J. David Archibald's research while affiliated with San Diego State University and other places

Publications (62)

Article
The Upper Cretaceous (upper Turonian) Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan produces the most diverse Cretaceous therian fauna including one stem marsupial and eleven stem placental taxa known from cranial and dental elements. Some isolated postcranial elements from the Bissekty Formation can be confidently attributed to some of these taxa based on morp...
Article
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Kulbeckia kulbecke, stem placental mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, shows a transitional stage of evolution in the dental formula from five to four premolars. A non-replaced dP3/dp3 may occur as individual variation. In other specimens, the lower premolars are crowded with no space for development of dp3. As is evident from the CT sca...
Article
Four recently collected mammal specimens from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian–?Campanian) Bostobe Formation in the northeastern Aral Sea Region, Kazakhstan are attributed to Asioryctitheria indet. (an edentulous dentary fragment) and the zhelestid Parazhelestes sp. cf. P. mynbulakensis (a maxillary fragment with a double-rooted canine, an M1, and a...
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A parsimony analysis of the distribution of 408 characters in 73 taxa of Cretaceous eutherians and related taxa places three species of Paranyctoides, the Asiatic P. quadrans and the North American P. sternbergi and P. maleficus, into a monophyletic taxon supported by three unambiguous synapomorphies. In this analysis P. quadrans has three autapomo...
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Paranyctoides aralensis, based on a partially known set of lower postcanines from the Turonian Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan, is proposed to be a junior subjective synonym of Sailestes quadrans, itself based on an M1 from the same stratigraphic unit. As a result, the latter taxon is recombined as Paranyctoides quadrans comb. nov. Based on newly...
Article
Studies of the origin and diversification of major groups of plants and animals are contentious topics in current evolutionary biology. This includes the study of the timing and relationships of the two major clades of extant mammals - marsupials and placenta's. Molecular studies concerned with marsupial and placental origin and diversification can...
Article
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Femora referable to metatherians and eutherians recovered from the Bissekty Formation, Dzharakuduk, Kyzylkum Desert, Uzbekistan (90 Mya), are described. Fourteen isolated specimens were sorted based on size and morphology into groups that likely correspond to the species level or higher. Groups were then tentatively assigned to taxa known from teet...
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The eutherian, family-level clade Zhelestidae is consistently although weakly supported in five phylogenetic analyses that we performed on all Cretaceous eutherians. Additionally in the fifth analysis, which included some placentals, Zhelestidae is placed as a stem eutherian clade rather than grouping within the crown clade Placentalia as argued in...
Article
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Neither pre-Cenozoic crown eutherian mammals (placentals) nor archaic ungulates (“condylarths”) are known with certainty based on the fossil record. Herein we report a new species of the Paleocene archaic ungulate (“condylarth”) Protungulatum from undisputed Late Cretaceous aged rocks in Montana USA based on an isolated last upper premolar, indicat...
Article
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Sulestes karakshi Nessov, 1985b (= Deltatheroides kizylkumensis Nessov, 199374. Nessov , L. A. 1993 . [New Mesozoic mammals of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan and comments about evolution of theriofaunas of Cretaceous coastal plains of Asia] . Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta RAN , 249 : 105 – 133 . [In Russian] View all references = Marsasia aenigma Nes...
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![Figure][1] Deccan plateau basalts. Lava from Deccan volcanism formed distinct layering. CREDIT: GSFC/NASA In the Review “The Chicxulub Asteroid Impact and Mass Extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary” (P. Schulte et al. , 5 March, p. [1214][2]), the terminal Cretaceous
Article
IN THE REVIEW "THE CHICXULUB ASTEROID IMPACT AND MASS EXTINCTION AT THE CRETACEOUS-Paleogene boundary" (P. Schulte et al., 5 March, p. 1214), the terminal Cretaceous extinctions were confi dently attributed to a single event, the environmental consequences of the impact of an extraterrestrial body. The list of 41 authors, although suggesting a cons...
Article
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We describe mammalian distal humeri recovered from the Bissekty Formation, Dzharakuduk, Kyzylkum Desert, Uzbekistan (90 Ma). Isolated elements were sorted into groups that likely correspond to species (or genera). These groups were allocated to taxa known mostly from the dentition, petrosals, and/or tarsals at this site. We identified one humerus o...
Article
The "tree of life" iconography, representing the history of life, dates from at least the latter half of the 18th century, but evolution as the mechanism providing this bifurcating history of life did not appear until the early 19th century. There was also a shift from the straight line, scala naturae view of change in nature to a more bifurcating...
