J. Francisco Morales's research while affiliated with University of Castilla-La Mancha and other places

Publications (30)

Article
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The Three-Factor Model (Choi, Fuqua & Newman, 2008, 2009), which consists of a feminine factor and two masculine ones, seems especially appropriate for explaining the influence of gender-stereotypic traits on bullying, since it specifically differentiates between “social masculinity”, the first masculine factor, dealing with behaviors toward others...
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In four experiments, we tested whether members of stigmatized groups are expected to be more tolerant toward other minorities than members of non-stigmatized groups and assessed the consequences of disconfirming those expectancies. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that majority group members expected members of a stigmatized group to be more tolerant tow...
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The main purpose of this study is to investigate gender differences in leadership styles and in organizational outcome variables, together with the influence of organizational/contextual variables on leadership styles in female and male partici- pants in Spain. The sample comprised 226 participants (35 leaders and 191 subor- dinates) belonging to 3...
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People differ in their reactions to the outcomes of their group. Whereas some may revel in victory and mourn in defeat, others may internalize victory but distance themselves from defeat. Here, we sought to relate these divergent reactions to two forms of alignment with groups–identity fusion and group identification. Investigations of the 2008 ele...
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Objective: To assess the role that social contextual factors exert on the way people with disproportionate short stature (dwarfism) cope with the negative consequences of discrimination. Method: Using multigroup structural equation modeling, we compare the coping process of people with dwarfism from Spain (N = 63) and the USA (N = 145), two coun...
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Meta-analyses of the Theory of Planned Behavior have not been applied to smoking cessation despite that progressively increases the number of primary studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 121 effect sizes (ES) on Theory of Planned Behavior and smoking cessation and examined the influences of four potential moderator variables. Global ES have bee...
Article
Meta-analyses of the Theory of Planned Behavior have not been applied to smoking cessation despite that progressively increases the number of primary studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 121 effect sizes (ES) on Theory of Planned Behavior and smoking cessation and examined the influences of four potential moderator variables. Global ES have bee...
Article
Se describe la aportación de John C. Turner (1947–2011) al desarrollo de la Psicología Social contemporánea. Se hace hincapié en su capacidad de innovación en investigación y teorización, que cristalizó en la formulación de dos teorías nucleares de la disciplina: la Teoría de la Identidad Social y la Teoría de la Categorización del Yo. Se concluye...
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When people are ostrasized (i.e., rejected and excluded) by either an outgroup or an ingroup, they may either withdraw or engage in compensatory activities designed to reaffirm their social identity as a group member. The authors proposed here that individual differences in identity fusion (an index of familial orientation toward the group) would m...
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La Psicología Positiva abre nuevas avenidas de investigación y teoría para todas las áreas de la Psicología, la Psicología Social incluida, disciplina que, salvo excepciones (como el caso de Peter Suedfeld, que se describe brevemente), ha prestado escasa atención a los aspectos positivos de la interacción social. Como ejemplo del valor de la posibl...
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RESUMEN Se defiende que la dominación masculina en el ámbito político es responsable de limitar la implicación de las mujeres en política. Para ello, se examinan diversos procesos psicosociales a través de los cuales se dificulta el ejercicio del lideraz-go por parte de las mujeres en contextos masculinos. Se destacan las consecuen-cias negativas p...
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RESUMEN Se defiende que la dominación masculina en el ámbito político es responsable de limitar la implicación de las mujeres en política. Para ello, se examinan diversos procesos psicosociales a través de los cuales se dificulta el ejercicio del lideraz-go por parte de las mujeres en contextos masculinos. Se destacan las consecuen-cias negativas p...
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Identity fusion is a feeling of oneness with the group that induces people to tether their feelings of personal agency to the group. We accordingly proposed that increasing the agency of fused persons by elevating autonomic arousal would amplify their tendency to endorse and actually enact pro-ingroup behavior. In 4 experiments, increasing autonomi...
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A study, using a longitudinal two-wave model, and dealing with the effects of both perceived psychological contract breach and social identity on organisational citizenship behaviour mid job satisfaction in a sample of Spanish professional soldiers, is reported here. It was found that social identity mediates the effects of perceived breach on outc...
Article
Full-text available
A study, using a longitudinal two-wave model, and dealing with the effects of both perceived psychological contract breach and social identity on organisational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction in a sample of Spanish professional soldiers, is reported here. It was found that social identity mediates the effects of perceived breach on outc...
Article
In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement plann...
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The authors propose that when people become fused with a group, their personal and social identities become functionally equivalent. Two hypotheses follow from this proposition. First, activating either personal or social identities of fused persons should increase their willingness to endorse extreme behaviors on behalf of the group. Second, becau...
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Engagement as a consequence of organizational socialization. In the last years, the research on organizational socialization has focused on the study of the contents of the socialization, having stressed that is fundamentally a learning process in which the employee adopts an active role. Following the model of Taormina, we distinguish four domains...
