J. K. Jørgensen's research while affiliated with IT University of Copenhagen and other places

Publications (167)

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The molecule studied in this work, 2-hydroxyprop-2-enal, is among the candidates to be searched for in the interstellar medium (ISM), as it is a dehydration product of C3 sugars and contains structural motifs typical for some interstellar molecules. The aim of this work is to deepen knowledge about the millimetre-wave spectrum of 2-hydroxyprop-2-en...
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(Abridged) Physical processes such as accretion shocks are thought to be common in the protostellar phase, where the envelope component is still present, and they can release molecules from the dust to the gas phase, altering the original chemical composition of the disk. Consequently, the study of accretion shocks is essential for a better underst...
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Characterizing the molecular composition of solar-type protostars is useful for improving our understanding of the physico-chemical conditions under which the Sun and its planets formed. In this work, we analyzed the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data of the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), an unbiased spectral...
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Characterizing the molecular composition of solar-type protostars is useful for improving our understanding of the physico-chemical conditions under which the Sun and its planets formed. In this work, we analyzed the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data of the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), an unbiased spectral...
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Context. Astronomers have yet to establish whether high-mass protostars form from high-mass prestellar cores, similar to their lower-mass counterparts, or from lower-mass fragments at the heart of a pre-protostellar cluster undergoing large-scale collapse. Part of the uncertainty is due to a shortage of envelope structure data on protostars of a fe...
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Solar-type protostars harbor highly deuterated complex organics. While this degree of deuteration may provide important clues in studying the formation of these species, spectroscopic information on multiply deuterated isotopologs is often insufficient. In particular, searches for triply deuterated methanol, CD$_3$OH, are hampered by the lack of in...
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Solar-type protostars have been shown to harbor highly deuterated complex organics, as evidenced, for instance, by the high relative abundances of doubly and triply deuterated isotopologs. While this degree of deuteration may provide important clues in studying the formation of these species, spectroscopic information on multiply deuterated isotopo...
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Context. Gas accretion flows transport material from the cloud core onto the protostar. In multiple protostellar systems, it is not clear if the delivery mechanism is preferential or more evenly distributed among the components. Aims. The distribution of gas accretion flows within the cloud core of the deeply embedded, chemically rich, low-mass mul...
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Astronomers have yet to establish whether high-mass protostars form from high-mass prestellar cores, similar to their lower-mass counterparts, or from lower-mass fragments at the heart of a pre-protostellar cluster undergoing large-scale collapse. Part of the uncertainty is due to a shortage of envelope structure data on protostars of a few tens of...
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Context. A variety of laboratory ice spectra simulating different chemical environments, ice morphologies, and thermal and energetic processing are needed in order to provide an accurate interpretation of the infrared spectra of protostars. To decipher the combination of laboratory data that best fits the observations, an automated, statistics-base...
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Context. Complex organic molecules (COMs) are commonly detected in and near star-forming regions. However, the dominant process in the release of these COMs from the icy grains – where they predominately form – to the gas phase is still an open question. Aims. We investigate the origin of COM emission in a high-mass protostellar source, CygX-N30 MM...
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(Abridged) Complex organic molecules (COMs) are commonly detected in and near star-forming regions. However, the dominant process in the release of these COMs from the icy grains - where they predominately form - to the gas phase is still an open question. We investigate the origin of COM emission in a protostellar source, CygX-N30, through high-an...
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Context. Dust grains play an important role in the synthesis of molecules in the interstellar medium, from the simplest species, such as H 2 , to complex organic molecules. How some of these solid-state molecules are converted into gas-phase species is still a matter of debate. Aims. Our aim is to directly compare ice and gas abundances of methanol...
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Dust grains play an important role in the synthesis of molecules in the interstellar medium, from the simplest species to complex organic molecules. How some of these solid-state molecules are converted into gas-phase species is still a matter of debate. Our aim is to directly compare ice and gas abundances of methanol (CH$_3$OH) and CO, and to inv...
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Establishing the origin of the water D/H ratio in the Solar System is central to our understanding of the chemical trail of water during the star and planet formation process. Recent modeling suggests that comparisons of the D$_2$O/HDO and HDO/H$_2$O ratios are a powerful way to trace the chemical evolution of water and, in particular, determine wh...
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Context. Establishing the origin of the water D/H ratio in the Solar System is central to our understanding of the chemical trail of water during the star and planet formation process. Recent modeling suggests that comparisons of the D 2 O/HDO and HDO/H 2 O ratios are a powerful way to trace the chemical evolution of water and, in particular, deter...
