J D Veldhuis's research while affiliated with Kochi Health Sciences Center and other places

Publications (367)

Article
To determine the role of endogenous opioid peptides in regulating pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) release in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle of eumenorrheic women, we evaluated serum LH concentrations in blood collected every 10 min for 12 h in 27 women each studied during two menstrual cycles: (1) without pretreatment and (2)...
Article
The present clinical study implements a novel interventional strategy of short-term profound and selective blockade of GH receptors to reduce plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations reversibly in healthy eumetabolic adults. Thereby, we examine the feedback role of systemic IGF-I on GH secretion without introducing the complex met...
Article
The human hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis maintains testosterone production and spermatogenesis through an intricate feedforward and feedback system involving the intermittent exchange of neurohormonal signals. The chief components of this ensemble are hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary luteinizing hormone, and testicular...
Article
Both secretion and metabolic clearance of GH in health and disease are subject to regulation by an array of metabolic, nutritional, physical activity, age, and body composition cues. Moreover, both GH and its mediators (e.g. IGF-I) are bound in plasma by one or more high-affinity binding proteins. Accordingly, carefully designed clinical and basic...
Article
Radiation induces time-dependent loss of anterior pituitary function, attributed to damage of the pituitary gland and hypothalamic centres. The development of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in irradiated acromegaly patients is not well defined. Detailed analysis of spontaneous 24-h GH and prolactin (PRL) secretion in relation to other pituitary fu...
Article
The mechanisms mediating hypercortisolemia in depression remain controversial. Adopting the biomarker strategy, we studied adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol dynamics in hypercortisolemic and non-hypercortisolemic depressed in-patients, and in normal volunteers. Deconvolution analysis of 24-h pulsatile secretion, approximate entropy (ApEn) est...
Chapter
Healthy aging in men progressively reduces testosterone availability to bone, muscle, brain, fat depots, immune tissue, and sexual organs (1). Free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations fall by 0.8% to 1.5% per year and are reduced by 30% by the seventh compared with third decade of life. Sexhormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations ris...
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Full-text available
Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas frequently leads to GH deficiency (GHD). The characteristics of GH secretion in GHD induced by postoperative radiotherapy for acromegaly are not known. In the long term, stimulated and spontaneous GH release is not different between patients with GHD treated by postoperative radiotherapy for acromegaly or for oth...
Article
Aims: Radiation therapy for pituitary adenomas frequently leads to growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Whether radiation in acromegaly, due to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, induces a comparable change in GH secretion is not known. Hypothesis: In the long-term, stimulated and spontaneous GH release cannot be distinguished in patients irradiated for...
Article
First-phase insulin release and coordinated insulin pulsatility are disturbed in Type 2 diabetes. The present study was undertaken to explore a possible influence of the oral prandial glucose regulator, repaglinide, on first-phase insulin secretion and high-frequency insulin pulsatility in Type 2 diabetes. We examined 10 patients with Type 2 diabet...
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Full-text available
To evaluate the pathophysiology of altered cortisol secretion in patients with primary adrenal hypercortisolism, cortisol secretion was investigated in 12 patients, seven with a unilateral adenoma and five with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia compared with age- and gender-matched controls and with patients with pituitary-dependent...
Article
The systemic availability of testosterone (Te) falls by 35-50% after the sixth decade of life in healthy men. Intercurrent illness, trauma, surgery, stress, weight loss, diverse medications and institutionalization reduce Te concentrations further. Impoverishment of anabolic drive probably contributes to physical frailty and diminished quality of l...
Article
Age and gender impact the full repertoire of neurohormone systems, including most prominently the somatotropic, gonadotropic and lactotropic axes. For example, daily GH production is approximately 2-fold higher in young women than men and varies by 20-fold by sexual developmental status and age. Deconvolution estimates of 24-h GH secretion rates ex...
Article
GH secretion declines with aging and is decreased in conditions such as obesity. Several physiologic factors alter pulsatile GH secretion, including age, gender, body composition, regional distribution of fat and in particular abdominal visceral fat, sleep, nutrition, exercise and serum concentrations of gonadal steroids, insulin and IGF-I. Acute a...
