J. Groenewald's research while affiliated with Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute and other places

Publications (206)

Article
Clematis L. is one of the largest genera of Ranunculaceae, accommodating over 300 plant species (Wang & Li 2005). They are mostly flowering creepers commonly grown as ornamentals. Clematis leaf spot and wilt is a fungal disease caused by Calophoma clematidina (Thüm.) Q. Chen & L. Cai. Infected plants initially show irregular brown to black leaf spo...
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia , Agaricus albofoetidus , Agaricus aureoelephanti and Agaricus parviumbrus on soil, Fusarium ramsdenii from stem cankers of Araucaria cunninghamii , Keissleriella sporoboli from stem of Sporobolus natalensis , Leptosphaerulina queenslandica and...
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This paper is the fourth contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information about the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms, as well as DNA barcodes for the taxa covered. Moreover, 12 whole-genome sequences for the type or new species in the treated genera...
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Nine new genera, 17 new species, nine new combinations, seven epitypes, three lectotypes, one neotype, and 14 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. New genera: Neobarrmaelia (based on Neobarrmaelia hyphaenes ), Neobryochiton (based on Neobryochiton narthecii ), Neocamarographium (based on Neocamarographium...
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antartica, Cladosporium austrolitorale from coastal sea sand. Australia, Austroboletus yourkae on soil, Crepidotus innuopurpureus on dead wood, Curvularia stenotaphri from roots and leaves of Stenotaphrum secundatum and Thecaphora stajsicii from capsules...
Article
Soil fungi play a crucial role in soil quality and fertility in being able to break down organic matter but are frequently also observed to play a role as important plant pathogens. As part of a Citizen Science Project initiated by the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute and the Utrecht University Museum, which aimed to describe novel fungal s...
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Recent publications have argued that there are potentially serious consequences for researchers in recognising distinct genera in the terminal fusarioid clade of the family Nectriaceae. Thus, an alternate hypothesis, namely a very broad concept of the genus Fusarium was proposed. In doing so, however, a significant body of data that supports distin...
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The leaf spot disease of Pongamia pinnata caused by an asperisporium-like asexual morph, which is usually referred to as Asperisporium pongamiae , is quite common during monsoon seasons in India. Phylogenetic analyses, based on LSU and rpb2 sequence data, and blast searches using ITS sequence data, revealed that this ascomycete forms a lineage with...
Article
The Botryosphaeriales ( Dothideomycetes ) includes numerous endophytic, saprobic, and plant pathogenic species associated with a wide range of symptoms, most commonly on woody plants. In a recent phylogenetic treatment of 499 isolates in the culture collection (CBS) of the Westerdijk Institute, we evaluated the families and genera accommodated in t...
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An order, family and genus are validated, seven new genera, 35 new species, two new combinations, two epitypes, two lectotypes, and 17 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. Validated order, family and genus: Superstratomycetales and Superstratomycetaceae (based on Superstratomyces). New genera: Haudseptori...
Article
Using the correct name for phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes is essential for communicating knowledge about species and their biology, control, and quarantine as well as for trade and research purposes. However, many plant pathogenic fungi are pleomorphic, meaning they produce different asexual (anamorph) and sexual (teleomorph) morphs in their l...
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Seven new genera, 26 new species, 10 new combinations, two epitypes, one new name, and 20 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. New genera are: Italiofungus (based on Italiofungus phillyreae ) on leaves of Phillyrea latifolia (Italy); Neolamproconium (based on Neolamproconium silvestre ) on branch of Tilia...
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The Genera of Fungi series, of which this is the sixth contribution, links type species of fungal genera to their morphology and DNA sequence data. Five genera of microfungi are treated in this study, with new species introduced in Arthrographis , Melnikomyces , and Verruconis . The genus Thysanorea is emended and two new species and nine combinati...
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica, Cladosporium arenosum from marine sediment sand. Argentina, Kosmimatamyces alatophylus (incl. Kosmimatamyces gen. nov.) from soil. Australia, Aspergillus banksianus, Aspergillus kumbius, Aspergillus luteorubrus, Aspergillus malvicolor and Asp...
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Fungal communities play a crucial role in maintaining the health of managed and natural soil environments, which directly or indirectly affect the properties of plants and other soil inhabitants. As part of a Citizen Science Project initiated by the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute and the Utrecht University Museum, which aimed to describe...
