J. J. Bock's research while affiliated with California Institute of Technology and other places

Publications (942)

Preprint
Full-text available
Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background rely on cryogenic instrumentation with cold detectors, readout, and optics providing the low noise performance and instrumental stability required to make more sensitive measurements. It is therefore critical to optimize all aspects of the cryogenic design to achieve the necessary performance, with lo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Constraining the Galactic foregrounds with multi-frequency Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations is an essential step towards ultimately reaching the sensitivity to measure primordial gravitational waves (PGWs), the sign of inflation after the Big-Bang that would be imprinted on the CMB. The BICEP Array telescope is a set of multi-frequenc...
Preprint
Full-text available
The BICEP3 Polarimeter is a small aperture, refracting telescope, dedicated to the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at 95GHz. It is designed to target degree angular scale polarization patterns, in particular the very-much-sought-after primordial B-mode signal, which is a unique signature of cosmic inflation. The polarized signa...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments deploying large arrays of transition-edge sensors (TESs) often require a robust method to monitor gain variations with minimal loss of observing time. We propose a sensitive and non-intrusive method for monitoring variations in TES responsivity using small square waves applied to the TES bias. We construct an estimator for a TES’s small...
Article
Full-text available
Modern cosmic microwave background (CMB) analysis pipelines regularly employ complex time-domain filters, beam models, masking, and other techniques during the production of sky maps and their corresponding angular power spectra. However, these processes can generate couplings between multipoles from the same spectrum and from different spectra, in...
Article
Full-text available
We present the first linear polarization measurements from the 2015 long-duration balloon flight of Spider , which is an experiment that is designed to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on degree angular scales. The results from these measurements include maps and angular power spectra from observations of 4.8% of the sk...
Article
We report on the design and performance of the B icep3 instrument and its first three-year data set collected from 2016 to 2018. B icep3 is a 52 cm aperture refracting telescope designed to observe the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on degree angular scales at 95 GHz. It started science observation at the South Pole in 2016 w...
Article
We present an improved search for axionlike polarization oscillations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with observations from the Keck Array. An all-sky, temporally sinusoidal rotation of CMB polarization, equivalent to a time-variable cosmic birefringence, is an observable manifestation of a local axion field and potentially allows a CMB p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Experiments deploying large arrays of transition-edge sensors (TESs) often require a robust method to monitor gain variations with minimal loss of observing time. We propose a sensitive and non-intrusive method for monitoring variations in TES responsivity using small square waves applied to the TES bias. We construct an estimator for a TES's small...
Article
Full-text available
We present the XFaster analysis package, a fast, iterative angular power spectrum estimator based on a diagonal approximation to the quadratic Fisher matrix estimator. It uses Monte Carlo simulations to compute noise biases and filter transfer functions and is thus a hybrid of both Monte Carlo and quadratic estimator methods. In contrast to convent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The BICEP/Keck Collaboration is currently leading the quest to the highest sensitivity measurements of the polarized CMB anisotropies on degree scale with a series of cryogenic telescopes, of which BICEP Array is the latest Stage-3 upgrade with a total of ∼32,000 detectors. The instrument comprises 4 receivers spanning 30 to 270 GHz, with the low-f...
Preprint
Full-text available
The BICEP/Keck Collaboration is currently leading the quest to the highest sensitivity measurements of the polarized CMB anisotropies on degree scale with a series of cryogenic telescopes, of which BICEP Array is the latest Stage-3 upgrade with a total of $\sim32,000$ detectors. The instrument comprises 4 receivers spanning 30 to 270 GHz, with the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Modern CMB analysis pipelines regularly employ complex time-domain filters, beam models, masking, and other techniques during the production of sky maps and their corresponding angular power spectra. However, these processes can generate couplings between multipoles from the same spectrum and from different spectra, in addition to the typical power...