Article
In healthy humans, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted via basal mode with superimposed oscillatory bursts every 8 to 12 min. Amplitude and frequency changes mediate the instantaneous response of the parathyroids to changes in ambient Ca2+ concentrations. The parathyroid gland tetrad may be synchronized by autonomic innervation. This study invest...
Article
Intermittent signal exchange serves to encode repeated incremental adjustments among central-neural centers and the ensemble of glands comprising any given axis. Interglandular communication proceeds dynamically via pulsatile and basal modes of hormone release, deterministic (dose-responsive) interfaces, and apparently stochastic (randomly varying)...
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Full-text available
Organs that respond to and metabolize GH are enriched in cognate high-affinity receptors. However, whether isologous receptors mediate the de facto access of ligand to cellular degradative pathways is not known. To address this query, we assessed the distribution and whole-body elimination kinetics of (endogenous and exogenous) GH before and after...
Article
Full-text available
A single injected pulse of GH inhibits the time-delayed secretion of GH in the adult by way of central mechanisms that drive somatostatin and repress GHRH outflow. The marked amplification of spontaneous GH pulse amplitude in puberty poses an autoregulatory paradox. We postulated that this disparity might reflect unique relief of GH-induced autoneg...
Article
Racial differences in bone mineral density (BMD) appear to account in part for racial differences in the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. We previously reported that the greater BMD in adult blacks compared with whites is associated with a higher serum 17 beta-estradiol and greater secretion of growth hormone (GH) in men but not women. To d...
Article
The present clinical study compares the impact of low- and high-dose parenteral testosterone (T) supplementation on daily GH secretory patterns and serum IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 concentrations in healthy older (60-82 yr) and young (20-40 yr) men. To this end, we administered three consecutive weekly injections of randomly ordered saline and eit...
Article
As an indirect probe of estrogen-regulated hypothalamic somatostatin restraint, the present study monitors the ability of short-term oral E2 supplementation to modulate GH secretion during combined continuous stimulation by recombinant human GHRH [GHRH-(1-44)-amide] and the potent and selective synthetic GH-releasing peptide, GHRP-2. According to a...
Article
Endogenous growth hormone (GH) production falls by 50% every 7 years and bioavailable testosterone concentrations decline concomitantly by 12-15% every decade in ageing men. Despite this temporal parallelism, the neuroendocrine bases of the somatopause and gonadopause are not known. This knowledge deficit contrasts with the recent unfolding of new...
Article
Full-text available
Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is characterized by abnormal insulin secretion, which involves a disrupted basal and glucose-entrained insulin pulsatility, and by insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of glucocorticoid-mediated insulin resistance on the regularity of high frequency insulin pulsatil...
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Full-text available
Regular patterns of neurohormone secretion are driven by underlying pulsatile and subordinate (feedback sensitive) dynamics. Measures of time-series orderliness, e.g., the approximate entropy (ApEn) statistic (Pincus SM. Proc Natl Acad Sci 88: 2297-2301, 1991), vividly discriminate pathological and physiological patterns of hormone release. To inve...
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Full-text available
Female gender confers resistance to GH autonegative feedback in the adult rat, thereby suggesting gonadal or estrogenic modulation of autoregulation of the somatotropic axis. Here we test the clinical hypothesis that short-term E2 replacement in ovariprival women reduces GH's repression of spontaneous, GHRH-, and GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-stimula...
Article
To explore the mechanisms of homeostatic adaptation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to an experimental low-feedback condition, we quantitated pulsatile (ultradian), entropic (pattern-sensitive), and 24-h rhythmic (circadian) ACTH secretion during high-dose metyrapone blockade (2 g orally every 2 h for 12 h, and then 1 g every 2 h for 12 h...
Article
The present investigation tests the clinical hypothesis that Leydig-cell responsiveness to pulsatile and midphysiological LH drive is impaired in older men. To this end, we implemented a novel clinical investigative paradigm consisting of preadministration of an LH-down-regulating dose (3.75 mg) of leuprolide acetate followed, 3-4 wk later, by cont...