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The Capnodiales, which includes fungi known as the sooty moulds, represents the second largest order in Dothideomycetes, encompassing morphologically and ecologically diverse fungi with different lifestyles and modes of nutrition. They include saprobes, plant and human pathogens, mycoparasites, rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF), lichenised, epi-, ecto- a...
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Members of Venturiales (Dothideomycetes) are widely distributed, and comprise saprobes, as well as plant, human and animal pathogens. In spite of their economic importance, the general lack of cultures and DNA data has resulted in taxa being poorly resolved. In the present study five loci, ITS, LSU rDNA, tef1, tub2 and rpb2 are used for analysing 1...
Article
Carpetgrass (Axonopus compressus) is a creeping, stoloniferous, perennial warm-season grass that is adapted to humid tropical and subtropical climates. Recently, outbreaks of anthracnose disease of A. compressus caused by an unidentified Colletotrichum sp. were observed in the Hainan and Guangdong provinces in southern China. In late winter and ear...
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The Sigatoka leaf spot complex on Musa spp. includes three major pathogens: Pseudocercospora , namely P. musae (Sigatoka leaf spot or yellow Sigatoka), P. eumusae (eumusae leaf spot disease), and P. fijiensis (black leaf streak disease or black Sigatoka). However, more than 30 species of Mycosphaerellaceae have been associated with Sigatoka leaf sp...
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica , Apenidiella antarctica from permafrost, Cladosporium fildesense from an unidentified marine sponge. Argentina , Geastrum wrightii on humus in mixed forest. Australia , Golovinomyces glandulariae on Glandularia aristigera , Neoanungitea eucal...
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During a survey of diseases affecting pomegranate in the southeastern USA we identified a unique species of Diaporthales causing leaf spotting and fruit rot. Objectives of this study were to provide a morphological description of the putative new species, use DNA sequence data of three gene loci (LSU, ITS and rpb2) to accurately place the fungus wi...
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Species of eucalypts are commonly cultivated for solid wood and pulp products. The expansion of commercially managed eucalypt plantations has chiefly been driven by their rapid growth and suitability for propagation across a very wide variety of sites and climatic conditions. Infection of foliar fungal pathogens of eucalypts is resulting in increas...
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Chaetomella pseudocircinoseta and Coniella pseudodiospyri on Eucalyptus microcorys leaves, Cladophialophora eucalypti, Teratosphaeria dunnii and Vermiculariopsiella dunnii on Eucalyptus dunnii leaves, Cylindrium grande and Hypsotheca eucalypto...
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One order, seven families, 28 new genera, 72 new species, 13 new combinations, four epitypes, and interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. Pseudorobillardaceae is introduced for Pseudorobillarda (based on P. phragmitis). New genera include: Jeremyomyces (based on J. labinae) on twigs of Salix alba (Germany);...
Article
Anaerobic fungi (Neocallimastigomycetes) play an important role in fermenting lignin-rich plant biomass into sugars in the rumen of animals, representing a very promising enzyme resource to contribute to the conversion of plant biomass into biofuels. However, current studies about their functions mainly focus on limited species, and little is known...
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p>This paper represents the third contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions, information about the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera, as well as primary and secondary DNA barcodes for the currently accepted species included in these. Th...
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The present paper represents the fifth contribution in the Genera of Fungi series, linking type species of fungal genera to their morphology and DNA sequence data. This paper focuses on 11 genera of microfungi, for seven of which the type species are neo- or epitypified here: Arthrinium (Arthrinium caricicola; Apiosporaceae, Xylariales, Sordariomyc...
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The appendaged coelomycete genus Seimatosporium (Sporocadaceae, Sordariomycetes) and some of its purported synonyms Allelochaeta,Diploceras and Vermisporium are re-evaluated. Based on DNA data for five loci (ITS, LSU, rpb2, tub2 and tef1), Seimatosporium is shown to be paraphyletic. The ex-type species of Allelochaeta, Discostromopsis and Vermispor...
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Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to am...
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Although Glomerella glycines, Colletotrichum magnum and C. orchidearum are known as causal agents of anthracnose of soybean, Cucurbitaceae and Orchidaceae, respectively, their taxonomy remains unresolved. In preliminary analyses based on ITS, strains of these species appear basal in Colletotrichum phylogenies, clustering close to C. cliviae, C. bre...
Data
The first of 1 000 equally most parsimonious trees obtained from a heuristic search of an ITS alignment (representing the Cladosporium species known from ITS data. The Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP; >0.74) and maximum parsimony bootstrap support values (PBS; >74 %) are shown at the nodes (BPP/PBS) and thickened lines represent those branche...