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Recent observations of the HDO/H$_2$O ratio toward protostars in isolated and clustered environments show an apparent dichotomy, where isolated sources show higher D/H ratios than clustered counterparts. Establishing which physical and chemical processes create this differentiation can provide insights into the chemical evolution of water during st...
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Context. Recent observations of the HDO/H 2 O ratio toward protostars in isolated and clustered environments show an apparent dichotomy, where isolated sources show higher D/H ratios than clustered counterparts. Establishing which physical and chemical processes create this differentiation can provide new insights into the chemical evolution of wat...
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Aims. Methyl isocyanate (CH 3 NCO) and glycolonitrile (HOCH 2 CN) are isomers and prebiotic molecules that are involved in the formation of peptide structures and the nucleobase adenine, respectively. These two species are investigated to study the interstellar chemistry of cyanides (CN) and isocyanates (NCO) and to gain insight into the reservoir...
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Methyl isocyanate (CH$_{3}$NCO) and glycolonitrile (HOCH$_{2}$CN) are isomers and prebiotic molecules that are involved in the formation of peptide structures and the nucleobase adenine, respectively. ALMA observations of the intermediate-mass Class 0 protostar Serpens SMM1-a and ALMA-PILS data of the low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS~16293B are used...
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Context. Physical processes that govern the star and planet formation sequence influence the chemical composition and evolution of protoplanetary disks. Recent studies allude to an early start to planet formation already during the formation of a disk. To understand the chemical composition of protoplanets, we need to constrain the composition and...
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Context. The interaction between dust, ice, and gas during the formation of stars produces complex organic molecules. While observations indicate that several species are formed on ice-covered dust grains and are released into the gas phase, the exact chemical interplay between solid and gas phases and their relative importance remain unclear. Aims...
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The interaction between dust, ice, and gas during the formation of stars produces complex organic molecules. While observations indicate that several species are formed on ice-covered dust grains and are released into the gas phase, the exact chemical interplay between solid and gas phases and their relative importance remain unclear. Our goal is t...
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Context. Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C 2 H 3 CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. Aims. This study aims to search for the presence of C 2 H 3 CHO and other three-carbo...
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Context. Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C 2 H 3 CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. Aims. This study aims to search for the presence of C 2 H 3 CHO and other three-carbo...
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Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C$_2$H$_3$CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. This study aims to search for the presence of C$_2$H$_3$CHO and other three-carbon species s...
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Context. Water is a key volatile that provides insight into the initial stages of planet formation. The low water abundances inferred from water observations toward low-mass protostellar objects may point to a rapid locking of water as ice by large dust grains during star and planet formation. However, little is known about the water vapor abundanc...
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The collapse of the protostellar envelope results in the growth of the protostar and the development of a protoplanetary disk, playing a critical role during the early stages of star formation. Characterizing the gas infall in the envelope constrains the dynamical models of star formation. We present unambiguous signatures of infall, probed by opti...
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Context. Complex organic molecules are detected in many sources in the warm inner regions of envelopes surrounding deeply embedded protostars. Exactly how these species form remains an open question. Aims. This study aims to constrain the formation of complex organic molecules through comparisons of their abundances towards the Class 0 protostellar...
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Complex organic molecules (COM) are detected in many sources in the warm inner regions of envelopes surrounding deeply embedded protostars. Exactly how these COM form remains an open question. This study aims to constrain the formation of complex organic molecules through comparisons of their abundances towards the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS...
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Methanol is a key species in astrochemistry because it is the most abundant organic molecule in the interstellar medium and is thought to be the mother molecule of many complex organic species. Estimating the deuteration of methanol around young protostars is of crucial importance because it highly depends on its formation mechanisms and the physic...
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Episodic accretion has been used to explain the wide range of protostellar luminosities, but its origin and influence on the star-forming process are not yet fully understood. We present an ALMA survey of N2H+ (1−0) and HCO+ (3−2) toward 39 Class 0 and Class I sources in the Perseus molecular cloud. N2H+ and HCO+ are destroyed via gas-phase reactio...
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Context. Propyne (CH 3 CCH), also known as methyl acetylene, has been detected in a variety of environments, from Galactic star-forming regions to extragalactic sources. These molecules are excellent tracers of the physical conditions in star-forming regions, allowing the temperature and density conditions surrounding a forming star to be determine...