Article
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Uzbekbaatar Kielan−Jaworowska and Nessov, 1992 is among the rarest mammals and the only multituberculate in the di− verse, eutherian dominated Bissekty (Turonian) and Aitym (?Coniacian) local faunas, Kyzylkum Desert, Uzbekistan. New material from the Bissekty local fauna, suggests that only one multituberculate species, Uzbekbaatar kizylkumen− sis...
Article
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Four small asioryetitheres at Dzharakuduk (Turonian), Uzbekistan are Daulestes kulbeckensis (= Kumlestes olzha), D. inobservabilis (= Kennalestes? uzbekistanensis), Uchkudukodon (gen. nov.) nessovi and Bulaklestes kezbe. Uchkudukodon nessovi is one of the smallest therians (molars about 1 mm long). Lower canine is two-rooted in Uchkudukodon gen. no...
Article
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Six localities in the mid-Cretaceous (early Cenomanian) Khodzhakul Formation, western Kyzylkum Desert, Uzbekistan, produced mammalian remains of a possible zalambdalestoid (Bobolestes), a possible zalambdalestid, and two (Sheikhdzheilia rezvyii, gen. et sp. nov. and Eozhelestes mangit) or three zhelestids (“Zhelestidae” indet., unnamed large sp. A)...
Article
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Both metatherians and eutherians are known from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian, 125 mya; million years ago) of China, while eutherian-dominated mammalian faunas appeared in Asia at least by the earliest Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian, 95 mya). The approximately 99–93 my old (Cenomanian) Sheikhdzheili l.f. from western Uzbekistan is a small sample of...
Chapter
The disappearance of nonavian dinosaurs is only a small part of a greater class of extinctions known as “mass extinctions.” Mass extinctions are global events characterized by unusually high rates of extinction. The five episodes of mass extinctions in Earth history are the Permo-Triassic extinction, the Late Ordovician extinction, the Late Devonia...
Article
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Petrosal bones representing "Zhelestidae" and Kulbeckia ("Zalambdalestidae") were recovered from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan and are formally described. The "zhelestid" petrosal retains several characters ancestral to eutherians (if not more basally in the mammalian phylogeny), including a prootic canal, a lateral flange, and a less elliptica...
Article
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Petrosal bones representing "Zhelestidae" and Kulbeckia ("Zalambdalestidae") were recovered from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan and are formally described. The "zhelestid" petrosal retains several characters ancestral to eutherians (if not more basally in the mammalian phylogeny),including a prootic canal,a lateral flange,and a less elliptical f...
Article
Theria includes Eutheria and its sister taxon Metatheria. Placentalia includes extant eutherians plus their most recent common ancestor. The oldest eutherian is from 125mya (million years ago). Molecular studies place this origin at about 130-185mya. Older dates cannot be refuted based on fossil evidence as earliest eutherian remains are scarce. Ea...
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Kulbeckia, a placental mammal from the late Turonian–Coniacian (Late Cretaceous) of Uzbekistan, was originally placed in the monotypic Kulbeckiidae. Important new material indicates that Kulbeckia is the basal most memberof ''Zalambdalestidae'', which also includes Zalambdalestes, Barunlestes, and the poorly known Alymlestes, all from the Late Cret...
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The Upper Cretaceous (?Santonian) Aitym Formation in the central Kyzylkum Desert, Uzbekistan, produced remains of a cimolodontan multituberculate (Uzbekbaatar wardi), a spalacotheriid symmetrodont (cf. Shalbaatar sp.), a deltatheroidan (cf. Deltatherus sp.), possibly the asioryctithere aff. Daulestes sp., possibly two zalambdalestids (Kulbeckia sp....
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A recently (Krause 2001) reported fragmentary mammalian lower molar (University of Antananarivo, UA 8699) from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Madagascar, was attributed to Marsupialia, for which far reaching paleobiogeographical conclusions were made. The five characters used to identify UA 8699 as a marsupial are not exclusive to Late Cret...
Conference Paper
Over 140 identifiable postcranial elements referable to metatherians and eutherians have been recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Fm., Kyzylkum Desert (ca. 90 Ma). They have been described and analyzed from a functional-adaptive perspective in order to obtain taxonomic properties. Many of the elements (e.g., vertebrae, metapodials, fragmen...
Article
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An end-Cretaceous nonavian dinosaur extinction and an early Paleocene mam-malian radiation is documented primarily in stratigraphic sequences in eastern Mon-tana. To determine how representative these sequences are, we extended investigation of this Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition to new areas. Studies in southwestern North Dakota and southeas...
Article
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Extant eutherian mammals and their most recent common ancestor constitute the crown group Placentalia. This taxon, plus all extinct taxa that share a more recent common ancestor with placentals than they do with Metatheria (including marsupials), constitute Eutheria. The oldest well documented eutherian-dominated fauna in the world is Dzharakuduk,...