Article
In summary, available literature indicates that GH secretion is blunted profoundly in individuals with relative or absolute obesity. Accumulation of AVF particularly represses GH release. Administration of GH to obese adults decreases total body fat and especially AVF. Furthermore, GH supplementation combined with dietary restriction and/or exercis...
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Full-text available
The high-frequency oscillatory pattern of insulin release is disturbed in type 2 diabetes. Although sulfonylurea drugs are widely used for the treatment of this disease, their effect on insulin release patterns is not well established. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of acute treatment and 5 weeks of sulfonylurea (gliclazide)...
Article
Full-text available
The present study probes putative disruption of hypothalamic control of multihormone outflow in polycystic ovarian syndrome by quantitating the joint synchrony of leptin and LH release in adolescents with this syndrome and eumenorrheic controls. To this end, hyperandrogenemic oligo- or anovulatory patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (n = 11)...
Article
The present clinical study implements a novel interventional strategy of short-term profound and selective blockade of GH receptors to reduce plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations reversibly in healthy eumetabolic adults. Thereby, we examine the feedback role of systemic IGF-I on GH secretion without introducing the complex met...
Article
How estradiol stimulates pulsatile GH secretion in the human is not well understood. Here, we test the clinical hypothesis that estradiol stimulates GH secretion, in part, by opposing somatostatin's inhibition of GH release. To this end, 13 estrogen-withdrawn postmenopausal women received placebo or 1 mg micronized estradiol-17beta orally, twice da...
Article
How estradiol stimulates pulsatile GH secretion in the human is not well understood. Here, we test the clinical hypothesis that estradiol stimulates GH secretion, in part, by opposing somatostatin’s inhibition of GH release. To this end, 13 estrogen-withdrawn postmenopausal women received placebo or 1 mg micronized estradiol-17β orally, twice daily...
Article
The present clinical study examines the neuroregulatory hypothesis that feedback restraint of LH and FSH secretion by testosterone requires in vivo aromatization. To test this postulate, we prospectively and randomly assigned 47 healthy young men to 1 of 5 parallel short-term (5-day) double-blind interventions with: 1) placebo; 2) high-dose ketocon...
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Full-text available
The present experiments examine the neuroregulatory hypothesis that the degree of sample-by-sample regularity of hormone output by an interlinked hypothalamopituitary target-organ system monitors the strength of feedback and/or feedforward signaling. To test this postulate and assess its generality, we implemented a total of nine thematically compl...
Article
Full-text available
To quantitate changing feedback control in the GnRH-LH/FSH-testosterone axis in male puberty, we here quantitate the orderliness of hormone release patterns using the regularity (pattern-sensitive) statistic, approximate entropy (ApEn), in 46 eugonadal boys representing 6 genitally defined stages of normal puberty. ApEn is a single variable, model-...
Article
Plasma bioavailable testosterone concentrations decline in healthy older men without a uniformly commensurate rise in serum LH concentrations, which disparity is consistent with a hypothesis of relative hypogonadotropism. Likewise, preserved gonadotrope responsiveness to exogenous GnRH stimulation, despite an attenuated amplitude of endogenous LH p...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explores the postulate that the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is marked by failure of physiological feedforward and feedback signaling between pituitary LH and ovarian androgens. To this end, we appraised the 3-fold simultaneous overnight release of LH (assayed by high precision immunofluorometry), testosterone (RIA), and and...
Article
How estrogen amplifies GH secretion in the human is not known. The present study tests the clinical hypothesis that estradiol modulates the stimulatory actions of a primary GH feedforward signal, GHRH. To this end, we investigated the ability of short-term (7- to 12-day) supplementation with oral estradiol vs. placebo to modulate basal, pulsatile,...
Article
Estrogen is a prominent stimulus to GH secretion throughout the human life span, albeit via neuroendocrine mechanisms that are incompletely defined. Here, we test the hypothesis that estradiol replacement in postmenopausal women enhances the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit to the GH-releasing effect of GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-...
Article
Estrogen is a prominent stimulus to GH secretion throughout the human life span, albeit via neuroendocrine mechanisms that are incompletely defined. Here, we test the hypothesis that estradiol replacement in postmenopausal women enhances the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit to the GH-releasing effect of GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-...