Article
We present results from an analysis of all data taken by the BICEP2, Keck Array, and BICEP3 CMB polarization experiments up to and including the 2018 observing season. We add additional Keck Array observations at 220 GHz and BICEP3 observations at 95 GHz to the previous 95/150/220 GHz dataset. The Q/U maps now reach depths of 2.8, 2.8, and 8.8 μKCM...
Article
Full-text available
Scattered sunlight from the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud in our Solar system presents a serious foreground challenge for spectro-photometric measurements of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). In this work, we report on measurements of the absolute intensity of the Zodiacal Light (ZL) using the novel technique of Fraunhofer line spectrosco...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the XFaster analysis package. XFaster is a fast, iterative angular power spectrum estimator based on a diagonal approximation to the quadratic Fisher matrix estimator. XFaster uses Monte Carlo simulations to compute noise biases and filter transfer functions and is thus a hybrid of both Monte Carlo and quadratic estimator methods. In con...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the first linear polarization measurements from the 2015 long-duration balloon flight of SPIDER, an experiment designed to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on degree angular scales. Results from these measurements include maps and angular power spectra from observations of 4.8% of the sky at 95 and 150 GHz, a...
Article
We present a search for axionlike polarization oscillations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with observations from the Keck Array. A local axion field induces an all-sky, temporally sinusoidal rotation of CMB polarization. A CMB polarimeter can thus function as a direct-detection experiment for axionlike dark matter. We develop techniques...
Article
We present a constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, derived from measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization B-modes with “delensing,” whereby the uncertainty on r contributed by the sample variance of the gravitational lensing B-modes is reduced by cross-correlating against a lensing B-mode template. This template is const...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work we describe upgrades to the Spider balloon-borne telescope in preparation for its second flight, currently planned for December 2021. The Spider instrument is optimized to search for a primordial B-mode polarization signature in the cosmic microwave background at degree angular scales. During its first flight in 2015, Spider mapped ~10...
Article
Line intensity mapping (LIM) provides a unique and powerful means to probe cosmic structures by measuring the aggregate line emission from all galaxies across redshift. The method is complementary to conventional galaxy redshift surveys that are object-based and demand exquisite point-source sensitivity. The Tomographic Ionized-carbon Mapping Exper...
Preprint
Full-text available
Line intensity mapping (LIM) provides a unique and powerful means to probe cosmic structures by measuring the aggregate line emission from all galaxies across redshift. The method is complementary to conventional galaxy redshift surveys that are object-based and demand exquisite point-source sensitivity. The Tomographic Ionized-carbon Mapping Exper...
Preprint
BICEP3 is a 520 mm aperture on-axis refracting telescope at the South Pole, which observes the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 95 GHz to search for the B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. In addition to this main target, we have developed a low-elevation observation strategy to extend coverage of the Southe...
Conference Paper
A detection of curl-type (B-mode) polarization of the primary CMB would be direct evidence for the inflationary paradigm of the origin of the Universe. The Bicep/Keck Array (BK) program targets the degree angular scales, where the power from primordial B-mode polarization is expected to peak, with ever-increasing sensitivity and has published the m...
Conference Paper
TIME is an instrument being developed to study emission from faint objects in our universe using line intensity mapping (LIM) to understand the universe over cosmic time. The TIME instrument is a mm-wavelength grating spectrometer with Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers measuring in the frequency range of 200-300 GHz with 60 spectral pixels an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work we describe upgrades to the Spider balloon-borne telescope in preparation for its second flight, currently planned for December 2021. The Spider instrument is optimized to search for a primordial B-mode polarization signature in the cosmic microwave background at degree angular scales. During its first flight in 2015, Spider mapped ~10...
Preprint
The BICEP3 CMB Polarimeter is a small-aperture refracting telescope located at the South Pole and is specifically designed to search for the possible signature of inflationary gravitational waves in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The experiment measures polarization on the sky by differencing the signal of co-located, orthogonally polarized...