Article
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2001. Paranyctoides and allies from the Late Creta− ceous of North America and Asia. — Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 46, 4, xxx–xxx. Paranyctoides is represented by three named, and possibly four unnamed species in the Late Cretaceous, North America. P. aralensis from the Late Cretaceous of Dzharakuduk, Uzbekistan, belongs in this or a closely alli...
Chapter
Eutheria includes one of three major clades of mammals, the extant members of which are referred to as placentals.
Article
Fossil evidence is consistent with origination and diversification of extant placental orders in the early Tertiary (Explosive Model), and with the possibility of some orders having stem taxa extending into the Cretaceous (Long Fuse Model). Fossil evidence that 15 of 18 extant placental orders appeared and began diversification in the first 16 m.y....
Chapter
Popular accounts say all dinosaurs died instantly from the impact of an asteroid, comet, or meteor 65 Ma. Arguments continue to be made that dinosaurs were at the height of their taxonomic diversity at the time of their extinction. When examined in detail, the only good records we have of this extinction in North America show that the number of spe...
Article
In the continuing debate about the timing of the origin of major extant placental clades, both proponents of a divergence after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary and those advocating divergence deep within the Cretaceous too often miss what the Late Cretaceous record of placentals actually
Article
In a perspectives article, Bromham et al.1xBromham, L., Phillips, M.J., and Penny, D. Trends Ecol. Evol. 1999; 14: 113–118Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (93)See all References1 raise some important concerns about the use of both molecular and paleontological data in assessing the timing of diversification of extant mammalian...
Article
In their letter “Ancient sharks and rays,”(9 Jan., p. [161][1]), J. Mark Erickson et al. state that, where they work in North Dakota, “the K-T [Cretaceous-Tertiary] boundary section is not complete because units of terrestrial Hell Creek and Ludlow Formations intervene.…” They then state,
Article
Seventeen of eighteen orders of living placental mammals are not known before 65 million years ago. The monophyly of each order is well established, but interrelations have been less certain. A superordinal grouping of up to seven extant orders plus a variety of extinct orders, all included within Ungulata (“hoofed” mammals), can be linked to Late...
Article
Did dinosaurs decline gradually or abruptly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary? An analysis of familial diversity patterns in dinosaur fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of central North America has claimed to present strong statistical evidence against the idea that dinosaurs declined gradually near the end of the Cretaceous. Examination of th...
Article
Three classes of metataxa are recognized-metaspecies, mixotaxa, and ambitaxa. Until such time that a metaspecies is shown to be monophyletic, paraphyletic, polyphyletic, or a mixotaxon or ambitaxon, it is considered to include organisms that are potential direct (but not necessarily the closest) ancestors to taxa subsequent to it on the cladogram....
Article
During the latest Cretaceous and the Paleocene in western North America, disappearance rates for mammalian genera track appearance rates, both reaching their peak in the early Paleocene (Puercan) following the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs. Some of the disappearances during this time were pseudoextinctions that resulted when ancestral species d...
Article
This chapter documents survivorship across the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) (and Lancian/Puercan) boundary for all 111 species of nonmarine vertebrates from Garfield and McCone counties, Montana. Species-level survivorship appears to be between about 53 and 64 percent after the artifacts caused by paleobiogeography, rarity of some species, and differi...
Chapter
With the discovery and description of the Bug Creek faunas in 1965, it became necessary to reexamine the sequence of mammal ages (Lancian-Puercan) spanning the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Bug Creek faunal assemblages have been viewed as being in part coeval with the Lancian assemblages or slightly younger. Because of the lack of Lancian sites abo...
Article
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Article
The abundant chelonian faunas of the Hell Creek and Tullock formations of McCone and Garfield counties, Montana, span the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary and provide a basis for assessing extinction and changes in diversity. Over three thousand specimens were counted on a modified minimum number basis from 510 localities. The Lancian (Maastrichtian) p...

Citations

... In Zhangheotherium the peroneal process of the calcaneus is a laterally off-set and the calcaneocuboid facet is flat or transverse distal end (34,35). In contrast, the peroneal process extends anteriorly and the calcaneocuboid facet on the calcaneus is mediodistally oblique, similar to that of metatherians (36,37). The astragalus is quite different from that of Zhangheotherium (34), which has a broad and flat anterior end in articulation with the navicular; in Origolestes, the same facet is saddle shaped and the general morphology of the astragalus is different from that of Zhangheotherium. ...
... 3), which in light of the condition of the Princeton specimens included little sutural information. They reported on a partially preserved, but well-developed anterior lamina and lateral flange, as in non-therian mammaliforms (Wible and Hopson 1993); when present in therians, these structures are greatly reduced (Wible et al. 2001;Ekdale et al. 2004;Rougier and Wible 2006). Comparisons with newly discovered nontribosphenic Mesozoic mammals from Argentina (Rougier et al. 2011) led Rougier et al. (2012 to conclude that Necrolestes is a member of the non-therian clade Meridiolestida, known only from South America, extending the record of that group by 45 million years into the early Miocene. ...