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Context. Propyne (CH$_3$CCH) has been detected in a variety of environments, from Galactic star-forming regions to extragalactic sources. Such molecules are excellent tracers of the physical conditions in star-forming regions. Aims. This study explores the emission of CH$_3$CCH in the low-mass protostellar binary, IRAS 16293$-$2422, examining the s...
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Context. How water is delivered to planetary systems is a central question in astrochemistry. The deuterium fractionation of water can serve as a tracer for the chemical and physical evolution of water during star formation and can constrain the origin of water in Solar System bodies. Aims. The aim is to determine the HDO/H 2 O ratio in the inner w...
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The deuterium fractionation of water can serve as a tracer for the chemical and physical evolution of water during star formation and can constrain the origin of water in Solar System bodies. We determine the HDO/H$_2$O ratio in the inner warm gas toward three low-mass Class 0 protostars selected to be in isolated cores, i.e., not associated with a...
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We have observed 29 transitions corresponding to 12 distinct species and 7 additional isotopologs toward the deeply embedded Class 0 young stellar object Ser-emb 1 with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at 1 mm. The detected species include CH3OH and two complex organic molecules, CH3OCH3 and CH3OCHO. The emission of CH3OH and the two COMs is comp...
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(Abridged) The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure of a line-rich Class I protobinary source, Oph-IRS 67, and analyse the differences and similarities with Class 0 and Class II sources. We present a systematic molecular line study of IRS 67 with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) on 1 - 2" (150 - 300 AU) scales. The wide instantaneous band...
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Context. Recent results suggest that the first steps towards planet formation may be already taking place in protoplanetary discs during the first 100 000 yr after stars form. It is therefore crucial to unravel the physical and chemical structures of such discs in their earliest stages while they are still embedded in their natal envelopes and comp...
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(Abridged) The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare the physical and chemical structure of Class I low-mass protostellar sources on protoplanetary disc scales. We present a study of the dust and gas emission towards a representative sample of 12 Class I protostars from the Ophiuchus molecular cloud with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submi...
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Context. The structure and composition of emerging planetary systems are likely strongly influenced by their natal environment within the protoplanetary disc at the time when the star is still gaining mass. It is therefore essential to identify and study the physical processes at play in the gas and dust close to young protostars and investigate th...
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Context. The majority of stars form in binary or higher order systems. The evolution of each protostar in a multiple system may start at different times and may progress differently. The Class 0 protostellar system IRAS 16293–2422 contains two protostars, “A” and “B”, separated by ~600 au and embedded in a single, 10 ⁴ au scale envelope. Their rela...
Article
The emergence of life on Earth may have its origin in organic molecules formed in the interstellar medium. Molecules with amide and isocyanate groups resemble structures found in peptides and nucleobases and are necessary for their formation. Their formation is expected to take place in the solid state, on icy dust grains, and is studied here by fa...
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[Abridged] The majority of stars form in binary or higher order systems. The Class 0 protostellar system IRAS16293-2422 contains two protostars, 'A' and 'B', separated by ~600 au and embedded in a single, 10^4 au scale envelope. Their relative evolutionary stages have been debated. We aim to study the relation and interplay between the two protosta...
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Nitrogen oxides are thought to play a significant role as a nitrogen reservoir and to potentially participate in the formation of more complex species. Until now, only NO, NO, and HNO have been detected in the interstellar medium. We report the first interstellar detection of nitrous acid (HONO). Twelve lines were identified towards component B of...
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Nitrogen oxides are thought to play a significant role as a nitrogen reservoir and to potentially participate in the formation of more complex species. Until now, only NO, N$_2$O and HNO have been detected in the interstellar medium. We report the first interstellar detection of nitrous acid (HONO). Twelve lines were identified towards component B...
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Cyanamide is one of the few interstellar molecules containing two chemically different N atoms. It was detected recently toward the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422 B together with H$_2$N$^{13}$CN and HDNCN in the course of the Atacama Large Millemeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). The detection of...
Article
We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of 1.1 mm dust continuum and CO 2-1 emission toward six dense cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. We detect compact, subarcsecond continuum structures toward three targets, two of which (Oph A N6 and SM1) are located in the Ophiuchus A ridge. Two targets, SM1 and GS...
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Studies of deuterated isotopologues of complex organic molecules can provide important constraints on their origin in star formation regions. In particular, the abundances of deuterated species are very sensitive to the physical conditions in the environment where they form. Because the temperatures in star formation regions are low, these isotopol...