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The aim of this study is twofold: to determine whether (and how) gender stereotypes have changed over time through a comparison of two different sets of data collected in 1993 (N=1255) and 2001 (N=1255) from a representative sample of the Spanish population, and to examine the relation between gender traits and roles and its stability over time. In...
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This study attempts to test one of the explanations of the scarce representation of women in managerial positions, specifically the one advanced by "role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders" (Eagly & Karau, 2002), which appeals to the fact that women get unfavorable evaluations if they adopt male-stereotypical leadership styles. One...
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Se presenta un trabajo que tuvo como objetivo principal analizar distintas características de naturaleza grupal de las que depende el acoso sufrido por algunos integrantes de un grupo. De esta forma, nuestro estudio se centra en demostrar que el grado de identificación con el grupo es clave a la hora de entender cómo se expresan las conductas de ex...
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This study has two main goals: (a) to compare the relationship between transformational leadership and other important leadership styles (i.e., democratic versus autocratic or relations- and task-oriented leadership) and (b) to compare the effects of transformational leadership and the other styles on some important organizational outcomes such as...
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El objetivo principal de este trabajo es explorar los procesos de categorización del yo en niveles subordinados y supraordenados en contextos organizacionales y sus antecedentes y resultados actitudinales y conductuales. Dos perfiles diferentes de identificación social en una muestra de profesores de primaria se han propuesto (N = 119), la orientac...
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El trabajo que aquí se presenta forma parte de una investigación más amplia cuyo objetivo fundamental es investigar una serie de variables psicosociales, organizacionales y estructurales con el fin de explicar la limitada presencia de mujeres en puestos de liderazgo. Nuestro interés en este artículo se centra en conocer la capacidad predictiva de d...
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The scope and nature of the identification process of 282 workers representative of an important professional group of a university organization is analyzed in an attempt to ascertain if they identify mainly with their organization as a whole or with their professional group. A strong rivalry between the group object of the study and another profes...
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La teoría de la auto-verificación manifiesta que las personas desean que los demás les vean tal y como ellos se ven a sí mismos. Según este supuesto harán lo posible por conseguir una coherencia psicológica y valorarán positivamente aquellas circunstancias que les permitan conseguir dicha coherencia. El presente trabajo trata de extender este supue...
Article
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Several theoretical contributions have been formulated recently in an attempt to explain the low rate of women in leadership positions. One of the most influential is Eagly and Karau's (2002) proposal, known as "role congruity theory". In essence, it argues that women aspiring to leadership positions are the target of two forms of prejudice. The fi...
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El presente trabajo trata de analizar los aspectos psicosociales de la exclusión social centrándose, sobre todo, en su relación con la inmigración. Haremos referencia al prejuicio y la estigmatización, que tienden a justificar la exclusión y mantener el status quo, así como a los efectos negativos de la exclusión sobre los grupos afectados. Para il...
Article
"Ponencias del Curso de Verano del título, organizado por la U niversidad de Castilla-La Mancha en Cuenca, junio de 1995" Incluye bibliografía

Citations

... StudiesbyJordanetal. [39]showthatamongMilitaryOfficers,OCBsstronglycorrelatewith fulfillingthepsychologicalcontractandwithlackofcynicismtowardsthearmy.Accordingto Gurbuz [25],OCBsintheTurkishLandForcesarerelatedtojobsatisfaction,organizational commitment,organizationaljustice,andtrustingone'ssupervisor.Topaetal. [40]addthat citizenshipbehaviorsinthearmyarestronglyrelatedtosocialidentityandfulfillingtheaspectsofpsychologicalcontractregardingwagesandjobsecurity.DuetothestudiesonOCBs, wecanconductabetterpersonnelselectionprocessandpredictasoldier'scareerpath [41]. AnintriguingandimportantpointwasmadebyHungandTsai [42].Theyfoundthatethical workclimatesinmilitaryunitsarevitaltoOCBs. ...
... Choi et al. presented a three-factor model of gender stereotypes comprising one feminine factor and two masculine factors, one with personality dimensions and another with social dimensions representing control over others [114]. A study by Morales et al. showed that social masculinity is a factor related to bullying among boys and girls [115]. The construction of gender also influences our perceptions of others' behaviour [116], so it could influence bystander behaviour. ...
... However, contrary to these findings, the high level of in-group identification is associated with negative psychological outcomes in some studies as depersonalization (e.g., Hatvany, Burkley, & Curtis, 2017). Considering the different findings in the literature, identity fusion theory (e.g., Buhrmester et al., 2012;Gomez et al., 2011;Özdemir & Özkan, 2020;Swann et al., 2014), which is used to explain social group-based processes and differs from social identity theory in terms for suggesting that individual-based and group-based identities can be salient at the same time and interrelated, is tested as main approach in this study. In this respect, this research, conducted with university students who Another point is that gender-based significant differences on tested variables in this research were detected by previously conducted studies. ...
... Most people are not morally concerned about the malpractices experienced by migrants (Molero et al., 2021), leaving the affected migrants with only one option: to assimilate their health situation and adapt their migratory journey according to the social support that is available to them. As a consequence, they develop care strategies that are potentially harmful, such as self-medication or reaching out to individuals who are not health professionals. ...