... While there have been numerous contributions on the topic since, two papers in particular on isolated fossil petrosals, MacIntyre (1972) and Cifelli (1982), influenced me considerably as a graduate student. MacIntyre (1972) described two types of isolated eutherian petrosals (ferungulatan and unguiculatan of Simpson 1945) not found in association with dentitions from the Bug Creek Anthills Quarry of Montana, then considered to be latest Cretaceous (Sloan and Van Valen 1965) but now held to be early Paleocene (Archibald and Lofgren 1990); Cifelli (1982) compared a broad array of isolated petrosals of known Paleogene "condylarths". These papers were groundbreak-ing in elucidating morphological patterns and offering hypotheses of character polarities for various petrosal features. ...
... The genus has not been found in any strictly Lancian or Pu1 local faunas in the latter area. Alostera has been recognized as a member of the " Zhelesti鄄 dae,冶 a primarily Cretaceous group of stem eutherians or basal laurasiatherian placentals ( Ar鄄 chibald and Averianov, 2007) . Their occurrences in some areas of the northern Western Interi鄄 or may well represent relicts of a radiation earlier in the Late Cretaceous. ...
... Assuming these topologies are a true representation of relationships can thus influence the interpretation of taxonomic diversity patterns through time. Furthermore, a nonbifurcating lineage may become so substantially transformed from one time slice to the next that it is recognized as a different taxonomic species, whereby the nominal ancestral species disappears, a phenomenon called pseudoextinction (e.g., Archibald, 1993). In this paper, we describe a new diminutive species of lizard from the early Eocene of Wyoming. ...
... The transition from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic (66 Ma) marks one of the largest terrestrial mass extinction events in Earth's history, shifting vertebrate ecosystems from dinosaur dominated to mammal dominated (Brusatte et al. 2015). As the most recent of the "big five" mass extinctions, the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction has been studied intensely, resulting in one of the best-sampled fossil records of these major mass extinctions (Sloan 1976;Russell 1977;Alvarez et al. 1980;Clemens et al. 1981;Krassilov 1981;Benton 1985;Galbreath 1988;Archibald 1992;Clemens 1992;Novacek 1999;Buffetaut 2004;Archibald and MacLeod 2007;Krug et al. 2009;Archibald et al. 2010;Schulte et al. 2010;Larson et al. 2016;Bazzi et al. 2018;Schoene et al. 2019). Accordingly, it is arguably our best window into the causes and consequences of mass extinctions and provides invaluable insights into our current biodiversity crisis (Novacek and Cleland 2001;Barnosky et al. 2011;Payne et al. 2016). ...
... The oldest documented specimens of Exostinus lancensis are from the Lancian (Gao and Fox, 1996). Sahni (1972) reported a maxilla of this species in the Judithian, probably the occurrence to which Bryant (1989) and Archibald and Bryant (1990) referred; the single specimen was reported to be indistinguishable from E. lancensis but also to lack accessory cusps (Sahni, 1972), and Gao and Fox (1996) noted other differences between Sahni's material and Ex. lancensis. ...
... For most groups of extant mammals there is a maximum number of each type of tooth, which presumably represents the ancestral condition. If we exclude mammalian with homodont dentitions such as cetaceans, the largest number of teeth observed in known mammals is 48, with a postcanine dental formula of five premolars and three molars (Averianov and Archibald 2015;McKenna 1975;Novacek 1986). If only placental mammals with heterodont dentition and plexodont teeth are considered, the maximum dental formula is present in some suids (I3/3, C1/1, P4/4, M3/3 = 44) (Averianov and Archibald 2015;Sutherland-Smith 2015). ...
... Although, terrestrial faunas from the Los Chañares Formation show that early diversification of dinosaurs throughout the Carnian epoch was preceded by rapid faunal turnovers at southwestern Pangea , that along to other well recognized events (see below) may have paved the way for the "dinosaurian empire" established during the Late Norian -Rhaetian, lasting approximately 150 Ma (Archibald and Fastovsky, 2004;Brusatte et al., 2010a,b;Irmis, 2011;Müller et al., 2016). ...
... Dodson, 1990; Hunt et al., 1994; Sereno, 1997; Barrett et al., 2009). Of special interest is to elucidate the diversity of non-avian dinosaurs in the latest Cretaceous , since this provides key data for assessing patterns of extinction (Fastovsky et al., 2004 Archibald, 2005; Sullivan, 2006; Wang and Dodson, 2006; Carrano, 2008). Most of these works acknowledge that measurements of diversity (i.e. ...