological departments existed in the xenones of Byzantium. It is also proven, that specifi...
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A significant number of outstanding Greek physicians had had their studies or post graduation courses at the University of Bologna during the period of the 17th-19th century. As a brief outline, six (6) eminent figures should be mentioned: 1. Alexander Mavrocordatos (1641-1709), the outstanding politician and diplomat of his time; 2. John Baptist C...
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The Ionian Academy, on the British dominion island of Corfu (Kerkyra), was founded in 1824 and his Medical School functioned during two separate periods (1824-1828, 1844-1865). It was the first Greek University. Among the 15 professors of the Academy's Medical School, 12 studied at various Italian universities. In particular, three of them, G. Ther...

Citations

... The works of Oribasius further substantiate the practice of plastic surgery in antiquity. Born in 325 AD in Pergamum, Turkey, Oribasius studied medicine in the School of Alexandria, becoming the palace physician in 355 AD and, eventually, the personal physician of Emperor Julian [39,40]. It was on the Emperor's orders that he compiled a 70-volume medical text called the Synagôgai iatrikai (Medical Collection) which was written in Greek (Fig. 6) [39, 40]. ...
... Theophanes Chryssovalantes (10 th century), Michael Psellus (11 th century), Nicolaus Myrepsus (13 th century), and Ioannes Actuarius (14 th century), contain extended chapters with descriptions of the treatment of rhinitis, ozena and nasal malodour, ulcers, anosmia, polyps, epistaxis, bruises, fractures and cancer (14) . Some of these physicians have described specific surgical techniques for various nasal diseases, and especially for the removal of polyps and reconstruction of the nose in cases of defects and fractures (15) . ...
... Estrabón, cuya obra es anterior a la de Curcio, concuerda con el Nicomediense en este punto 26,27 . Su fecha varía apenas entre los comentadores, situándose en 325-326 a. C.; añade Heckel que entonces transcurría el otoño [28][29][30][31] . De acuerdo con Arriano, relató Tolomeo que el Macedón recibió solo una herida (FGrH 138 F 26a); versión que contrasta con la expuesta por Plutarco. ...
... ÊáôÜöåñå íá åðá-íÝëèåé óôï èñüíï ôïõ ôï 705, ìåôÜ ôçí áðüäñáóÞ ôïõ, áëëÜ Ýðñåðå, óýìöùíá ìå ôéò áíôéëÞøåéò êáé ôïõò íüìïõò ôçò åðï÷Þò, ï Âõaeáíôéíüò ÁõôïêñÜôïñáò íá åßíáé áñôé-ìåëÞò, ÷ùñßò óùìáôéêÞ áíáðçñßá êáé åðïìÝíùò üöåéëå íá áðïêáôáóôÞóåé ôç âëÜâç ôïõ. 9 Ç åðßôåõîç áõôÞò ôçò ðëáóôéêÞò åðÝìâáóçò äåí ðñÝðåé ðëÝïí íá ìïéÜaeåé áðßèáíç óýìöùíá ìå ôá óôïé÷åßá ðïõ õðÜñ÷ïõí. 10,11 ÓõìðåñáóìáôéêÜ, ÷Üñç óôá êåßìåíá ôïõ ÏñåéâÜóéïõ, ðïëëÝò ÷åéñïõñãéêÝò ôå÷íéêÝò êáé èåñáðåõôéêÝò ìÝèïäïé äéáóþèçêáí ìÝ÷ñé ôç óýã÷ñïíç åðï÷Þ. Ïé ðåñéóóüôåñåò áðü ôéò ðåñéãñáöüìåíåò åðáíïñèùôéêÝò ôå÷íéêÝò ãéá ôï ðñüóùðï áðïäßäïíôáé óôïí ¢íôõëëï, áëëÜ öáßíåôáé üôé êÜðïéåò áðü áõôÝò åß÷áí ðåñéãñáöåß áðü Üëëïõò éáôñïýò ôçò ó÷ïëÞò ôùí Ðíåõìáôéóôþí. ...
... Surgery during the Byzantine era seem to have been so highly developed that skillful surgeons dared to perform complex procedures such as lithotripsy in the bladder (Marketos et al., 1994), tracheostomy , the separation of Siamese twins (Pentogalos and Lascaratos, 1984), special techniques for plastic and reconstructive surgery of the face (Lascaratos et al., 1998a), treatment of aneurysms (Lascaratos et al., 1998b), and varices (Lascaratos et al., 2001). ...
... Investigation of various available sources (medical, theological, historical, literary) of Byzantine literature reveals that the practice of medicine in Byzantium comprised four major and basic specialties each with a wide range of the medical spectrum, i.e. internal medicine, surgery, gynaecology, ophthalmology, which were practiced in the corresponding separate wings and departments of the famous "Xenons", e the remarkable public medical institutions or Hospitals of the Byzantine Empire (Lascaratos and Marketos, 1991;Bennett, 2000). ...
... Historically, the first case of epispadias was recorded in the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius. 1 In 1845, Dieffenbach became the first surgeon ever to repair the epispadiac urethra by freshening the lateral tissue edges and placing approximating sutures. He, however, did not try to restore the urethral function and stressed only on cosmetic aspects. 2 Though isolated epispadias is considered to be less severe than extrophy-epispadias complex, but its repair is also a challenge and requires high surgical expertise. ...
... Through a cannula dilating the urethra, Egyptians had smaller calculi taken out successful. Some forms of lithotripsy using a catheter can be traced back to the 9th century during Byzantine period [2] . In the 18th century, with the development of chemical technology, people have tried to dissolve calculi by chemical means, but all failed. ...
... Prototype systems were invented and tried with a few individuals in Europe during at least three hundred years before Moon and Braille achieved widespread use; and in Egypt some twelve hundred years earlier (J. Lascaratos & S. Marketos, 1994, Didymus the blind: an unknown precursor of Louis Braille and Helen Keller. Documenta Ophthalmologica 86: [203][204][205][206][207][208]. ...
... There are several sources commenting on historical figures affected by neurological diseases, among whom Alexander the Great is mentioned. It was suggested that Alexander the Great suffered from cervical dystonia [7]. His abnormal neck posture was described by Plutarch, who noted that Lyssipus, the emperor's personal sculptor, modeled the first statue of Alexander which represented him looking up with his face turned toward the heavens (Fig. 2). ...
Reference: Art and Dystonia