Preprint
Studies of deuterated isotopologues of complex organic molecules can provide important constraints on their origin in regions of star formation. In particular, the abundances of deuterated species are very sensitive to the physical conditions in the environment where they form. Due to the low temperatures in regions of star formation, these isotopo...
Article
Molecules with an amide functional group resemble peptide bonds, the molecular bridges that connect amino acids, and may thus be relevant in processes that lead to the formation of life. In this study, the solid state formation of some of the smallest amides is investigated in the laboratory. To this end, CH4:HNCO ice mixtures at 20 K are irradiate...
Article
Recent measurements carried out at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P) with the Rosetta probe revealed that molecular oxygen, O₂, is the fourth most abundant molecule in comets. Models show that O₂ is likely of primordial nature, coming from the interstellar cloud from which our solar system was formed. However, gaseous O₂ is an elusive molecule...
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Context. One of the important questions of astrochemistry is how complex organic molecules, including potential prebiotic species, are formed in the envelopes around embedded protostars. The abundances of minor isotopologues of a molecule, in particular the D- and ¹³ C-bearing variants, are sensitive to the densities, temperatures and timescales ch...
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This paper presents a systematic survey of the deuterated and 13C isotopologues of a variety of oxygen-bearing complex organic molecules on Solar System scales toward the protostar IRAS 16293-2422B. We use the data from an unbiased molecular line survey between 329 and 363 GHz from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The observ...
Article
Context. Hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) and methylamine (CH 3 NH 2 ) have both been suggested as precursors to the formation of amino acids and are therefore, of interest to prebiotic chemistry. Their presence in interstellar space and formation mechanisms, however, are not well established. Aims. We aim to detect both amines and their potential precursor...
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Full-text available
Molecules with an amide functional group resemble peptide bonds, the molecular bridges that connect amino acids, and may thus be relevant in processes that lead to the formation of life. In this study, the solid state formation of some of the smallest amides is investigated in the laboratory. To this end, CH$_{4}$:HNCO ice mixtures at 20 K are irra...
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Hydroxylamine (NH$_{2}$OH) and methylamine (CH$_{3}$NH$_{2}$) have both been suggested as precursors to the formation of amino acids and are therefore of interest to prebiotic chemistry. Their presence in interstellar space and formation mechanisms, however, are not well established. We aim to detect both amines and their potential precursor molecu...
Article
Context. Methyl isocyanide (CH 3 NC) is the isocyanide with the largest number of atoms confirmed in the interstellar medium (ISM), but it is not an abundant molecule, having only been detected towards a handful of objects. Conversely, its isomer, methyl cyanide (CH 3 CN), is one of the most abundant complex organic molecules detected in the ISM, w...
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Methyl isocyanide (CH$_3$NC) is the isocyanide with the largest number of atoms confirmed in the interstellar medium (ISM), but it is not an abundant molecule, having only been detected towards a handful of objects. Conversely, its isomer, methyl cyanide (CH$_3$CN), is one of the most abundant complex organic molecules detected in the ISM, with det...
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Context. Much attention has been placed on the dust distribution in protostellar envelopes, but there are still many unanswered questions regarding the physico-chemical structure of the gas. Aims. Our aim is to start identifying the factors that determine the chemical structure of protostellar regions, by studying and comparing low-mass embedded sy...
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Context . Complex organic molecules are readily detected in the inner regions of the gaseous envelopes of forming protostars. Their detection is crucial to understanding the chemical evolution of the Universe and exploring the link between the early stages of star formation and the formation of solar system bodies, where complex organic molecules h...
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Complex organic molecules are readily detected in the inner regions of the gaseous envelopes of forming protostars. In particular, molecules that contain nitrogen are interesting due to the role nitrogen plays in the development of life and the compact scales such molecules have been found to trace around forming protostars. The goal of this work i...
Article
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Searches for the prebiotically-relevant cyanamide (NH$_2$CN) towards solar-type protostars have not been reported in the literature. We here present the first detection of this species in the warm gas surrounding two solar-type protostars, using data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PIL...
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Context. The Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293–2422 is an interesting target for (sub)millimeter observations due to, both, the rich chemistry toward the two main components of the binary and its complex morphology. Its proximity to Earth allows the study of its physical and chemical structure on solar system scales using high angular resoluti...
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Context. The enhanced degrees of deuterium fractionation observed in envelopes around protostars demonstrate the importance of chemistry at low temperatures, relevant in pre- and protostellar cores. Formaldehyde is an important species in the formation of methanol and more complex molecules. Aims. Here, we aim to present the first study of formalde...