Preprint
A detection of curl-type ($B$-mode) polarization of the primary CMB would be direct evidence for the inflationary paradigm of the origin of the Universe. The BICEP/Keck Array (BK) program targets the degree angular scales, where the power from primordial $B$-mode polarization is expected to peak, with ever-increasing sensitivity and has published t...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the implications for cosmic inflation of the 2018 release of the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. The results are fully consistent with those reported using the data from the two previous Planck cosmological releases, but have smaller uncertainties thanks to improvements in the characterization of polar...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the implications for cosmic inflation of the 2018 release of the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. The results are fully consistent with those reported using the data from the two previous Planck cosmological releases, but have smaller uncertainties thanks to improvements in the characterization of polar...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of the Planck 2018 data set indicates that the statistical properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies are in excellent agreement with previous studies using the 2013 and 2015 data releases. In particular, they are consistent with the Gaussian predictions of the ΛCDM cosmological model, yet also confirm the...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the legacy Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihoods derived from the 2018 data release. The overall approach is similar in spirit to the one retained for the 2013 and 2015 data release, with a hybrid method using different approximations at low (ℓ < 30) and high (ℓ ≥ 30) multipoles, implementing several methodological and da...
Article
Full-text available
The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which was dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013, producing deep, high-resolution, all-sky maps in nine frequency bands from 30 to 857 GHz....
Article
Full-text available
We present cosmological parameter results from the final full-mission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of large-scale polarization allow the reionization optic...
Article
Full-text available
We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential using the final Planck 2018 temperature and polarization data. Using polarization maps filtered to account for the noise anisotropy, we increase the significance of the detection of lensing in the polarization maps from 5σ to 9σ. Combined with temperature, lensing is...
Article
Full-text available
Observations of the submillimetre emission from Galactic dust, in both total intensity I and polarization, have received tremendous interest thanks to the Planck full-sky maps. In this paper we make use of such full-sky maps of dust polarized emission produced from the third public release of Planck data. As the basis for expanding on astrophysical...
Article
Full-text available
Families of cosmic inflation models predict a primordial gravitational-wave background that imprints B-mode polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). High-sensitivity instruments with wide frequency coverage and well-controlled systematic errors are needed to constrain the faint B-mode amplitude. We have developed antenna-coupl...
Article
Full-text available
Branches of cosmic inflationary models, such as slow-roll inflation, predict a background of primordial gravitational waves that imprints a unique odd-parity “B-mode” pattern in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at amplitudes that are within experimental reach. The BICEP/Keck (BK) experiment targets this primordial signature, the amplitude of w...
Article
Full-text available
The BICEP/Keck experiment (BK) is a series of small-aperture refracting telescopes observing degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization from the South Pole in search of a primordial B-mode signature. This B-mode signal arises from primordial gravitational waves interacting with the CMB and has amplitude parametrized by the tensor-t...
Article
Full-text available
The BICEP/Keck (BK) experiment aims to detect the imprint of primordial gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background polarization, which would be direct evidence of the inflation theory. While the tensor-to-scalar ratio has been constrained to be r_(0.05) < 0.06 at 95% c.l., further improvements on this upper limit are hindered by polariz...
Article
Full-text available
We describe an on-sky demonstration of a microwave-multiplexing readout system in one of the receivers of the Keck Array, a polarimetry experiment observing the cosmic microwave background at the South Pole. During the austral summer of 2018–2019, we replaced the time-division multiplexing readout system with microwave-multiplexing components inclu...
Article
Full-text available
Future mm-wave and sub-mm space missions will employ large arrays of multiplexed transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers. Such instruments must contend with the high flux of cosmic rays beyond our atmosphere that induce ‘glitches’ in bolometer data, which posed a challenge to data analysis from the Planck bolometers. Future instruments will face th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Future mm-wave and sub-mm space missions will employ large arrays of multiplexed Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. Such instruments must contend with the high flux of cosmic rays beyond our atmosphere that induce "glitches" in bolometer data, which posed a challenge to data analysis from the Planck bolometers. Future instruments will face th...