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica: Cadophora antarctica from soil. Australia: Alfaria dandenongensis on Cyperaceae, Amphosoma persooniae on Persoonia sp., Anungitea nullicana on Eucalyptus sp., Bagadiella eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus, Castanediella eucalyptigena on Eucalyp...
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Diaporthales is an important ascomycetous order comprising phytopathogenic, saprobic, and endophytic fungi, but interfamilial taxonomic relationships are still ambiguous. Despite its cosmopolitan distribution and high diversity with distinctive morphologies, this order has received relatively little attention. Currently the existing classification...
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea, Davidiellomyces australiensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Disculoides calophyllae on C...
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Species of Colletotrichum are considered important plant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes on a wide range of plant hosts. Several species are well-known on citrus, either as agents of pre- or post-harvest infections, such as anthracnose, postbloom fruit drop, tear stain and stem-end rot on fruit, or as wither-tip of twigs. In this study we explo...
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Isolates of Teratosphaeriaceae have frequently been found in the integument of attine ants, proving to be common and diverse in this microenvironment. The LSU phylogeny of the ant-isolated strains studied revealed that they cluster in two main lineages. The first was associated with the genus Xenopenidiella whereas the other represented two ant-iso...
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In 2007 a new Stemphylium leaf spot disease of Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) spread through the Netherlands. Attempts to identify this destructive Stemphylium sp. in sugar beet led to a phylogenetic revision of the genus. The name Stemphylium has been recommended for use over that of its sexual morph, Pleospora, which is polyphyletic. Stemphylium form...
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Brazil harbours a unique ecosystem, the Caatinga, which belongs to the tropical dry forest biome. This region has an important diversity of organisms, and recently several new fungal species have been described from different hosts and substrates within it. During a survey of fungal endophyte diversity from cacti in this forest, we isolated cladosp...
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The genus Phyllosticta occurs worldwide, and contains numerous plant pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species. Phyllosticta citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot disease (CBS), affecting fruits and leaves of several citrus hosts (Rutaceae), and can also be isolated from asymptomatic citrus tissues. Citrus Black Spot occurs in citru...
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Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like ap...
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The Botryosphaeriales are amongst the most widespread, common and important fungal pathogens of woody plants. Many are also known to exist as endophytes in healthy plant tissues. This special issue highlights a number of key themes in the study of this group of fungi. In particular, there have been dramatic taxonomic changes in the decade since thi...
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The phylum Neocallimastigomycota contains eight genera (about 20 species) of strictly anaerobic fungi. The evolutionary relationships of these genera are uncertain due to insufficient sequence data to infer their phylogenies. Based on morphology and molecular phylogeny, thirteen isolates obtained from yak faeces and rumen digesta in China were assi...
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Although the genus Pseudocercospora has a worldwide distribution, it is especially diverse in tropical and subtropical countries. Species of this genus are associated with a wide range of plant species, including several economically relevant hosts. Preliminary studies of cercosporoid fungi from Brazil allocated most taxa to Cercospora, but with th...
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Apiognomonia lasiopetali on Lasiopetalum sp., Blastacervulus eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus adesmophloia, Bullanockia australis (incl. Bullanockia gen. nov.) on Kingia australis, Caliciopsis eucalypti on Eucalyptus marginata, Celerioriella petroph...
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During a survey of endophytic fungi from the cactus Tacinga inamoena in a Brazilian tropical dry forest (Caatinga) some undescribed ascomycetous fungi were isolated. These fungi are characterized by superficial and immersed, globose to subglobose, smooth or hairy ascomata, bitunicate asci, and muriformly septate, ellipsoidal ascospores. Multigene p...
Article
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is a semiaquatic plant in the Brassicaceae that is grown as a fresh-market, specialty leafy green, minor crop commodity. The 2014 watercress crop in Santa Clara Co. was 4.9 ha and the size of grower operations ranged from 0.04 to 1.5 ha. In July 2014, commercially grown greenhouse watercress plantings in th...
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Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual genera following the end of dual nomenclature, and to describe species or note interesting observations re...
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Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial Asteraceae plant grown for its immature flower buds that are harvested as a vegetable commodity. In August 2014, commercial artichoke plantings in Santa Cruz Co., California, showed symptoms of an unidentified foliar disease. Leaf spots were circular to oval, dark brown on the adaxial side but gray on the...
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Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the parti...