... The methodology used was the structural equation model (SEM), which is a multivariate statistical analysis method applied for contrast models that propose causal relationships between variables [38][39][40]. It is widely used in multiple works which have established explicative models of the influences of certain variables on health in adolescents: in terms of physical activity [29,41,42]; alcohol consumption [43][44][45]; tobacco consumption [46]; nutrition [42] and education [47,48] as well as medical use. A similar situation occurs, from many diverse perspectives, in immigration. ...
... Yet, when past harms perpetrated against a group are highlighted, it has been found that victim group members are often perceived to have psychologically benefitted from the experience (e.g., learned to appreciate life more) [2]. Because they know what it means to experience undeserved suffering, members of victimized groups are often expected to be better, stronger people, and are held to a particularly high standard of moral conduct (i.e., have an obligation to help or not harm non-adversarial others) [3][4][5]. ...
... Existen diferentes tesis en la literatura sobre las diferencias entre los estilos de liderazgo de hombres y mujeres que se soporta en la experiencia empírica por su participación en organizaciones, no obstante, los científicos sociales argumentan que no existen diferencias entre los estilos, sino que las diferencias radican cuando en los trabajos se incluye la categoría de género como parte de sus análisis (Cuadrado, 2003). En este sentido, es posible reconocer en algunos de estos trabajos una caracterización estereotipada entre hombres y mujeres, mientras que a los hombres se les atribuyen conductas asociadas con la productividad, la eficiencia, la autonomía, la independencia, la competencia, la autoridad jerárquica, un alto control del líder y la solución analítica de problemas; a las mujeres se les asocia con rasgos relacionados con aspectos afectivos, emocionales y tendientes a favorecer las relaciones, con un liderazgo caracterizado por la cooperación, la colaboración entre el líder y los subordinados, un bajo control, la resolución de problemas con base en la intuición y la empatía (Cuadrado y Morales, 2007). ...
... (Collante y Villanueva, 2018) En cuanto a las diferencias por sexo, se pudo identificar que tanto hombres como mujeres en este estudio obtuvieron tendencias similares hacia un liderazgo democrático. Es necesario evaluar las diferencias por sexo ya que algunos autores como Morales y Cuadrado (2011) manifiestan que las personas todavía definen a un buen líder con rasgos estereotípicamente masculinos, mientras que los femeninos nunca aparecen en las definiciones, además el campo del liderazgo, tal como señalan varios autores, ha sido concebido tradicionalmente como masculino; (López y García 2008; Morales y Cuadrado, 2011; como se cita en Cuadrado, Navas et al. 2012;Cuadrado, et al. 2003) estas afirmaciones anteriores pueden ser debido a que existe escasa presencia de mujeres en puestos de liderazgo, y se sugiere que posiblemente sea una consecuencia de diferencias por sexo entre los estilos de liderazgo. (Cuadrado, Molero, y Navas, 2003) Los estudios destinados a comparar a hombres y mujeres que ya ocupan posiciones como lideresas son más bien escasos y relativamente recientes, lo que revelan la ausencia de resultados concluyentes y ponen de manifiesto la compleja naturaleza de la relación existente entre los estilos de liderazgo y el género. ...
... (Collante y Villanueva, 2018) En cuanto a las diferencias por sexo, se pudo identificar que tanto hombres como mujeres en este estudio obtuvieron tendencias similares hacia un liderazgo democrático. Es necesario evaluar las diferencias por sexo ya que algunos autores como Morales y Cuadrado (2011) manifiestan que las personas todavía definen a un buen líder con rasgos estereotípicamente masculinos, mientras que los femeninos nunca aparecen en las definiciones, además el campo del liderazgo, tal como señalan varios autores, ha sido concebido tradicionalmente como masculino; (López y García 2008; Morales y Cuadrado, 2011; como se cita en Cuadrado, Navas et al. 2012;Cuadrado, et al. 2003) estas afirmaciones anteriores pueden ser debido a que existe escasa presencia de mujeres en puestos de liderazgo, y se sugiere que posiblemente sea una consecuencia de diferencias por sexo entre los estilos de liderazgo. (Cuadrado, Molero, y Navas, 2003) Los estudios destinados a comparar a hombres y mujeres que ya ocupan posiciones como lideresas son más bien escasos y relativamente recientes, lo que revelan la ausencia de resultados concluyentes y ponen de manifiesto la compleja naturaleza de la relación existente entre los estilos de liderazgo y el género. ...
... 289). Furthermore, these marks that the occupants leave are associated with their status, self-determination and preferences (Becker, 1977), and they provide information on their values and beliefs (Altman & Chemers, 1984), giving rise to a self-image by which they want others to recognize them (Gómez, Huici, & Morales, 2004). Likewise, personalization allows social, affective, protective and control bonds to be developed in the space (Gill, 1974), and it increases the feelings of attachment to the space (Brown, 1987). ...