Preprint
The BICEP/Keck (BK) experiment aims to detect the imprint of primordial gravitational waves in the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, which would be direct evidence of the inflation theory. While the tensor-to-scalar ratio has been constrained to be r_0.05 < 0.06 at 95% c.l., further improvements on this upper limit are hindered by polarized...
Preprint
Families of cosmic inflation models predict a primordial gravitational-wave background that imprints B-mode polarization pattern in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). High sensitivity instruments with wide frequency coverage and well-controlled systematic errors are needed to constrain the faint B-mode amplitude. We have developed antenna-coupl...
Preprint
Branches of cosmic inflationary models, such as slow-roll inflation, predict a background of primordial gravitational waves that imprints a unique odd-parity B-mode pattern in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at amplitudes that are within experimental reach. The BICEP/Keck (BK) experiment targets this primordial signature, the amplitude of whi...
Article
Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) combine the excellent noise performance of traditional bolometers with a radio frequency (RF) multiplexing architecture that enables the large detector counts needed for the next generation of millimeter-wave instruments. Here we present dark prototype TKID pixels that demonstrate a noise equivalent powe...
Preprint
Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) combine the excellent noise performance of traditional bolometers with a radio frequency (RF) multiplexing architecture that enables the large detector counts needed for the next generation of millimeter-wave instruments. Here we present dark prototype TKID pixels that demonstrate a noise equivalent powe...
Article
Full-text available
The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which was dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013, producing deep, high-resolution, all-sky maps in nine frequency bands from 30 to 857 GHz....
Article
Precision measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization require extreme control of instrumental systematics. In a companion paper we have presented cosmological constraints from observations with the BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments up to and including the 2015 observing season (BK15), resulting in the deepest CMB polarization map...
Article
Full-text available
We describe an on-sky demonstration of a microwave-multiplexing readout system in one of the receivers of the Keck Array, a polarimetry experiment observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at the South Pole. During the austral summer of 2018-2019, we replaced the time-division multiplexing (TDM) readout system with microwave-multiplexing comp...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe an on-sky demonstration of a microwave-multiplexing readout system in one of the receivers of the Keck Array, a polarimetry experiment observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at the South Pole. During the austral summer of 2018-2019, we replaced the time-division multiplexing (TDM) readout system with microwave-multiplexing comp...
Preprint
The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins (PICO) is a proposed probe-scale space mission consisting of an imaging polarimeter operating in frequency bands between 20 and 800 GHz. We describe the science achievable by PICO, which has sensitivity equivalent to more than 3300 Planck missions, the technical implementation, the schedule and cost.
Article
Full-text available
We present measurements of the power spectra of cosmic infrared background (CIB) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations in six frequency bands. Maps at the lower three frequency bands, 95, 150, and 220 GHz (3330, 2000, and 1360 μm) are from the South Pole Telescope, while the upper three frequency bands, 600, 857, and 1200 GHz (500, 350...
Article
Full-text available
This white paper addresses key challenges for the design of next-decade Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments, and for assessing their capability to extract cosmological information from CMB polarization. We focus here on the challenges posed by foreground emission, CMB lensing, and instrumental systematics to detect the signal that arises...
Preprint
Full-text available
This white paper addresses key challenges for the design of next-decade Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments, and for assessing their capability to extract cosmological information from CMB polarization. We focus here on the challenges posed by foreground emission, CMB lensing, and instrumental systematics to detect the signal that arises...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper describes the 2018 Planck CMB likelihoods, following a hybrid approach similar to the 2015 one, with different approximations at low and high multipoles, and implementing several methodological and analysis refinements. With more realistic simulations, and better correction and modelling of systematics, we can now make full use of the Hi...
Article
This paper describes the 2018 Planck CMB likelihoods, following a hybrid approach similar to the 2015 one, with different approximations at low and high multipoles, and implementing several methodological and analysis refinements. With more realistic simulations, and better correction and modelling of systematics, we can now make full use of the Hi...