Article
How estrogen amplifies GH secretion in the human is not known. The present study tests the clinical hypothesis that estradiol modulates the stimulatory actions of a primary GH feedforward signal, GHRH. To this end, we investigated the ability of short-term (7- to 12-day) supplementation with oral estradiol vs. placebo to modulate basal, pulsatile,...
Article
To quantitate changing feedback control in the GnRH-LH/FSH-testosterone axis in male puberty, we here quantitate the orderliness of hormone release patterns using the regularity (pattern-sensitive) statistic, approximate entropy (ApEn), in 46 eugonadal boys representing 6 genitally defined stages of normal puberty. ApEn is a single variable, model-...
Article
Full-text available
The episodicity of 24 h leptin release was studied in seven women (mean age 39 years, range 22-56 years) with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism and in seven age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched female controls. Pulsatile leptin release was quantified by model-free cluster analysis and deconvolution, the orderliness of leptin patterns by the ap...
Article
We recently identified consistent attenuation of LH and testosterone secretory pulse amplitude and associated disruption of their orderly patterns of release in healthy older men. These dynamic changes emerge despite young-adult concentrations of LH and total testosterone. Moreover, we could document disruption of synchrony between LH secretion and...
Article
Full-text available
ACTH production in Cushing's disease is characterized by a markedly elevated rate of basal (nonpulsatile) secretion, an increased mass of ACTH released per burst and an unremarkable pulse frequency. In addition, the ACTH secretory process and that of GH and PRL exhibit profoundly disordered patterns. Whether some or all of these disturbances can be...
Article
Short-term fasting as a metabolic stress evokes prominent homeostatic reactions of the reproductive, corticotropic, thyrotropic, somatotropic, and leptinergic axes in men and women. Although reproductive adaptations to fasting are incompletely studied in the female, nutrient deprivation can have major neuroendocrine consequences in the follicular p...
Article
Short-term fasting as a metabolic stress evokes prominent homeostatic reactions of the reproductive, corticotropic, thyrotropic, somatotropic, and leptinergic axes in men and women. Although reproductive adaptations to fasting are incompletely studied in the female, nutrient deprivation can have major neuroendocrine consequences in the follicular p...
Article
We examined the effects of exercise intensity on serum leptin levels. Seven men (age = 27.0 yr; height = 178.3 cm; weight = 82.2 kg) were tested on a control (C) day and on 5 exercise days (EX). Subjects exercised (30 min) at the following intensities: 25% and 75% of the difference between the lactate threshold (LT) and rest (0.25 LT, 0.75 LT), at...
Article
Exactly how estradiol (E2) regulates the human GH-insulin-like growth factor I axis is not known. Here, we explore the impact of oral E2 supplementation on the stimulatory actions of a potent and specific synthetic GH-releasing peptide (GHRP), GHRP-2. To this end, we studied 10 healthy postmenopausal women following the administration of placebo or...
Article
Full-text available
Insulin is released in high-frequency pulsatile bursts at intervals of 6-13 min. Intrapancreatic mechanisms are assumed to coordinate pulsatile insulin release, but small oscillations in plasma glucose concentrations may contribute further. To gain additional insight into beta-cell (patho)physiology, we explored the ability of repetitive small gluc...
Article
Exactly how estradiol (E2) regulates the human GH-insulin-like growth factor I axis is not known. Here, we explore the impact of oral E2 supplementation on the stimulatory actions of a potent and specific synthetic GH-releasing peptide (GHRP), GHRP-2. To this end, we studied 10 healthy postmenopausal women following the administration of placebo or...
Article
Although numerous studies have delineated an impact of gender on the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion in the adult, few investigations have defined the nature and extent of sex differences before puberty. This deficit reflects jointly the sensitivity limitations of earlier GH assays and the paucity of intensive sampling protocols in healthy c...
Article
Full-text available
To examine β-cell function in glucose-tolerant offspring of type 2 diabetic families, 41 insulin-resistant (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, P < .001) first-degree relatives and 32 controls underwent oral (OGTT) and intravenous (IVGTT) glucose tolerance tests and a constant intravenous glucose infusion (4.0 or 4.5 mg/kg/min) with blood sampling e...